Mtumiaji:Kipala/Wendo wa ukomeshaji wa utumwa 2

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Date Jurisdiction Description
1952 Bendera ya Qatar Qatar Utumwa unakomeshwa.[1]
1953 Bendera ya Australia Australia

Bendera ya Kanada Kanada

Bendera ya Liberia Liberia

Bendera ya New Zealand New Zealand

Bendera ya Afrika Kusini Afrika Kusini

Bendera ya Uswisi Uswisi

Kigezo:Country data Ufalme wa Maungano
1926 Mapatano kuhusu Utumwa yanakubaliwa.
1954 [[Image:{{{flag alias-1930}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Afghanistan]] Afghanistan

Bendera ya Austria Austria

Kigezo:Country data Kuba

Bendera ya Denmark Denmark

Bendera ya Misri Misri

Bendera ya Ufini Ufini

Bendera ya Uhindi Uhindi

Bendera ya Italia Italia

Kigezo:Country data Meksiko

Bendera ya Monako Monako

Bendera ya Uswidi Uswidi

Bendera ya Syria Syria
1955 Bendera ya Ekuador Ecuador

Kigezo:Country data Kingdom of Greece Greece

Kigezo:Country data Kingdom of Iraq Iraq

Bendera ya Israel Israel

Bendera ya Uholanzi Netherlands

Bendera ya Pakistan Pakistan

[[Image:{{{flag alias-1936}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Philippines]] Philippines

Bendera ya Republic of China Taiwan

Bendera ya Uturuki Turkey
1956 Kigezo:Country data United Nations Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery.
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Byelorussia

Bendera ya Soviet Union Soviet Union

Marekani United States

Bendera ya South Vietnam South Vietnam
1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1957 Kigezo:Country data United Nations The Abolition of Forced Labour Convention eliminates some exceptions admitted in the 1930 Forced Labour Convention.
Bendera ya Albania Albania

Bendera ya Libya Libya

[[Image:{{{flag alias-1948}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Myanmar]] Myanmar

Bendera ya Norwei Norway

Bendera ya Romania Romania

Bendera ya Sudan Sudan
1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1958 Bendera ya Bhutan Bhutan Slavery abolished.
Bendera ya Hungaria Hungary

Bendera ya Sri Lanka Ceylon
1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1959 Bendera ya Jordan Jordan

Bendera ya Moroko Morocco

Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Ukraine
1960 Bendera ya Niger Niger Slavery abolished.[2]
Bendera ya Mali Mali First president Modibo Keita makes the effective abolition of slavery a prominent goal of the government. However, his efforts are largely abandoned during the dictatorship of Moussa Traoré (1968–1991).
1961 Bendera ya Nigeria Nigeria 1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1961 Bendera ya Moroko Morocco Slavery abolished under Moroccan Constitution, although domestic slave practices continued.
1962 Bendera ya Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Slavery abolished.
Bendera ya Yemen Arab Republic North Yemen
Bendera ya Ubelgiji Belgium

Bendera ya Sierra Leone Sierra Leone

Bendera ya Tanganyika (nchi) Tanganyika
1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1963 Bendera ya Algeria Algeria

Bendera ya Ufaransa France

Bendera ya Guinea Guinea

Bendera ya Kuwait Kuwait

Bendera ya Nepal Nepal
1964 Kigezo:Country data Trucial States Slavery abolished.[onesha uthibitisho]
Bendera ya Jamaika Jamaica

Bendera ya Madagaska Madagascar

Bendera ya Niger Niger



Bendera ya Uganda Uganda

1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1965 Bendera ya Malawi Malawi
1966 Bendera ya Brazil Brazil

Bendera ya Malta Malta

Bendera ya Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago

Bendera ya Tunisia Tunisia
1967 Bendera ya People's Democratic Republic of Yemen South Yemen Slavery abolished.[3]
1968 [[Image:{{{flag alias-1945}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Mongolia]] Mongolia 1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1969 Kigezo:Country data Ethiopian Empire Ethiopia

Bendera ya Morisi Mauritius
1970 Bendera ya Omani Oman Slavery abolished.[4]
1972 Bendera ya Fiji Fiji 1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1973 Bendera ya West Germany West Germany

Bendera ya Mali Mali

Bendera ya Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia

Bendera ya Zambia Zambia
1974 Bendera ya Lesotho Lesotho
1976 Bendera ya The Bahamas Bahamas

