Tuzo ya Nobel

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Alfred Nobel (1833 - 1896)
Medali ya Tuzo ya Nobeli
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Tuzo ya Nobel ni tuzo ya fedha kwa ajili ya mafanikio ya pekee katika fani mbalimbali. Ilianzishwa na Alfred Nobel.

Tangu mwaka wa 1901 imetolewa kwa watu waliofaulu katika fani zifuatazo: Fizikia, Kemia, Tiba (au Fiziolojia), Fasihi na Amani. Tangu mwaka wa 1969, tuzo ya sita imeongezewa kwa Uchumi. Siku hizi Tuzo ya Nobel ni tuzo ya kimataifa mashuhuri kabisa duniani. Wanaotuzwa hupokea hati, medali ya dhahabu na kiasi cha pesa cha takriban € milioni 1,2 (kinategemea mapato ya riba kutokana na mfuko wa fedha iliyotengwa kwa kusudi hii na Alfred Nobel). Maazimio kuhusu tuzo za kila mwaka hutolewa kufuatana na wasia wa Alfred Nobel na kamati zifuatazo:

  1. Tuzo ya Nobel ya Fizikia inateuliwa na Taasisi ya Taaluma ya Sayansi ya Sweden
  2. Tuzo ya Nobel ya Kemia inateuliwa na Taasisi ya Taaluma ya Sayansi ya Sweden
  3. Tuzo ya Nobel ya Tiba inateuliwa na Karolinska Institutet Stockholm
  4. Tuzo ya Nobel ya Fasihi inateuliwa na Taasisi ya Taaluma ya Sweden kwa lugha na fasihi
  5. Tuzo ya Nobel ya Amani inateuliwa na kamati ya Nobel ya Norway iliyochaguliwa na Bunge la Norway
  6. Tuzo ya Nobel ya Elimu ya Uchumi inateuliwa na Taasisi ya Taaluma ya Sayansi ya Sweden

Orodha ya Washindi wa Tuzo ya Nobel[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Watu walioshinda Tuzo ya Nobel ni wafuatao:

1901 – Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (Fizikia), Jacobus Henricus van’t Hoff (Kemia), Emil von Behring (Tiba), Sully Prudhomme (Fasihi), Henri Dunant na Frederic Passy (Amani);

1902 – Hendrik Antoon Lorentz na Pieter Zeeman (Fizikia), Hermann Emil Fischer (Kemia), Ronald Ross (Tiba), Theodor Mommsen (Fasihi), Elie Ducommun na Charles-Albert Gobat (Amani);

1903 – Antoine Henri Becquerel pamoja na Pierre Curie na Marie Curie (Fizikia), Svante Arrhenius (Kemia), Niels Ryberg Finsen (Tiba), Bjornstjerne Bjornson (Fasihi), Randal Cremer (Amani);

1904 – Lord Rayleigh (Fizikia), William Ramsay (Kemia), Ivan Pavlov (Tiba), Frederic Mistral na Jose Echegaray y Eizaguirre (Fasihi), Taasisi ya Haki ya Kimataifa (Amani);

1905 – Philipp Lenard (Fizikia), Adolf von Baeyer (Kemia), Robert Koch (Tiba), Henryk Sienkiewicz (Fasihi), Bertha von Suttner (Amani);

1906 – Joseph John Thomson (Fizikia), Henri Moissan (Kemia), Camillo Golgi na Santiago Ramon y Cajal (Tiba), Giosue Carducci (Fasihi), Theodore Roosevelt (Amani);

1907 – Albert Abraham Michelson (Fizikia), Eduard Buchner (Kemia), Alphonse Laveran (Tiba), Rudyard Kipling (Fasihi), Ernesto Teodoro Moneta na Louis Renault (Amani);

1908 – Gabriel Lippmann (Fizikia), Ernest Rutherford (Kemia), Paul Ehrlich na Ilya Mechnikov (Tiba), Rudolf Eucken (Fasihi), Klas Pontus Arnoldson na Fredrik Bajer (Amani);

1909 – Guglielmo Marconi na Ferdinand Braun (Fizikia), Wilhelm Ostwald (Kemia), Emil Theodor Kocher (Tiba), Selma Lagerlöf (Fasihi), Auguste Beernaert (Amani);

1910 – Johannes Diederik van der Waals (Fizikia), Otto Wallach (Kemia), Albrecht Kossel (Tiba), Paul von Heyse (Fasihi), Ofisi ya Kimataifa ya Amani (Amani);

1911 – Wilhelm Wien (Fizikia), Marie Curie (Kemia), Allvar Gullstrand (Tiba), Maurice Maeterlinck (Fasihi), Tobias Asser na Alfred Fried (Amani);

1912 – Nils Dalen (Fizikia), Victor Grignard na Paul Sabatier (Kemia), Alexis Carrel (Tiba), Gerhard Hauptmann (Fasihi), Elihu Root (Amani);

