Albert Einstein

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Albert Einstein alivyopigwa picha na Oren Turner, 1947.

Albert Einstein (14 Machi 187918 Aprili 1955) alikuwa mwanafizikia mwenye asili ya Kiyahudi kutoka nchi ya Ujerumani.

Hasa anajulikana kwa nadharia ya uhusianifu.

Mwaka 1921 alikuwa mshindi wa Tuzo ya Nobel ya Fizikia.

Mwaka 1933 alipoona kuwa Hitler aliteka utawala nchini Ujerumani, aliamua kubaki Marekani alipokuwa amekwenda, na hatimaye alipata uraia wa huko mwaka 1940.

Maandishi yake ya kisayansi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Einstein, Albert (1901), "Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen (Conclusions Drawn from the Phenomena of Capillarity)", Annalen der Physik, vol. 4, na. 3, uk. 513, Bibcode:1901AnP...309..513E, doi:10.1002/andp.19013090306
  • Einstein, Albert (1905a), "Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt (On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light)" (PDF), Annalen der Physik, 17 (6): 132–148, Bibcode:1905AnP...322..132E, doi:10.1002/andp.19053220607 This annus mirabilis paper on the photoelectric effect was received by Annalen der Physik 18 March.
  • Einstein, Albert (1905b), A new determination of molecular dimensions. This PhD thesis was completed 30 April and submitted 20 July.
  • Einstein, Albert (1905c), "On the Motion – Required by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat – of Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid", Annalen der Physik, 17 (8): 549–560, Bibcode:1905AnP...322..549E, doi:10.1002/andp.19053220806. This annus mirabilis paper on Brownian motion was received 11 May.
  • Einstein, Albert (1905d), "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies", Annalen der Physik, 17 (10): 891–921, Bibcode:1905AnP...322..891E, doi:10.1002/andp.19053221004. This annus mirabilis paper on special relativity was received 30 June.
  • Einstein, Albert (1905e), "Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?", Annalen der Physik, 18 (13): 639–641, Bibcode:1905AnP...323..639E, doi:10.1002/andp.19053231314. This annus mirabilis paper on mass-energy equivalence was received 27 September.
  • Einstein, Albert (1915), "Die Feldgleichungen der Gravitation (The Field Equations of Gravitation)", Königlich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften: 844–847
  • Einstein, Albert (1917a), "Kosmologische Betrachtungen zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie (Cosmological Considerations in the General Theory of Relativity)", Königlich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften
  • Einstein, Albert (1917b), "Zur Quantentheorie der Strahlung (On the Quantum Mechanics of Radiation)", Physikalische Zeitschrift, 18: 121–128, Bibcode:1917PhyZ...18..121E
  • Einstein, Albert (11 Julai 1923), "Fundamental Ideas and Problems of the Theory of Relativity", Nobel Lectures, Physics 1901–1921 (PDF), Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company, ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo (PDF) mnamo 2007-02-10, iliwekwa mnamo 25 Machi 2007 {{citation}}: Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Einstein, Albert (1924), "Quantentheorie des einatomigen idealen Gases (Quantum theory of monatomic ideal gases)", Sitzungsberichte der Preussichen Akademie der Wissenschaften Physikalisch-Mathematische Klasse: 261–267. First of a series of papers on this topic.
  • Einstein, Albert (1926), "Die Ursache der Mäanderbildung der Flussläufe und des sogenannten Baerschen Gesetzes", Die Naturwissenschaften, 14 (11): 223–224, Bibcode:1926NW.....14..223E, doi:10.1007/BF01510300. On Baer's law and meanders in the courses of rivers.
  • Einstein, Albert; Podolsky, Boris; Rosen, Nathan (15 Mei 1935), "Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?", Physical Review, 47 (10): 777–780, Bibcode:1935PhRv...47..777E, doi:10.1103/PhysRev.47.777{{citation}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Einstein, Albert (1940), "On Science and Religion", Nature, 146 (3706), Edinburgh: Scottish Academic: 605, Bibcode:1940Natur.146..605E, doi:10.1038/146605a0, ISBN 0-7073-0453-9
  • Einstein, Albert et al. (4 Desemba 1948), "To the editors", New York Times, Melville, NY: AIP, American Inst. of Physics, ISBN 0-7354-0359-7, ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo mnamo 2007-12-17, iliwekwa mnamo 2013-03-06 {{citation}}: Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Einstein, Albert (Mei 1949), "Why Socialism?", Monthly Review, ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo mnamo 2006-01-11, iliwekwa mnamo 16 Januari 2006 {{citation}}: Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Einstein, Albert (1950), "On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation", Scientific American, CLXXXII (4): 13–17
  • Einstein, Albert (1954), Ideas and Opinions, New York: Random House, ISBN 0-517-00393-7
  • Einstein, Albert (1969), Albert Einstein, Hedwig und Max Born: Briefwechsel 1916–1955 (kwa German), Munich: Nymphenburger Verlagshandlung, ISBN 3-88682-005-X{{citation}}: CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Einstein, Albert (1979), Autobiographical Notes, Paul Arthur Schilpp (toleo la Centennial), Chicago: Open Court, ISBN 0-87548-352-6. The chasing a light beam thought experiment is described on pages 48–51.
  • Collected Papers: Stachel, John, Martin J. Klein, a. J. Kox, Michel Janssen, R. Schulmann, Diana Komos Buchwald (Eds.); na wenz. (1987–2006), The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, Vol. 1–10, Princeton University Press, ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo mnamo 2013-02-17, iliwekwa mnamo 2013-03-06 {{citation}}: Explicit use of et al. in: |author= (help); Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Further information about the volumes published so far can be found on the webpages of the Einstein Papers Project Archived 11 Agosti 2016 at the Wayback Machine. and on the Princeton University Press Einstein Page

