Papa Yohane Paulo II

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Mtakatifu Yohane Paulo II.
Papa Yohane Paulo II.

Papa Yohane Paulo II (kwa Kilatini: Ioannes Paulus PP. II; kwa Kiitalia: Giovanni Paolo II; kwa Kipolandi: Jan Paweł II; kwa Kiingereza: John Paul II) aliishi tangu tarehe 18 Mei 1920 hadi tarehe 2 Aprili 2005.

Jina lake la kuzaliwa lilikuwa Karol Józef Wojtyła (matamshi: ˈkarɔl ˈjuzɛf vɔiˈtɨwa).

Alikuwa papa wa 264 kuanzia 16 Oktoba 1978 hadi kifo chake akidumu katika huduma hiyo kirefu kuliko mapapa wengine wote, isipokuwa Mtume Petro na Papa Pius IX.

Alimfuata Papa Yohane Paulo I akiwa Papa wa kwanza asiye Mwitalia tangu miaka 455 iliyopita, wakati wa Mholanzi Papa Adrian VI (1522 - 1523), tena papa wa kwanza kutoka Polandi (na makabila yoyote ya Waslavi) katika historia yote ya Kanisa. Alifuatwa na Papa Benedikto XVI.

Wengi wanamhesabu kati ya watu walioathiri zaidi karne ya 20, hasa kwa sababu tangu mwanzo wa upapa wake alipambana na Ukomunisti uliotesa nchi yake asili na nyinginezo, akachangia kwa kiasi kikubwa kikomo chake na kusambaratika kwa Urusi. [1][2][3][4][5][6]

Vilevile alilaumu ubepari wa nchi za magharibi[7][8]na kudai haki katika jamii zote, akitetea hasa uhai wa binadamu na uhuru wa dini.

Upande wa dini, aliboresha uhusiano kati ya Kanisa Katoliki na madhehebu mengine ya Ukristo[9] pamoja na ule na dini mbalimbali, kuanzia Uyahudi[10].

Ziara zake 104 kati nchi 129 ulimwenguni kote, mbali na 146 nchini Italia na 317 katika parokia za Roma, zilikusanya mara nyingi umati mkubwa (hadi zaidi ya milioni 4 huko Manila, Ufilipino), na kumfanya asafiri kuliko jumla ya mapapa wote waliomtangulia, akiwa mmojawapo kati ya viongozi wa dunia waliosafiri zaidi.

Papa Wojtyła alitangaza wenye heri 1,340 na watakatifu 483, ili kuwapa Wakristo wa leo vielelezo mbalimbali kwa maisha yao ili walenge utakatifu walioitiwa na Mungu.[11][12] Idadi hiyo ni kubwa kuliko ile ya waliotangazwa na jumla ya Mapapa wote waliomtangulia walau katika karne tano za mwisho.[13][14][15][16][17]

Alikuwa anaongea lugha mbalimbali, zikiwemo za Kipolandi, Kiitalia, Kifaransa, Kijerumani, Kiingereza, Kihispania, Kireno, Kiukraina, Kirusi, Kikroati, Kiesperanto, Kilatini na Kigiriki cha kale. [18]

Yohane Paulo II ametangazwa na mwandamizi wake Papa Benedikto XVI kuwa mwenye heri tarehe 1 Mei 2011,[19][20][21][22] [23] halafu Papa Fransisko akamtangaza mtakatifu tarehe 27 Aprili 2014.

Sikukuu yake huadhimishwa kila mwaka tarehe 22 Oktoba, kulingana na siku ya kuanza rasmi huduma yake ya Kipapa.

Maisha[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Miaka ya kwanza[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Picha ya ndoa ya wazazi wake Emilia na Karol Wojtyla Sr.
Nyumba ya familia yake huko Wadowice.
Ua wa nyumba yake.

Karol Józef Wojtyła alizaliwa Wadowice[24] nchini Poland akiwa mtoto wa tatu na wa mwisho wa Karol Wojtyła,[25] na Emilia Kaczorowska, ambaye alikuwa na asili ya Kilithuania, akafariki tarehe 13 Aprili 1929,[26]. Dada yake Olga alikufa kabla Karol hajazaliwa; hivyo, alihusiana sana na kaka yake Edmund, mpaka huyo alipokufa kwa tetekuanga kutokana na kazi yake ya udaktari.