Bendera ya Barbados Barbados
Kigezo:Country data Kentucky Thirteenth Amendment ratified.
1981 Bendera ya Mauritania Mauritania Slavery abolished,[5] though the ban was not enforced and many people continued to be held as slaves.[6]
Bendera ya Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Bendera ya Solomon Islands Solomon Islands
1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1982 Bendera ya Papua Guinea Mpya Papua New Guinea
1983 Bendera ya Bolivia Bolivia

Bendera ya Guatemala Guatemala
1984 Bendera ya Kamerun Cameroon
1985 Bendera ya Bangladesh Bangladesh
1986 Bendera ya Kupro Cyprus

Bendera ya Mauritania Mauritania

Bendera ya Nikaragua Nicaragua
1987 Bendera ya Yemen Arab Republic North Yemen
1990 Bendera ya Bahrain Bahrain

Bendera ya Saint Lucia Saint Lucia
1992 Bendera ya Kroatia Croatia
1993 Bendera ya Bosnia na Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina
1994 Bendera ya Dominica Dominica
1995 Bendera ya Chile Chile
Kigezo:Country data Mississippi The Mississippi Legislature unanimously votes to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution after a clerk discovers it never had. It is the last eligible state in the union to do so. However, state officials fail to send the required documentation to the state register.[7]
1996 Bendera ya Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
Bendera ya Eire Ireland Last Magdalene Laundry closes.
1997 Bendera ya Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan

Bendera ya Turkmenistan Turkmenistan
1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1998 Bendera ya Ghana Ghana Forced ritual servitude of girls in Ewe shrines banned.
2001 Serbia na Montenegro Yugoslavia

Bendera ya Uruguay Uruguay
1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
2003 Bendera ya Niger Niger Slavery criminalized.
2006 Bendera ya Montenegro Montenegro 1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
Bendera ya Mali Mali Temedt, an organization against slavery and the discrimination of former slaves, is founded in Essakane.
2007 Bendera ya Mauritania Mauritania Slavery criminalized.
Bendera ya Paraguay Paraguay 1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
2008 Bendera ya Kazakhstan Kazakhstan
2009 Bendera ya Ufalme wa Muungano United Kingdom Section 71 of the Coroners and Justice Act 2009.[8]
2010 Bendera ya Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Slavery criminalized.[9]
2013 Kigezo:Country data Mississippi Ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment legally recorded.
2015 Bendera ya Ufalme wa Muungano United Kingdom Modern Slavery Act 2015.[10]
2017 Kigezo:Flagicon image Navajo Nation Criminalization of human trafficking.[11]
Bendera ya Chad Chad Slavery criminalized.[12]
2018 Kigezo:Country data Colorado Prison exception removed from Colorado's constitutional ban on slavery.[13]
2019 Bendera ya Iraq Iraq

Bendera ya Syria Syria
Defeat and debellatio of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant leads to the freeing of thousands of slaves, including Yazidi and Christian sex slaves.[14][15][16]
2020 Kigezo:Country data Utah

Kigezo:Country data Nebraska
Prison exception removed from both states' constitutional ban on slavery.[17][18]
Present Worldwide Although slavery is now abolished de jure in all countries,[19][20] de facto practices akin to it continue today in many places throughout the world, almost exclusively in Africa and Asia.[21][22][23][24]
Date Jurisdiction Description
1952 Bendera ya Qatar Qatar Slavery abolished.[1]
1953 Bendera ya Australia Australia

Bendera ya Kanada Canada

Bendera ya Liberia Liberia

Bendera ya New Zealand New Zealand

Bendera ya Afrika Kusini South Africa

Bendera ya Uswisi Switzerland

Bendera ya Ufalme wa Muungano United Kingdom
1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1954 [[Image:{{{flag alias-1930}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Afghanistan]] Afghanistan

Bendera ya Austria Austria

Bendera ya Kuba Cuba

Bendera ya Denmark Denmark

Bendera ya Misri Egypt

Bendera ya Ufini Finland

Bendera ya Uhindi India

Bendera ya Italia Italy

Bendera ya Mexiko Mexico

Bendera ya Monako Monaco

Bendera ya Uswidi Sweden

Bendera ya Syria Syria
1955 Bendera ya Ekuador Ecuador

Kigezo:Country data Kingdom of Greece Greece

Kigezo:Country data Kingdom of Iraq Iraq

Bendera ya Israel Israel

Bendera ya Uholanzi Netherlands

Bendera ya Pakistan Pakistan

[[Image:{{{flag alias-1936}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Philippines]] Philippines