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Marejeo mengine[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Brian, Denis (1996). Einstein: A Life. New York: John Wiley.
  • Clark, Ronald (1971). Einstein: The Life and Times. New York: Avon Books.
  • Fölsing, Albrecht (1997): Albert Einstein: A Biography. New York: Penguin Viking. (Translated and abridged from the German by Ewald Osers.) ISBN 978-0670855452
  • Highfield, Roger; Carter, Paul (1993). The Private Lives of Albert Einstein. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-16744-9. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
  • Hoffmann, Banesh, with the collaboration of Helen Dukas (1972): Albert Einstein: Creator and Rebel. London: Hart-Davis, MacGibbon Ltd. ISBN 978-0670111817
  • Isaacson, Walter (2007): Einstein: His Life and Universe. Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, New York. ISBN 978-0-7432-6473-0
  • Moring, Gary (2004): The complete idiot's guide to understanding Einstein ( 1st ed. 2000). Indianapolis IN: Alpha books (Macmillan USA). ISBN 0-02-863180-3
  • Pais, Abraham (1982): Subtle is the Lord: The science and the life of Albert Einstein. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198539070. The definitive biography to date.
  • Pais, Abraham (1994): Einstein Lived Here. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-192-80672-6
  • Parker, Barry (2000): Einstein's Brainchild: Relativity Made Relatively Easy!. Prometheus Books. Illustrated by Lori Scoffield-Beer. A review of Einstein's career and accomplishments, written for the lay public. ISBN 978-1591025221
  • Schweber, Sylvan S. (2008): Einstein and Oppenheimer: The Meaning of Genius. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-02828-9.
  • Oppenheimer, J.R. (1971): "On Albert Einstein," p. 8–12 in Science and synthesis: an international colloquium organized by Unesco on the tenth anniversary of the death of Albert Einstein and Teilhard de Chardin, Springer-Verlag, 1971, 208 pp. (Lecture delivered at the UNESCO House in Paris on 13 December 1965.) Also published in The New York Review of Books, 17 March 1966, On Albert Einstein by Robert Oppenheimer

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