Akiwa kijana, Karol alipenda sana spoti akacheza mara nyingi kandanda kama kipa.[27]

Miaka ya malezi yake iliathiriwa na uhusiano mkubwa na Wayahudi wengi wa Wadowice. Mara nyingi kulikuwa na mechi kati ya Wakatoliki na Wayahudi, naye alijitolea kuwa kipa wa Wayahudi timu yao ilipopungukiwa wachezaji.

Katikati ya mwaka 1938, Karol na baba yake walihamia Kraków, alipojiunga na chuo kikuu maarufu cha "Jagiellonian University". Huko akisoma filolojia na lugha 12 tofauti, alijitolea kusaidia kama mkutubi. Alipolazimishwa kujiunga na jeshi (36th Infantry Regiment (Poland)|Academic Legion), alikataa kufyatua risasi. Pia aliigiza na kutunga mwenyewe tamthilia.

Mwaka 1939 Ujerumani wa Hitler ulivamia Polandi ukafunga chuo kikuu hicho, huku wanaume wote wakidaiwa kufanya kazi. Hivyo, tangu mwaka 1940 hadi 1944, Karol alifanya kazi mbalimbali za mikono asije akahamishiwa katika makambi ya KZ.[24]

Baba yake alifariki kwa mpasuko wa moyo mwaka 1941, akimuacha peke yake.[25][26][28] Miaka 40 baadaye alisema,"Sikuwepo mama alipofariki, sikuwepo kaka alipofariki, sikuwepo baba alipofariki. Kufikia umri wa miaka 20 nilikuwa nimeshapoteza wapenzi wangu wote". [28]

Ndipo alipoanza kufikiria sana wito wa upadri, ambao polepole ukawa ‘jambo la ndani lenye hakika ya hali ya juu’.[29] Kwa sababu hiyo, mnamo Oktoba 1942, alipiga hodi kwenye nyumba ya [[askofu mkuu] wa Kraków, kardinali Adam Stefan Sapieha, akaomba asomee upadri.[29] Mapema akawa anasoma kwa siri katika seminari iliyoendeshwa huko kwa maficho.

Tarehe 29 Februari 1944, Karol aligongwa na lori la Kijerumani. Tofauti na kawaida, alipelekwa hospitalini alipotibiwa wiki mbili. Kunusurika ajali hiyo kulimthibitisha katika wito wake.

Tarehe 6 Agosti 1944, ‘Black Sunday’, askari wa Gestapo walijaribu kukamata wavulana wote wa Kraków wasije wakaanza mapambano dhidi yao[30] kama ilivyotokea Warsaw.[31][32] Karol alifaulu kufichama katika andaki la nyumba iliyokaguliwa na askari, wakati vijana zaidi ya elfu nane walikamatwa siku hiyo.[29][30][31] Halafu akafichama nyumbani kwa askofu mkuu hadi Wajerumani walipofukuzwa tarehe 17 Januari 1945.[33]

Hapo wanafunzi waliteka seminari, naye akajitolea kusafisha vyoo vilivyojaa mavi ya muda mrefu.[34] Mwezi huohuo, alimuokoa Edith Zierer, binti Myahudi wa miaka 14 ambaye alikuwa amekimbia kambi la Częstochowa lakini akazimia kwenye reli.[35] Karol akampandisha juu ya treni na kumfikisha salama mjini Kraków.[36][37][38] B'nai B'rith na makundi mengine ya Kiyahudi yamethibitisha kuwa Karol aliokoa wengine vilevile dhidi ya dhuluma ya Wanazi.

Upadri[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Karol Wojtyła akiwa padri huko Niegowić, Poland, mwaka 1948.

Kisha kumaliza masomo yake seminarini, tarehe 1 Novemba 1946 Karol alipewa upadirisho na kardinali Adam Stefan Sapieha.[39][40]

Baada ya hapo alitumwa Roma akasome teolojia kwenye chuo kikuu cha Kipapa Angelicum,[39][40] alipojipatia digrii ya pili na ya tatu katika teolojia. Udaktari huo, ambao ulifuatwa na mwingine, ulipatikana kwa kuchambua Fundisho la Imani kadiri ya Mt. Yohane wa Msalaba.