Bendera ya Republic of China Taiwan

Bendera ya Uturuki Turkey
1956 Kigezo:Country data United Nations Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery.
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Byelorussia

Bendera ya Soviet Union Soviet Union

Marekani United States

Bendera ya South Vietnam South Vietnam
1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1957 Kigezo:Country data United Nations The Abolition of Forced Labour Convention eliminates some exceptions admitted in the 1930 Forced Labour Convention.
Bendera ya Albania Albania

Bendera ya Libya Libya

[[Image:{{{flag alias-1948}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Myanmar]] Myanmar

Bendera ya Norwei Norway

Bendera ya Romania Romania

Bendera ya Sudan Sudan
1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1958 Bendera ya Bhutan Bhutan Slavery abolished.
Bendera ya Hungaria Hungary

Bendera ya Sri Lanka Ceylon
1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1959 Bendera ya Jordan Jordan

Bendera ya Moroko Morocco

Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Ukraine
1960 Bendera ya Niger Niger Slavery abolished.[2]
Bendera ya Mali Mali First president Modibo Keita makes the effective abolition of slavery a prominent goal of the government. However, his efforts are largely abandoned during the dictatorship of Moussa Traoré (1968–1991).
1961 Bendera ya Nigeria Nigeria 1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1961 Bendera ya Moroko Morocco Slavery abolished under Moroccan Constitution, although domestic slave practices continued.
1962 Bendera ya Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Slavery abolished.
Bendera ya Yemen Arab Republic North Yemen
Bendera ya Ubelgiji Belgium

Bendera ya Sierra Leone Sierra Leone

Bendera ya Tanganyika (nchi) Tanganyika
1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1963 Bendera ya Algeria Algeria

Bendera ya Ufaransa France

Bendera ya Guinea Guinea

Bendera ya Kuwait Kuwait

Bendera ya Nepal Nepal
1964 Kigezo:Country data Trucial States Slavery abolished.[onesha uthibitisho]
Bendera ya Jamaika Jamaica

Bendera ya Madagaska Madagascar

Bendera ya Niger Niger



Bendera ya Uganda Uganda

1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1965 Bendera ya Malawi Malawi
1966 Bendera ya Brazil Brazil

Bendera ya Malta Malta

Bendera ya Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago

Bendera ya Tunisia Tunisia
1967 Bendera ya People's Democratic Republic of Yemen South Yemen Slavery abolished.[25]
1968 [[Image:{{{flag alias-1945}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Mongolia]] Mongolia 1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1969 Kigezo:Country data Ethiopian Empire Ethiopia

Bendera ya Morisi Mauritius
1970 Bendera ya Omani Oman Slavery abolished.[26]
1972 Bendera ya Fiji Fiji 1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1973 Bendera ya West Germany West Germany

Bendera ya Mali Mali

Bendera ya Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia

Bendera ya Zambia Zambia
1974 Bendera ya Lesotho Lesotho
1976 Bendera ya The Bahamas Bahamas

Bendera ya Barbados Barbados
Kigezo:Country data Kentucky Thirteenth Amendment ratified.
1981 Bendera ya Mauritania Mauritania Slavery abolished,[27] though the ban was not enforced and many people continued to be held as slaves.[28]
Bendera ya Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Bendera ya Solomon Islands Solomon Islands
1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1982 Bendera ya Papua Guinea Mpya Papua New Guinea
1983 Bendera ya Bolivia Bolivia

Bendera ya Guatemala Guatemala
1984 Bendera ya Kamerun Cameroon
1985 Bendera ya Bangladesh Bangladesh
1986 Bendera ya Kupro Cyprus

Bendera ya Mauritania Mauritania

Bendera ya Nikaragua Nicaragua
1987 Bendera ya Yemen Arab Republic North Yemen
1990 Bendera ya Bahrain Bahrain

