Nelson Mandela

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Nelson Mandela

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (18 Julai 1918 - 5 Desemba 2013) alikuwa mwanasiasa nchini Afrika Kusini, kiongozi wa mapambano dhidi ya siasa ya apartheid (ubaguzi wa rangi), mfungwa jela kwa miaka 27 halafu rais wa kwanza aliyechaguliwa kidemokrasia katika nchi yake.

Alikuwa mwanasheria na mwanachama, baadaye kiongozi wa chama cha ANC kilichopigania haki za binadamu wote nchini Afrika Kusini.

Maisha[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Utoto na ukoo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mandela alizaliwa tarehe 18 Julai 1918 katika familia ya kabila la Waxhosa kwenye kijiji cha Mvezo karibu na Umtata iliyokuwa kwenye Jimbo la Rasi.[1]

Alipewa jina la Rolihlahla linalomaanisha "anayevuta tawi la mti" kwa maana ya "mwenye kuleta matata" katika lugha ya Kixhosa[2]. Baadaye alijulikana kwa jina la ukoo wake "Madiba". Jina la Nelson alilipokea kutoka kwa mwalimu wake siku alipoanza kwenda shule.

Alitoka katika familia ya kifalme. Baba wa babu yake Ngubengcuka alikuwa mfalme wa Wathembu katika maeneo ya Transkei wa jimbo la kisasa la Rasi Mashariki la Afrika Kusini.

Baba yake Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa alikuwa chifu na mshauri wa mfalme tangu mwaka 1915 hadi 1926. Mama yake Nelson, Nosekeni Fanny, alikuwa mke wa tatu. [3]

Miaka ya kwanza aliishi kijijini alipojifunza mila na desturi za Waxhosa na kutunza mifugo pamoja na wavulana wengine.

Baba aliaga dunia Nelson alipokuwa na umri wa miaka tisa. Alibatizwa katika Kanisa la Kimethodisti akawa Mkristo wa kanisa hilo hadi kifo chake.

Baada ya kifo cha baba, mama alimpeleka kwa chifu mkuu wa Wathembu aliyemlea kama mtoto wake. Pamoja na wazazi wake wapya alihudhuria ibada za kanisani kila Jumapili zilizoimarisha imani yake ya Kikristo.

Akaendelea kusoma katika shule ya Kimethodisti aliposoma Kiingereza, Kixhosa, historia na jiografia. Katika ikulu ya chifu alisikia masimulizi mengi kuhusu historia ya Waafrika kutoka wageni waliokuja kumwaona baba wa kambo.

Elimu[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mwaka 1925 babake alimtuma kusoma shule ndogo ya Kimethodisti alipofanyikiwa vema. Baada ya kifo cha baba aliishi kwa chifu wa Watembo na hapo kwene umri wa miaka 16 alishiriki katika sherehe ya jando alipotahiriwa na kupokea jina Dalibunga.[4]

Baadaye aliendelea kusoma kwenye shule ya sekondari ya „Clarkebury Boarding Institute“ huko Engcobo iliyokuwa shule ya bweni kubwa kwa ajili ya vijana kutoka Wathembo.[5]

Photograph of Mandela, taken in Umtata in 1937

Hapa alianza mazoezi ya michezo na kupenda kazi ya bustani aliyoendelea kwa maisha yote. [6] Baada ya miaka miwili alipokea cheti kidogo cha elimu ya sekondari.[7]

Mwaka 1937 kwenye umri wa miaka 19 aliendelea kwenye chuo cha Wamethodisti huko [[Fort Beaufort[8]. Hapo alikuwa mara ya kwanza rafiki na kijana nje ya kabila lake aliyekuwa Msotho akaathiriwa na mwalimu mpendwa Mxhosa aliyevunja mwiko kwa kumwoa mke kutoka kwa Wasotho [9] Mandela alitumia muda mwingi huko Healdtown kwa kufuata michezo ya kukimbia na bondia.[10]

Tangu 1939 alianza masomo kwa digrii ya bachelor kwenye Chuo Kikuu cha Fort Hare, chuo kwa ajili ya wanafunzi Waafrika katika jimbo la Rasi Mashariki. Masomo yake yalikuwa Kiingereza, anthropolojia, siasa na sheria. Wakati ule alitaka kuendelea kuwa mfasiri au afisa katika Idara ya Shughuli za Wazalendo (kitengo cha serikali ya Kizungu kwa maeneo ya Waafrika katika Afrika Kusini). [11] Katika bweni lake alikuwa rafiki wa Kaiser Matanzima na Oliver Tambo aliyeendelea kuwa rafiki yake kwa miaka mingi ijayo.[12] Pamoja na kupenda michezo Mandela alijifunza dansi ya Kizungu [13], alishiriki tamthiliya kuhusu about Abraham Lincoln,[14] akatoa darasa la Biblia katika kanisa.[15]



Mandela alihukumiwa kifungo cha maisha kwa miaka 27 kutokana na harakati zake za kuupinga ubaguzi wa rangi. Alifungwa katika kisiwa cha Robben.