Akirudi Polandi katikati ya mwaka 1948 alipangiwa kazi yake ya kichungaji ya kwanza katika kijiji cha Niegowić, maili 15 kutoka Kraków. Alipofika huko tu, alipiga magoti na kubusu ardhi kama atakapofanya mara nyingi katika safari zake za kimataifa akifika kwenye nchi fulani.[41] Tendo hilo liliiga lile la mtakatifu Jean Marie Baptiste Vianney.[41]

Chuo kikuu cha Angelicum mjini Roma.

Mnamo Machi 1949 alihamishiwa parokia ya Mtakatifu Florian mjini Kraków, akaanza kufundisha maadili katika Jagiellonian University halafu katika Chuo Kikuu cha Kikatoliki cha Lublin. Wakati huo alikusanya vijana 20 hivi walioanza kujiita Rodzinka, "familia ndogo". Walikuwa wakikutana kwa kusali, kujadili falsafa, na kusaidia vipofu na wagonjwa. Polepole kundi hilo lilifikia washiriki 200 hivi, nao wakajiongezea michezo na spoti.

Mwaka 1954 alipata udaktari wa pili katika falsafa,[42] kwa kutathmini uwezekano wa kufundisha maadili ya Kikatoliki kwa kutumia fenomenolojia ya Max Scheler. Lakini serikali ya Kikomunisti ilimzuia asipewe digri hiyo mpaka mwaka 1957.[40]

Wakati huo, Wojtyła aliandika mfululizo wa makala kuhusu mada za Kikanisa katika gazeti la kila wiki la jimbo Tygodnik Powszechny.[43]

Katika miaka 12 ya kwanza ya upadri wake alitunga pia fasihi mpya mbalimbali kuhusu vita, hali ya maisha chini ya Ukomunisti, majukumu ya kichungaji n.k. Lakini alichapisha maandishi hayo kwa kutumia jina la bandia Andrzej Jawień au Stanisław Andrzej Gruda[43][44] – tofauti na maandishi yake ya kidini yaliyotolewa kwa jina lake halisi.[43][44]

Mwaka 1960, Wojtyła alitoa kitabu muhimu cha maadilidini Love and Responsibility, akitetea mafundisho ya Kanisa Katoliki kuhusu ndoa kwa kutumia mtazamo wa kifalsafa.[45]

Askofu na kardinali[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Picha ya Juni 1967, akiwa askofu lakini si kardinali bado.

Tarehe 4 Julai 1958,[40] alipokuwa likizo, Papa Pius XII alimteua askofu msaidizi wa Kraków. Aliitwa Warsaw akutane na Mkuu wa Maaskofu wa Polandi, kardinali Stefan Wyszyński, aliyemuarifu kuhusu uteuzi huo.[46][47] Kisha kukubali kuwa msaidizi wa askofu mkuu Eugeniusz Baziak, alipewa daraja ya uaskofu (akitumia jina la jimbo la zamani la Ombi) tarehe 28 Septemba 1958.[40] Akiwa na miaka 38 tu, alikuwa kijana kuliko maaskofu wote wa Polandi. Baada ya kifo cha Baziak mnamo Juni 1962, tarehe 16 Julai, Karol Wojtyła alichaguliwa asimamie jimbo kama Vicar Capitular.[24]

Wojtyła alishiriki toka mwanzo hadi mwisho Mtaguso wa pili wa Vatikano (1962–1965),[24][40] akichangia hasa hati Dignitatis Humanae na Gaudium et Spes.[40]

Baadaye Wojtyła alishiriki pia vikao vyote vya Sinodi ya Maaskofu.[24]

Tarehe 13 Januari 1964, Papa Paulo VI alimteua askofu mkuu wa Kraków.[48]

Halafu, tarehe 26 Juni 1967, Paulo VI alimteua kardinali[40][48] akapewa kanisa la San Cesareo in Palatio.[49]

Mwaka 1967 alichangia pia hati Humanae Vitae iliyokataza tena utoaji mimba na teknolojia ya uzazi wa mpango.[6][40][50]

Papa[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Lebo yake yenye msalaba na chini yake herufi M kumaanisha Bikira Maria, mama wa Yesu aliyemheshimu sana.