Bendera ya Saint Lucia Saint Lucia
1992 Bendera ya Kroatia Croatia
1993 Bendera ya Bosnia na Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina
1994 Bendera ya Dominica Dominica
1995 Bendera ya Chile Chile
Kigezo:Country data Mississippi The Mississippi Legislature unanimously votes to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution after a clerk discovers it never had. It is the last eligible state in the union to do so. However, state officials fail to send the required documentation to the state register.[7]
1996 Bendera ya Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
Bendera ya Eire Ireland Last Magdalene Laundry closes.
1997 Bendera ya Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan

Bendera ya Turkmenistan Turkmenistan
1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1998 Bendera ya Ghana Ghana Forced ritual servitude of girls in Ewe shrines banned.
2001 Serbia na Montenegro Yugoslavia

Bendera ya Uruguay Uruguay
1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
2003 Bendera ya Niger Niger Slavery criminalized.
2006 Bendera ya Montenegro Montenegro 1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
Bendera ya Mali Mali Temedt, an organization against slavery and the discrimination of former slaves, is founded in Essakane.
2007 Bendera ya Mauritania Mauritania Slavery criminalized.
Bendera ya Paraguay Paraguay 1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
2008 Bendera ya Kazakhstan Kazakhstan
2009 Bendera ya Ufalme wa Muungano United Kingdom Section 71 of the Coroners and Justice Act 2009.[29]
2010 Bendera ya Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Slavery criminalized.[30]
2013 Kigezo:Country data Mississippi Ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment legally recorded.
2015 Bendera ya Ufalme wa Muungano United Kingdom Modern Slavery Act 2015.[31]
2017 Kigezo:Flagicon image Navajo Nation Criminalization of human trafficking.[32]
Bendera ya Chad Chad Slavery criminalized.[33]
2018 Kigezo:Country data Colorado Prison exception removed from Colorado's constitutional ban on slavery.[34]
2019 Bendera ya Iraq Iraq

Bendera ya Syria Syria
Defeat and debellatio of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant leads to the freeing of thousands of slaves, including Yazidi and Christian sex slaves.[35][36][37]
2020 Kigezo:Country data Utah

Kigezo:Country data Nebraska
Prison exception removed from both states' constitutional ban on slavery.[38][39]
Present Worldwide Although slavery is now abolished de jure in all countries,[19][20] de facto practices akin to it continue today in many places throughout the world, almost exclusively in Africa and Asia.[40][41][42][43]
Date Jurisdiction Description
1952 Bendera ya Qatar Qatar Slavery abolished.[1]
1953 Bendera ya Australia Australia

Bendera ya Kanada Canada

Bendera ya Liberia Liberia

Bendera ya New Zealand New Zealand

Bendera ya Afrika Kusini South Africa

Bendera ya Uswisi Switzerland

Bendera ya Ufalme wa Muungano United Kingdom
1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1954 [[Image:{{{flag alias-1930}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Afghanistan]] Afghanistan

Bendera ya Austria Austria

Bendera ya Kuba Cuba

Bendera ya Denmark Denmark

Bendera ya Misri Egypt

Bendera ya Ufini Finland

Bendera ya Uhindi India

Bendera ya Italia Italy

Bendera ya Mexiko Mexico

Bendera ya Monako Monaco

Bendera ya Uswidi Sweden

Bendera ya Syria Syria
1955 Bendera ya Ekuador Ecuador

Kigezo:Country data Kingdom of Greece Greece

Kigezo:Country data Kingdom of Iraq Iraq

Bendera ya Israel Israel

Bendera ya Uholanzi Netherlands

Bendera ya Pakistan Pakistan

[[Image:{{{flag alias-1936}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Philippines]] Philippines

Bendera ya Republic of China Taiwan

Bendera ya Uturuki Turkey
1956 Kigezo:Country data United Nations Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery.
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Byelorussia

Bendera ya Soviet Union Soviet Union

Marekani United States

Bendera ya South Vietnam South Vietnam
1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1957 Kigezo:Country data United Nations The Abolition of Forced Labour Convention eliminates some exceptions admitted in the 1930 Forced Labour Convention.
Bendera ya Albania Albania

Bendera ya Libya Libya

[[Image:{{{flag alias-1948}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Myanmar]] Myanmar

Bendera ya Norwei Norway

Bendera ya Romania Romania

Bendera ya Sudan Sudan
1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1958 Bendera ya Bhutan Bhutan Slavery abolished.
Bendera ya Hungaria Hungary