Baada ya kuachiliwa huru mwaka 1990 alianzisha sera ya maridhiano au sera ya amani baina yake na watu weupe nchini Afrika Kusini, jambo ambalo watu wengi hawakulitegemea.

Mwaka wa 1993, pamoja na Frederik Willem de Klerk alikuwa mshindi wa Tuzo ya Nobel ya Amani ambayo ni tuzo ya nadra sana kutolewa duniani.

Aliyekuwa mke maarufu wa Nelson Mandela, Winnie Madikizela, baada ya kutengana naye aliwahi kuwa mke wa rais wa Msumbiji, Samora Machel.

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Mandela 1994, p. 3; Boehmer 2008, p. 21; Smith 2010, p. 17; Sampson 2011, p. 3.
  2. Biography ya Mandela, tovuti ya africanhistory, iliangaliwa 16 Novemba 2016
  3. Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom Volume I: 1918–1962. Little, Brown and Company, New York City 1994, ISBN 978-0-7540-8723-6, uk 15
  4. Benson 1986, p. 17; Mandela 1994, pp. 36–42; Lodge 2006, p. 8; Smith 2010, pp. 29–31; Meredith 2010, pp. 9–11; Sampson 2011, p. 14.
  5. Mandela 1994, pp. 45–47; Smith 2010, pp. 27, 31; Meredith 2010, pp. 12–13; Sampson 2011, p. 15.
  6. Mandela 1994.
  7. Sampson 2011.
  8. Mandela 1994, p. 52; Smith 2010, pp. 31–32; Meredith 2010, p. 14; Sampson 2011, pp. 17–18.
  9. Mandela 1994, pp. 53–54; Smith 2010, p. 32; Meredith 2010, pp. 14–15; Sampson 2011, pp. 18–21.
  10. Mandela 1994, p. 56; Smith 2010, p. 32; Meredith 2010, p. 15.
  11. Mandela 1994, pp. 62–65; Lodge 2006, p. 9; Smith 2010, pp. 33–34; Meredith 2010, pp. 15–18; Sampson 2011, pp. 21, 25.
  12. Mandela 1994, pp. 62–63; Smith 2010, pp. 33–34; Meredith 2010, pp. 17–19; Sampson 2011, pp. 24–25.
  13. Mandela 1994, pp. 67–69; Smith 2010, p. 34; Meredith 2010, p. 18; Sampson 2011, p. 25.
  14. Mandela 1994, p. 68; Lodge 2006, p. 10; Smith 2010, p. 35; Meredith 2010, p. 18; Sampson 2011, p. 25.
  15. Mandela 1994, p. 68; Lodge 2006, p. 10; Meredith 2010, p. 18; Forster 2014, p. 93.