Mnamo Agosti 1978, Wojtyła alishiriki uchaguzi wa Papa Yohane Paulo I, aliyefariki baada ya siku 33 tu.[24][40][51]

Uchaguzi wa pili wa mwaka huo 1978 ulianza tarehe 14 Oktoba[52][52] na Wojtyła akashinda walipopiga kura mara ya nane. Hapo alijichaguliwa jina la Yohane Paulo II[40][52] kwa heshima ya watangulizi wake wa mwisho.[51][53][54][53][55]

Akiwa na miaka 58 tu, alikuwa kijana kuliko Mapapa wote waliochaguliwa baada ya Papa Pius IX mwaka 1846, aliyekuwa na miaka 54.[40] Ibada ya kuanzia rasmi Upapa wake ilifanyika tarehe 22 Oktoba 1978.[56]

Mafundisho[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Papa Yohane Paulo II mwaka Pope 1985.

Kama papa, moja kati ya kazi zake muhimu ilikuwa kufundisha imani na maadili. Hakuna Papa aliyewahi kuwahubiria watu wengi zaidi.

Katika kupokea watu siku 1160 za Jumatano, alifikia watu 17,600,000.

Kati ya katekesi zake alizowapa, maarufu zaidi ni zile juu ya "Teolojia ya Mwili".

Mbali ya vitabu 5, aliandika hati 85.

Katika Novo Millennio Ineunte alisisitiza umuhimu wa kuanza upya na Kristo mwanzoni mwa milenia ya tatu: "Hatutaokolewa na tamko, bali na Nafsi hai."

Katika Veritatis Splendor alisisitiza umuhimu wa kujua ukweli ili kufikia uhuru, badala ya kukubali dhana ya kuwa binadamu anaweza kuwa na rai tu.

Katika Fides et Ratio alionyesha haja ya imani na akili kushirikiana ili kujua ukweli.

Yohane Paulo II alitoa mafundisho mengi kuhusu jamii pia, akitetea heshima ya watu wote, kuanzia wanawake, na umuhimu wa familia: Jinsi familia inavyokwenda, ndivyo taifa linavyokwenda na ndivyo ulimwengu tunamoishi unavyokwenda.[6].

Hati nyingine zinahusu Injili ya Uhai (Evangelium Vitae) na Ekumeni (Ut Unum Sint).

Ziara[hariri | hariri chanzo]

[57]

Ramani inayoonyesha nchi alizotembelea.
Ziara kwa bunge la Polandi tarehe 11 Juni 1999.

Wakati wa upapa wake, Yohane Paulo II alisafiri zaidi ya kilometa milioni 1.1[4], akivutia umati mkubwa sana.[58][59][58][58]

Safari zake nchini Polandi ziliwatia moyo wananchi kuungana dhidi ya dhuluma za Ukomunisti.[60][6] On later trips to Poland, he gave tacit support to the organization.[6][1][2][3][4][5][60]

Pia alitembelea nchi nyingi ambazo zilikuwa hazijawahi kufikiwa na Papa yeyote, kama vile Tanzania mwaka 1990. While [61][62][63][64][64][65][66][66][66][67][68]

Tarehe 13 Aprili 1986 alikuwa Papa wa kwanza kutembelea sinagogi (mjini Roma)[69][10][70][71]

Mnamo Machi 2000, alipotembelea Yerusalemu, akawa Papa wa kwanza kuhiji kwenye Ukuta wa Maombolezo alipoingiza ujumbe wake ndani ya ufa na kuomba msamaha kwa makosa dhidi ya Wayahudi.[72][73][73][10][72][73][74][74][75][76]

Alikuwa pia Papa wa kwanza kuingia mskitini, (Damasko, Syria, mwaka 2001).[77][77][78]

World Youth Day ni adhimisho la kimataifa kwa ajili ya vijana lililoanzishwa na Yohane Paulo II.

Tangu alipokuwa padri, Yohane Paulo II alikuwa na kipaji cha pekee cha kuvuta vijana[79][80] [79] Kwa ajili yao mwaka 1984 alianzisha World Youth Day ili kuwakusanya kwa wiki moja kutoka duniani kote katika kuadhimisha imani kwa furaha.[24][79][80][24][80] Wakati wa Upapa wake aliadhimisha mara 19 siku kama hizo, mara jimboni Roma, mara kwingine kimataifa akikusanya hata vijana milioni kadhaa.