1913 – Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (Fizikia), Alfred Werner (Kemia), Charles Richet (Tiba), Rabindranath Tagore (Fasihi), H. La Fontaine (Amani);

1914 – Max von Laue (Fizikia), Theodore William Richards (Kemia), Robert Barany (Tiba), (hakuna tuzo kwa Fasihi wala Amani);

1915 – William Bragg na Lawrence Bragg (Fizikia), Richard Willstätter (Kemia), Romain Rolland (Fasihi), (hakuna tuzo kwa Tiba wala Amani);

1916 – Verner von Heidenstam (Fasihi), (hakuna tuzo nyingine);

1917 – Charles Glover Barkla (Fizikia), (hakuna tuzo kwa Kemia wala Tiba), Karl Adolph Gjellerup na Henrik Pontoppidan (Fasihi), Kamati ya Kimataifa ya Msalaba Mwekundu (Amani);

1918 – Max Planck (Fizikia), Fritz Haber (Kemia), (hakuna tuzo nyingine);

1919 – Johannes Stark (Fizikia), Jules Bordet (Kemia), (hakuna tuzo kwa Tiba), Carl Spitteler (Fasihi), WoodrowWilson (Amani);

1920 – Charles Edouard Guillaume (Fizikia), Walther Nernst (Kemia), August Krogh (Tiba), Knut Hamsun (Fasihi), Leon Bourgeois (Amani);

1921 – Albert Einstein (Fizikia), Frederick Soddy (Kemia), (hakuna tuzo kwa Tiba), Anatole France (Fasihi), Karl Hjalmar Branting na Christian Louis Lange (Amani);

1922 – Niels Bohr (Fizikia), Francis William Aston (Kemia), Archibald Vivian Hill na Otto Meyerhoff (Tiba), Jacinto Benavente (Fasihi), Fridtjof Nansen (Amani);

1923 – Robert Millikan (Fizikia), F. Pregel (Kemia), Frederick Banting na John Macleod (Tiba), William Butler Yeats (Fasihi), (hakuna tuzo kwa Amani);

1924 – Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn (Fizikia), Willem Einthoven (Tiba), Wladyslaw Reymont (Fasihi), (hakuna tuza kwa Kemia wala Amani);

1925 – James Franck na Gustav Hertz (Fizikia), Richard Zsigmondy (Kemia), (hakuna tuzo kwa Tiba), George Bernhard Shaw (Fasihi), Austen Chamberlain na Charles Dawes (Amani);

1926 – Jean Perrin (Fizikia), Theodor Svedberg (Kemia), Johannes Fibiger (Tiba), Grazia Deledda (Fasihi), Aristide Briand na Gustav Stresemann (Amani);

1927 – Arthus Holly Compton na Charles Wilson (Fizikia), Heinrich Otto Wieland (Kemia), Julius Wagner-Jauregg (Tiba), Henri Bergson (Fasihi), Ferdinand-Edouard Buisson na Ludwig Quidde (Amani);

1928 – Owen Richardson (Fizikia), Adolf Windaus (Kemia), Charles Nicolle (Tiba), Sigrid Undset (Fasihi), (hakuna tuzo kwa Amani);

1929 – Louis-Victor Broglie (Fizikia), Arthur Harden na Hans von Euler-Chelpin (Kemia), Christiaan Eijkman na Frederick Hopkins (Tiba), Thomas Mann (Fasihi), Frank Kellogg (Amani);

1930 – Chandrasekhara Raman (Fizikia), Hans Fischer (Kemia), Karl Landsteiner (Tiba), Sinclair Lewis (Fasihi), Nathan Söderblom (Amani);

1931 – (hakuna tuzo kwa Fizikia), Carl Bosch na Friedrich Bergius (Kemia), Otto Warburg (Tiba), Erik Axel Karlfeldt (Fasihi), Nicholas Butler na Jane Addams (Amani);

1932 – Werner Heisenberg (Fizikia), Irving Langmuir (Kemia), Charles Sherrington na Edgar Douglas Adrian (Tiba), John Glasworthy (Fasihi), (hakuna tuzo kwa Amani);

1933 – Erwin Schrödinger na Paul Dirac (Fizikia), (hakuna tuzo kwa Kemia), Thomas Hunt Morgan (Tiba), Ivan Bunin (Fasihi), Norman Angell (Amani);

1934 – (hakuna tuzo kwa Fizikia), Harold Urey (Kemia), George Minot, William Murphy na George Whipple (Tiba), Luigi Pirandello (Fasihi), Arthur Henderson (Amani);

1935 – James Chadwick (Fizikia), Frederic na Irene Joliot-Curie (Kemia), Hans Spemann (Tiba), (hakuna tuzo kwa Fasihi), Carl von Ossietzky (Amani);

1936 – Carl David Anderson na Victor Francis Hess (Fizikia), P. Depye (Kemia), Henry Dale na Otto Loewi (Tiba), Eugene O’Neill (Fasihi), Carlos Saavedra Lamas (Amani);