Bendera ya Sri Lanka Ceylon
1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1959 Bendera ya Jordan Jordan

Bendera ya Moroko Morocco

Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Ukraine
1960 Bendera ya Niger Niger Slavery abolished.[2]
Bendera ya Mali Mali First president Modibo Keita makes the effective abolition of slavery a prominent goal of the government. However, his efforts are largely abandoned during the dictatorship of Moussa Traoré (1968–1991).
1961 Bendera ya Nigeria Nigeria 1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1961 Bendera ya Moroko Morocco Slavery abolished under Moroccan Constitution, although domestic slave practices continued.
1962 Bendera ya Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Slavery abolished.
Bendera ya Yemen Arab Republic North Yemen
Bendera ya Ubelgiji Belgium

Bendera ya Sierra Leone Sierra Leone

Bendera ya Tanganyika (nchi) Tanganyika
1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1963 Bendera ya Algeria Algeria

Bendera ya Ufaransa France

Bendera ya Guinea Guinea

Bendera ya Kuwait Kuwait

Bendera ya Nepal Nepal
1964 Kigezo:Country data Trucial States Slavery abolished.[onesha uthibitisho]
Bendera ya Jamaika Jamaica

Bendera ya Madagaska Madagascar

Bendera ya Niger Niger



Bendera ya Uganda Uganda

1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1965 Bendera ya Malawi Malawi
1966 Bendera ya Brazil Brazil

Bendera ya Malta Malta

Bendera ya Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago

Bendera ya Tunisia Tunisia
1967 Bendera ya People's Democratic Republic of Yemen South Yemen Slavery abolished.[44]
1968 [[Image:{{{flag alias-1945}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Mongolia]] Mongolia 1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1969 Kigezo:Country data Ethiopian Empire Ethiopia

Bendera ya Morisi Mauritius
1970 Bendera ya Omani Oman Slavery abolished.[45]
1972 Bendera ya Fiji Fiji 1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1973 Bendera ya West Germany West Germany

Bendera ya Mali Mali

Bendera ya Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia

Bendera ya Zambia Zambia
1974 Bendera ya Lesotho Lesotho
1976 Bendera ya The Bahamas Bahamas

Bendera ya Barbados Barbados
Kigezo:Country data Kentucky Thirteenth Amendment ratified.
1981 Bendera ya Mauritania Mauritania Slavery abolished,[46] though the ban was not enforced and many people continued to be held as slaves.[47]
Bendera ya Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Bendera ya Solomon Islands Solomon Islands
1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1982 Bendera ya Papua Guinea Mpya Papua New Guinea
1983 Bendera ya Bolivia Bolivia

Bendera ya Guatemala Guatemala
1984 Bendera ya Kamerun Cameroon
1985 Bendera ya Bangladesh Bangladesh
1986 Bendera ya Kupro Cyprus

Bendera ya Mauritania Mauritania

Bendera ya Nikaragua Nicaragua
1987 Bendera ya Yemen Arab Republic North Yemen
1990 Bendera ya Bahrain Bahrain

Bendera ya Saint Lucia Saint Lucia
1992 Bendera ya Kroatia Croatia
1993 Bendera ya Bosnia na Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina
1994 Bendera ya Dominica Dominica
1995 Bendera ya Chile Chile
Kigezo:Country data Mississippi The Mississippi Legislature unanimously votes to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution after a clerk discovers it never had. It is the last eligible state in the union to do so. However, state officials fail to send the required documentation to the state register.[7]
1996 Bendera ya Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
Bendera ya Eire Ireland Last Magdalene Laundry closes.
1997 Bendera ya Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan

Bendera ya Turkmenistan Turkmenistan
1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1998 Bendera ya Ghana Ghana Forced ritual servitude of girls in Ewe shrines banned.
2001 Serbia na Montenegro Yugoslavia