Baadaye alianzisha pia mkutano wa kimataifa wa familia (1994).[24]

Katika safari zake, Yohane Paulo II alikutana kwa makusudi mazima na viongozi wa dini na madhehebu</ref>[81]ref name="Macedonian">"Macedonian Press Agency: News in English, 2001-05-04b", The Macedonian Press Agency (Hellenic Resources Network), 4 Mei 2001. Retrieved on 2009-01-01. </ref>[82][83][84]</ref>apostolic pilgrimage to Norway, Iceland, Finland, Denmark and Sweden 1-10 June 1989</ref> mbalimbali ili kujenga ushirikiano.

Tarehe 27 Oktoba 1986 alikusanya Assisi zaidi ya wawakilishi 120 wa dini na madhehebu kutoka dunia nzima kwa siku moja ya kufunga chakula na kusali kwa ajili ya amani.[85]

Dalai Lama wa dini ya Buddha alikutana mara nane na Papa Yohane Paulo II.

Jaribio la kumuua[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Tarehe 13 Mei 1981, Mehmet Ali Ağca alimfyatulia risasi[4][86][87][88]. Ingawa alilenga vizuri na kumsababisha Papa apotewe na robo tatu za damu yake, baada ya saa tano za operesheni Yohane Paulo II alinusurika.[89][89][90][91] Baadaye Papa alisema aliokolewa na Bikira Maria wa Fatima.[4][86][92] Mwaka 1983 alimtembelea Mehmet Ali Ağca gerezani na kumsamehe. Nyuma yake dalili mbalimbali zilionyesha uwepo wa Urusi uliochukia siasa yake nchini Polandi dhidi ya Ukomunisti.[4][86][93]

Mwaka 2000, akiadhimisha Jubilei kuu, alipigania msamaha wa madeni ya nchi maskini.

Mwaka 2003 akawa pia mmojawapo kati ya watu waliopinga zaidi vita dhidi ya Iraq[6][94]

Papa akiwa mgonjwa sana aliendelea na utume wake (22 Septemba 2004).

Baada ya kuugua miaka ugonjwa wa Parkinson bila ya kuacha utume wake, mwaka 2005 alilazwa mara kadhaa katika Agostino Gemelli University Polyclinic ambapo hatimaye alifariki tarehe 2 Aprili. Maneno yake ya mwisho yalikuwa, "pozwólcie mi odejść do domu Ojca", ("Acheni nirudi nyumbani mwa Baba").[95][96][97][98][98][99]

Kifo na mazishi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Umati ulioshiriki mazishi yake tarehe 8 Aprili 2005.
Picha nyingine ya mazishi.

Misa ya mazishi yake tarehe 8 Aprili ilivunja rekodi ya washiriki na ya viongozi wa nchi waliohudhuria.[100][101][102][103][101][100][102][103][104][103]

Kutokana na shangilio la "Santo Subito!" ("Mtakatifu mara moja!") lililotolewa na umati wakati wa mazishi,[12][100][13][105][106][107] Papa Benedikto XVI aliruhusu kesi ya kumtangaza mtakatifu iwahi kuanza.[13][105][108][109][24][100][110][111][112][113][114]

Baada ya utafiti juu ya ushujaa wa maadili yake,[115][116] juu ya maandishi yake na juu ya muujiza uliomtokea sista Marie Simon-Pierre wa Ufaransa kwa maombezi ya Papa,[105][113] was reported to have experienced a "complete and lasting cure after members of her community prayed for the intercession of Pope John Paul II".[12][100][105][117][118][119][109][113][120][121]Sista huyo alimuambia mwandishi Gerry Shaw: "Nilikuwa mgonjwa, sasa nimepona. Nimepona, lakini ni juu ya Kanisa kusema kama umetokea muujiza au la"."[113][120]

Sala yake[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Ee Kristo, kichwa na mwokozi pekee, uvute kwako viungo vyako vyote.

Uwaunganishe na kuwageuza katika upendo wako, ili Kanisa ling’ae kwa ule uzuri upitao maumbile unaodhihirishwa katika watakatifu wa kila wakati na taifa, katika wafiadini, waungamadini, mabikira na mashahidi wasiohesabika wa Injili!

Ee Yesu mtamu, Yesu mwema, Yesu, mwana wa Maria! Amina!

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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