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Washirazi walichangia sana uenezi wa Uislamu, uanzishaji wa usultani wa Waarabu na lugha ya Kiswahili, pamoja na kutajirika kwa biashara ya watumwa na bidhaa mbalimbali kutoka bara la Afrika iliyofanyika kutoka vituo vyao visiwani.[note 1]
Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]
Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]
- Tanzania Ethnic Groups, East Africa Living Encyclopedia, accessed 28 June 2010
- (2010) Encyclopedia of Africa. Oxford University Press, 379. ISBN 978-0-19-533770-9. “Most scholars, however, believe that the Shirazi actually began their settlement of the East African coast in the twelfth century and that they originated in Somalia. Shirazi established themselves on the following islands: Lamu Kenya, Pemba Zanzibar, Mafia and Kilqa Kiswani all in Tanzania and Comoros. (...) Known for their mercantile skills, the Shirazi asserted themselves as ruling elites as early as the twelfth century on the islands that were their base. Trade in gold, ivory and slaves brought prosperity to the Shirazi”
- August H. Nimtz (1980). Islam and Politics in East Africa. University of Minnesota Press, 3–11, 30–33, 39–47. ISBN 978-0-8166-0963-5. , Quote: "The Shirazi were classified as native, that is, Africans, and this they were of low status. Prior to the colonial era, the Shirazi and Arabs saw themselves, for the most part, as one community. (...) Unlike the previous periods in which African captives were usually taken to Persian Gulf areas to work primarily as domestic laborers, by the nineteenth century, most slaves were being utlized on the vast clove and plantations on the East African coast and offshore islands. (...) Arab rule, from this period until its demise at the hands of the European powers, became virtually synonymous with slavery and slave ownership." (...) "Though Shirazi ownership of slaves was never as extensive as the Arabs, slaves were a major source of their wealth"
- (2002) Slavery Across Time and Space: Studies in Slavery in Medieval Europe and Africa. University of Virginia, 23. ISBN 8277650418. Retrieved on 28 November 2016.
- Alexander Mikaberidze (2011). Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO, 969. ISBN 978-1-59884-336-1. “the Bantu-speaking peoples of East Africa were called the Zanj and blacks from south of the Sahara were called al-Aswad”
- Ronald Segal (2002). Islam's Black Slaves: The Other Black Diaspora. Macmillan, 42. ISBN 978-0-374-52797-6. , Quote: "As early as the late seventh century, black slaves known as the Zanj, associated with people from the East African coast, were put to agricultural work in a region that encompassed part of western Persia but mainly southern Iraq."
Kusoma zaidi[hariri | hariri chanzo]
- Allen, James De Vere (1993). Swahili Origins: Swahili Culture & the Shungwaya Phenomenon. James Currey Publishers.
- Bakari, Mohammed Ali (2001). The Democratisation Process in Zanzibar: A Retarded Transition. GIGA-Hamburg.
- Chittick, Neville (1965). "The ‘Shirazi’ Colonization of East Africa". Journal of African History (Cambridge University Press) 6 (3): 275–294.
- (2000) The Swahili: The Social Landscape of a Mercantile Society. Wiley-Blackwell.
- Nimtz, August H. (1980). Islam and Politics in East Africa: The Sufi Order in Tanzania. University of Minnesota Press.
- Pouwels, Randall L. (1984). "Oral Historiography and the Shirazi of the East African Coast". History in Africa (African Studies Association) 11: 237–267.
- Pouwels, Randall L. (2002). Horn and Crescent: Cultural Change and Traditional Islam on the East African Coast, 800-1900. Cambridge University Press.
- Sheriff, Abdul; Tominaga, Chizuko (1990). "The Ambiguity of Shirazi Ethnicity in the History and Politics of Zanzibar". Christianity and Culture (Sendai) 24: 1–37.
- Spear, Thomas (1984). "The Shirazi in Swahili Traditions, Culture, and History". History in Africa (African Studies Association) 11: 291–305.
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