Bendera ya Uruguay Uruguay
1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
2003 Bendera ya Niger Niger Slavery criminalized.
2006 Bendera ya Montenegro Montenegro 1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
Bendera ya Mali Mali Temedt, an organization against slavery and the discrimination of former slaves, is founded in Essakane.
2007 Bendera ya Mauritania Mauritania Slavery criminalized.
Bendera ya Paraguay Paraguay 1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
2008 Bendera ya Kazakhstan Kazakhstan
2009 Bendera ya Ufalme wa Muungano United Kingdom Section 71 of the Coroners and Justice Act 2009.[48]
2010 Bendera ya Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Slavery criminalized.[49]
2013 Kigezo:Country data Mississippi Ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment legally recorded.
2015 Bendera ya Ufalme wa Muungano United Kingdom Modern Slavery Act 2015.[50]
2017 Kigezo:Flagicon image Navajo Nation Criminalization of human trafficking.[51]
Bendera ya Chad Chad Slavery criminalized.[52]
2018 Kigezo:Country data Colorado Prison exception removed from Colorado's constitutional ban on slavery.[53]
2019 Bendera ya Iraq Iraq

Bendera ya Syria Syria
Defeat and debellatio of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant leads to the freeing of thousands of slaves, including Yazidi and Christian sex slaves.[54][55][56]
2020 Kigezo:Country data Utah

Kigezo:Country data Nebraska
Prison exception removed from both states' constitutional ban on slavery.[57][58]
Present Worldwide Although slavery is now abolished de jure in all countries,[19][20] de facto practices akin to it continue today in many places throughout the world, almost exclusively in Africa and Asia.[59][60][61][62]
Date Jurisdiction Description
1850 Bendera ya Marekani United States The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 requires the return of escaped slaves to their owners regardless of the state they are in.
Kigezo:Country data Empire of Brazil Brazil Eusébio de Queirós Act (Law 581 of 4 September 1850) criminalizing the maritime slave trade as piracy, and imposing other criminal sanctions on the importation of slaves (already banned in 1831).[63]
1851 Kigezo:Country data Empire of Brazil Brazil

Bendera ya Uruguay Uruguay

Bilateral treaty of October 12, Uruguay accepts returning to Brazil the escaped slaves from that country. Brazilians who owned land in Uruguay were allowed to have slaves in their properties.
Kigezo:Flagicon image Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Slavery nominally abolished along with opium, gambling, polygamy and foot binding.[64][65]
Flag of New Granada.svg New Granada Slavery abolished.[66] After years of laws that only purported a partial advancement towards abolition, President José Hilario López pushed Congress to pass total abolition on May 21. Former owners were compensated with government issued bonds.
[[Image:{{{flag alias-1845}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Ekuador]] Ecuador Slavery abolished in the country.[67]
Lagos Reduction of Lagos: The British capture the city of Lagos and replace King Kosoko with Akitoye because of the former's refusal to ban the slave trade.
1852 Kigezo:Country data Hawaii Hawaii 1852 Constitution officially declared slavery illegal.[68]
Bendera ya Ufalme wa Muungano United Kingdom

Lagos
Bilateral treaty banning the slave trade and human sacrifice.
1853 Kigezo:Country data Argentine Confederation Argentina Slavery abolished.[69]
1854 Bendera ya Peru Peru Slavery abolished by Ramón Castilla.[70]
Bendera ya Venezuela Venezuela Slavery abolished.
Kigezo:Country data Ottoman Empire Trade of Circassian children banned.[onesha uthibitisho]
1855 Kigezo:Country data Moldavia Slavery abolished.
1856 Kigezo:Country data Wallachia
1857 Bendera ya Marekani United States Dred Scott v. Sanford rules that black slaves and their descendants cannot gain American citizenship and that slaves are not entitled to freedom even if they live in a free state for years.
Kigezo:Flagicon image Egypt Firman banning the trade of Black African (Zanj) slaves.[onesha uthibitisho]
1858 Kigezo:Country data Ottoman Empire Zanj slave trade banned in the Middle East, Balkans and Cyprus.[onesha uthibitisho]
1859 Atlantic Ocean Definitive suppression of the trans-atlantic slave trade.
Bendera ya Marekani United States The Wyandotte Constitution establishes the future state of Kansas as a free state, after four years of armed conflict between pro-slavery and anti-slavery groups in the territory. Southern dominance in the U.S. Senate delays the admission of Kansas as a state until 1861.
Bendera ya Urusi Russia Kazakhs banned from having slaves, although slavery persists in some areas through the rest of the century.Kigezo:Better source needed
1860 Bendera ya Marekani United States Last slave ship to unload illegally on U.S. territory, the Clotilda.
1861 Bendera ya Urusi Russia The Emancipation reform of 1861 abolishes serfdom.
Bendera ya Marekani United States The election of Abraham Lincoln leads to the attempted secession of several slaveholding states and the American Civil War.
1862 Bendera ya Marekani United States