Kujisomea[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Barber, James (2004). Mandela's World: The International Dimension of South Africa's Political Revolution 1990–99. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press. ISBN 978-0-8214-1566-5. 
Barnard, Rita (2014). "Introduction". In Rita Barnard (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Nelson Mandela. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–26. ISBN 978-1-107-01311-7. 
Benneyworth, Garth (2011). "Armed and Trained: Nelson Mandela's 1962 Military Mission as Commander in Chief of Umkhonto we Sizwe and Provenance for his Buried Makarov Pistol". South African Historical Journal 63 (1): 78–101. doi:10.1080/02582473.2011.549375
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Benson, Mary (1986). Nelson Mandela. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-008941-7. 
Battersby, John (2011). "Afterword: Living Legend, Living Statue". In Anthony Sampson. Mandela: The Authorised Biography. London: HarperCollins. pp. 587–610. ISBN 978-0-00-743797-9. 
Boehmer, Elleke (2005). "Postcolonial Terrorist: The Example of Nelson Mandela". Parallax 11 (4): 46–55. doi:10.1080/13534640500331666
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Boehmer, Elleke (2008). Nelson Mandela: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280301-6. 
Bromley, Roger (2014). "'Magic Negro', Saint or Comrade: Representations of Nelson Mandela in Film". Altre Modernità (12): 40–58.
Broun, Kenneth S. (2012). Saving Nelson Mandela: The Rivonia Trial and the Fate of South Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-974022-2. 
Ellis, Stephen (2011). "The Genesis of the ANC's Armed Struggle in South Africa 1948–1961". Journal of Southern African Studies 37 (4): 657–676. doi:10.1080/03057070.2011.592659
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 ———  (2016). "Nelson Mandela, the South African Communist Party and the origins of Umkhonto we Sizwe". Cold War History 16 (1): 1–18. doi:10.1080/14682745.2015.1078315
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Forster, Dion (2014). "Mandela and the Methodists: Faith, Fallacy and Fact". Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae 40: 87–115.
Freund, Bill (2014). "The Shadow of Nelson Mandela, 1918–2013". African Political Economy 41 (140): 292–296. doi:10.1080/03056244.2014.883111
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Glad, Betty; Blanton, Robert (1997). "F. W. de Klerk and Nelson Mandela: A Study in Cooperative Transformational Leadership". Presidential Studies Quarterly 27 (3): 565–590.
Guiloineau, Jean (2002). Nelson Mandela: The Early Life of Rolihlahla Madiba. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 9–26. ISBN 1-55643-417-0. 
Herbst, Jeffrey (2003). "The Nature of South African Democracy: Political Dominance and Economic Inequality". In Theodore K. Rabb; Ezra N. Suleiman (eds.). The Making and Unmaking of Democracy: Lessons from History and World Politics. London: Routledge. pp. 206–224. ISBN 978-0-415-93381-0. 
Houston, Gregory; Muthien, Yvonne (2000). "Democracy and Governance in Transition". In Yvonne Muthien; Meshack Khosa; Bernard Magubane (eds.). Democracy and Governance Review: Mandela's Legacy 1994–1999. Pretoria: Human Sciences Research Council Press. pp. 37–68. ISBN 978-0-7969-1970-0. 
Hutton, Barbara (1994). Robben Island: Symbol of Resistance. Bellville: Pearson South Africa. ISBN 0-86877-417-0. 
Kalumba, Kibujjo M. (1995). "The Political Philosophy of Nelson Mandela: A Primer". Journal of Social Philosophy 26 (3): 161–171. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9833.1995.tb00092.x
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Lodge, Tom (2006). Mandela: A Critical Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-921935-3. 
Lukhele, Francis (2012). "Post-Prison Nelson Mandela: A 'Made-in-America Hero'". Canadian Journal of African Studies / Revue canadienne des études africaines 46 (2): 289–301. doi:10.1080/00083968.2012.702088
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Mafela, Munzhedzi James (2008). "The Revelation of African Culture in Long Walk to Freedom". In Anna Haebich; Frances Peters-Little; Peter Read (eds.). Indigenous Biography and Autobiography. Sydney: Humanities Research Centre, Australian National University. pp. 99–107. 
Mandela, Nelson (1994). Long Walk to Freedom Volume I: 1918–1962. Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 978-0-7540-8723-6. 
Mandela, Nelson [1994] (2004). Long Walk to Freedom Volume II: 1962–1994, large print, London: BBC AudioBooks and Time Warner Books Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7540-8724-3. 
Mangcu, Xolela (2013). "Retracing Nelson Mandela through the Lineage of Black Political Thought". Transition 112: 101–116. doi:10.2979/transition.112.101
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Meer, Fatima (1988). Higher than Hope: The Authorized Biography of Nelson Mandela. London: Hamish Hamilton. ISBN 0-241-12787-4. 
Meredith, Martin (2010). Mandela: A Biography. New York: PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-58648-832-1. 
Muthien, Yvonne; Khosa, Meshack; Magubane, Bernard (2000). "Democracy and Governance in Transition". In Yvonne Muthien; Meshack Khosa; Bernard Magubane (eds.). Democracy and Governance Review: Mandela's Legacy 1994–1999. Pretoria: Human Sciences Research Council Press. pp. 361–374. ISBN 978-0-7969-1970-0. 
Ndlovu-Gatsheni, Sabelo J. (2014). "From a 'Terrorist' to Global Icon: A Critical Decolonial Ethical Tribute to Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela of South Africa". Third World Quarterly 35 (6): 905–921. doi:10.1080/01436597.2014.907703
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Oppenheim, Claire E. (2012). "Nelson Mandela and the Power of Ubuntu". Religions 3 (2): 369–388. doi:10.3390/rel3020369
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Soudien, Crain (2015). "Nelson Mandela, Robben Island and the Imagination of a New South Africa". Journal of Southern African Studies 41 (2): 353–366. doi:10.1080/03057070.2015.1012915
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Suttner, Raymond (2007). "(Mis)Understanding Nelson Mandela". African Historical Review 39 (2): 107–130. doi:10.1080/17532520701786202
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 ———  (2014). "Nelson Mandela's Masculinities". African Identities 12 (3–4): 342–356. doi:10.1080/14725843.2015.1009623
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 ———  (2016). "'I Was Not Born With a Hunger to Be Free': Nelson Mandela's Early Journeys towards Political Awareness". Journal of Asian and African Studies 51 (1): 17–31. doi:10.1177/0021909614541973
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Nelson, Steven (2014). "Nelson Mandela's Two Bodies". Transition 116: 130–142. doi:10.2979/transition.116.130
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Read, James H. (2010). "Leadership and power in Nelson Mandela's Long Walk to Freedom". Journal of Power 3 (3): 317–339. doi:10.1080/17540291.2010.524792
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Sampson, Anthony [1999] (2011). Mandela: The Authorised Biography. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-743797-9. 
Smith, David James (2010). Young Mandela. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-297-85524-8. 
Tomaselli, Keyan; Tomaselli, Ruth (2003). "The Media and Mandela". Safundi: The Journal of South African and American Studies 4 (2): 1–10. doi:10.1080/17533170300404204
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