1937 – Clinton Davisson na George Thomson (Fizikia), Norman Haworth na Paul Karrer (Kemia), Albert Szent-Györgyi (Tiba), Roger Martin du Gard (Fasihi), Cecil of Clelwood (Amani);

1938 – Enrico Fermi (Fizikia), Richard Kuhn (Kemia), Corneille Heymans (Tiba), Pearl S. Buck (Fasihi), Tume ya Nansen kwa Wakimbizi (Amani);

1939 – Ernest Orlando Lawrence (Fizikia), Leopold Ruzicka na Adolf Butenandt (Kemia), Gerhard Domagk (Tiba), Frans Eemil Sillanpää (Fasihi), (hakuna tuzo kwa Amani);

(1940-42 Tuzo ya Nobel haikutolewa kwa sababu ya Vita Kuu ya Pili ya Dunia.)

1943 – Otto Stern (Fizikia), Georg von Hevesy (Kemia), Henrik Dam na Edward Doisy (Tiba), (hakuna tuzo kwa Fasihi wala Amani);

1944 – Isidor Rabi (Fizikia), Otto Hahn (Kemia), Joseph Erlanger na Herbert Spencer Gasser (Tiba), Johannes Jensen (Fasihi), Kamati ya Kimataifa ya Msalaba Mwekundu (Amani);

1945 – Wolfgang Pauli (Fizikia), Artturi Ilmari Virtanen (Kemia), Alexander Fleming, Ernst Boris Chain na Howard Walter Florey (Tiba), Gabriela Mistral (Fasihi), Cordell Hull (Amani);

1946 – Percy Bridgman (Fizikia), James Sumner, John Howard Northrop na Wendell Stanley (Kemia), Hermann Muller (Tiba), Hermann Hesse (Fasihi), Emily Balch na John Raleigh Mott (Amani);

1947 – Edward Appleton (Fizikia), Robert Robinson (Kemia), Carl na Gerty Cori na Bernardo Houssay (Tiba), Andre Gide (Fasihi), Jumuiya ya Marafiki (‘’Society of Friends’’) (Amani);

1948 – Patrick Blackett (Fizikia), Arne Tiselius (Kemia), Paul Hermann Müller (Tiba), T.S. Eliot (Fasihi), (hakuna tuzo kwa Amani);

1949 – Hideki Yukawa (Fizikia), William Giauque (Kemia), Walter Hess na Antonio Egas Moniz (Tiba), William Faulkner (Fasihi), John Boyd-Orr (Amani);

1950 – Cecil Frank Powell (Fizikia), Kurt Alder na Otto Diels (Kemia), Philip Hench, Edward Kendall na Tadeus Reichstein (Tiba), Bertrand Russell (Fasihi), Ralph Bunche (Amani);

1951 – John Douglas Cockcroft na Ernest Walton (Fizikia), Edwin McMillan na Glenn Seaborg (Kemia), Max Theiler (Tiba), Par Lagerkvist (Fasihi), Leon Jouhaux (Amani);

1952 – Felix Bloch na Edward Purcell (Fizikia), A.J.P. Martin na R.L.M. Synge (Kemia), Selman Waksman (Tiba), Francois Mauriac (Fasihi), Albert Schweitzer (Amani);

1953 – Frits Zernike (Fizikia), Hermann Staudinger (Kemia), Hans Krebs na Fritz Lipmann (Tiba), Winston Churchill (Fasihi), George Marshall (Amani);

1954 – Max Born na Walther Bothe (Fizikia), Linus Pauling (Kemia), John Enders, Frederick Robbins na Thomas Weller (Tiba), Ernest Hemingway (Fasihi), Ofisi ya Kamishna wa Umoja wa Mataifa kwa Wakimbizi (Amani);

1955 – Willis Lamb na Polykarp Kusch (Fizikia), Vincent du Vigneaud (Kemia), Hugo Theorell (Tiba), Halldor Laxness (Fasihi), (hakuna tuzo kwa Amani);

1956 – William Shockley, John Bardeen na Walter Brattain (Fizikia), Nikolay Semyonov na Cyril Hinshelwood (Kemia), Werner Forssmann, Andre Cournand na Dickinson Richards (Tiba), Juan Ramon Jimenez (Fasihi), (hakuna tuzo kwa Amani);

1957 – Tsung-Dao Lee na Chen Ning Yang (Fizikia), Alexander Todd (Kemia), Daniel Bovet (Tiba), Albert Camus (Fasihi), Lester Pearson (Amani);

1958 – Pavel Cherenkov, Ilya Frank na Igor Tamm (Fizikia), Frederick Sanger (Kemia), George Beadle, Edward Tatum na Joshua Lederberg (Tiba), Boris Pasternak (Fasihi), Padre Dominique Pire (Amani);

1959 – Emilio Segre na Owen Chamberlain (Fizikia), Jaroslav Heyrovsky (Kemia), Arthur Kornberg na Severo Ochoa(Tiba), Salvatore Quasimodo (Fasihi), Philip Noel-Baker (Amani);

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