 United Kingdom
Bilateral treaty abolishing the slave trade (African Slave Trade Treaty Act).
Hispania Cuba Slave trade abolished.
Bendera ya Marekani United States Nathaniel Gordon becomes the only person hanged in U.S. history "for being engaged in the slave trade".
1863 Bendera ya Uholanzi Netherlands Slavery abolished in the colonies, emancipating 33,000 slaves in Surinam, 12,000 in Curaçao and Dependencies, and an indeterminate number in the East Indies.
Bendera ya Marekani United States Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation, freeing all slaves in Confederate-controlled areas. Most slaves in "border states" are freed by state action, and a separate law frees the slaves in Washington, D.C.
Denmark Iceland Exemptions introduced to serfdom under the Vistarband system.
Kigezo:Country data Chatham Islands Slavery abolished.
1864 Kigezo:Flagicon image Congress Poland Serfdom abolished.
1865 Bendera ya Marekani United States Slavery abolished, except as punishment for crime, by the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. It frees all remaining slaves, about 40,000, in the border slave states that did not secede. Thirty out of thirty-six states vote to ratify it; New Jersey, Delaware, Kentucky, and Mississippi vote against. Mississippi does not ratify it until 2013.[71]
Kigezo:Country data Republic of Texas Juneteenth: U.S. General Gordon Granger proclaims the end of slavery in Galveston.
Bendera ya Hispania Spain Spanish Abolitionist Society founded in Madrid by Julio Vizcarrondo, José Julián Acosta and Joaquín Sanromá.
1866 Marekani Indian Territory Slavery abolished.[72] US government treaties with the "Five Civilized Tribes" in the Indian Territory (the Cherokee Nation, Choctaw Nation, Chickasaw Nation, Muscogee Nation, and Seminole Nation), which allied with the Confederacy, required all five tribes to abolish slavery for renewed US recognition of their governments.
Iowa-StateSeal.svg Iowa Thirteenth Amendment ratified.
Kigezo:Country data New Jersey
1867 Bendera ya Hispania Spain Law of Repression and Punishment of the Slave Trade.
Bendera ya Marekani United States Peonage Act of 1867, mostly targeting use of Native American peons in New Mexico Territory. Slavery among native tribes in Alaska was abolished after the purchase from Russia in 1867.[73]
1868 Hispania Cuba Carlos Manuel de Céspedes and other independence leaders free their slaves and proclaim the independence of Cuba, starting the Ten Years War.
1869 Bendera ya Ureno Portugal Louis I abolishes slavery in all Portuguese territories and colonies.
1870 Bendera ya Hispania Spain Amidst great opposition from the Cuban and Puerto Rican planters, Segismundo Moret drafts a "Law of Free Wombs" that frees children of slaves, slaves older than 65 years, and slaves serving in the Spanish Army, beginning in 1872.
Kigezo:Country data Republic of Texas Thirteenth Amendment ratified.
1871 Kigezo:Country data Empire of Brazil Brazil Rio Branco Law (Law of Free Birth) makes the children born to slave mothers free.
Kigezo:Country data Ottoman Empire Slave trade criminalized.[onesha uthibitisho]
[[Image:{{{flag alias-1870}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Japani]] Japan Abolition of the han system or Japanese feudalism.
1873 Kigezo:Flagicon image Puerto Rico Slavery abolished.
 United Kingdom

Kigezo:Flagicon image Zanzibar

Kigezo:Flagicon image Madagascar
Triple treaty abolishing the slave trade.
1874 Bendera ya Gold Coast (British colony) Gold Coast Slavery abolished.
1879 Bulgaria Bulgaria Slavery abolished with independence. The Constitution states that any slave that enters Bulgarian territory is immediately freed.
1882 Kigezo:Country data Ottoman Empire A firman emancipates all slaves, white and black.
1884 Bendera ya Kamboja Cambodia Slavery abolished.
1885 Kigezo:Country data Empire of Brazil Brazil Sexagenarians Law (a.k.a. Saraiva-Cotegipe Act) passed, freeing all slaves over the age of 60 and creating other measures for the gradual abolition of slavery, such as a Manumissions Fund administered by the State.
1886 Hispania Cuba Slavery abolished.
1888 Kigezo:Country data Empire of Brazil Brazil Golden Law decreeing the total abolition of slavery with immediate effect.
1889 Kigezo:Country data Kingdom of Italy Italy An Italian court finds that Josephine Bakhita was never legally enslaved according to Italian, British, or Egyptian law and is a free woman.
1890  United Kingdom

Bendera ya Ufaransa France

Ujerumani Germany

Bendera ya Ureno Portugal

Congo Free State Congo

Kigezo:Country data Kingdom of Italy Italy

Bendera ya Hispania Spain

Bendera ya Uholanzi Netherlands

Bendera ya Ubelgiji Belgium

Bendera ya Urusi Russia

Bendera ya Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary

Kigezo:Flagicon image Sweden-Norway

Bendera ya Denmark Denmark

Bendera ya Marekani United States

Kigezo:Country data Ottoman Empire

Kigezo:Flagicon image Zanzibar

Kigezo:Flagicon image Persia

Brussels Conference Act – a collection of anti-slavery measures to put an end to the slave trade on land and sea, especially in the Congo Basin, the Ottoman Empire, and the East African coast.
1894 Korean Empire Korea Slavery abolished, but it survives in practice until 1930.[74]
Denmark Iceland Vistarband effectively abolished (but not de jure).
1895 Jamhuri ya China Taiwan Taiwan is annexed by Japan, where slavery has been abolished.
1895 Flag of Muhammad Ali.svg Egypt Slavery abolished.
Kigezo:Country data Kingdom of Italy First slaves freed[75]
1896 Kigezo:Flagicon image Madagascar Slavery abolished.
1897 Flag of Zanzibar Under British Rule.svg Zanzibar Slavery abolished.[76]
Uthai Siam Slave trade abolished.
Kigezo:Country data Ottoman Empire Bassora Children of freedmen issued separate certificates of liberation to avoid enslavement and separation from their parents.[onesha uthibitisho]
1899 Ufaransa Ndzuwani Slavery abolished.
Date Jurisdiction Description
1850 Bendera ya Marekani United States The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 requires the return of escaped slaves to their owners regardless of the state they are in.
Kigezo:Country data Empire of Brazil Brazil Eusébio de Queirós Act (Law 581 of 4 September 1850) criminalizing the maritime slave trade as piracy, and imposing other criminal sanctions on the importation of slaves (already banned in 1831).[77]
1851 Kigezo:Country data Empire of Brazil Brazil

Bendera ya Uruguay Uruguay

Bilateral treaty of October 12, Uruguay accepts returning to Brazil the escaped slaves from that country. Brazilians who owned land in Uruguay were allowed to have slaves in their properties.
Kigezo:Flagicon image Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Slavery nominally abolished along with opium, gambling, polygamy and foot binding.[78][79]
Flag of New Granada.svg New Granada Slavery abolished.[66] After years of laws that only purported a partial advancement towards abolition, President José Hilario López pushed Congress to pass total abolition on May 21. Former owners were compensated with government issued bonds.
[[Image:{{{flag alias-1845}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Ekuador]] Ecuador Slavery abolished in the country.[80]
Lagos Reduction of Lagos: The British capture the city of Lagos and replace King Kosoko with Akitoye because of the former's refusal to ban the slave trade.
1852 Kigezo:Country data Hawaii Hawaii 1852 Constitution officially declared slavery illegal.[68]
Bendera ya Ufalme wa Muungano United Kingdom

Lagos
Bilateral treaty banning the slave trade and human sacrifice.
1853 Kigezo:Country data Argentine Confederation Argentina Slavery abolished.[81]
1854 Bendera ya Peru Peru Slavery abolished by Ramón Castilla.[82]
Bendera ya Venezuela Venezuela Slavery abolished.
Kigezo:Country data Ottoman Empire Trade of Circassian children banned.[onesha uthibitisho]
1855 Kigezo:Country data Moldavia Slavery abolished.
1856 Kigezo:Country data Wallachia
1857 Bendera ya Marekani United States Dred Scott v. Sanford rules that black slaves and their descendants cannot gain American citizenship and that slaves are not entitled to freedom even if they live in a free state for years.
Kigezo:Flagicon image Egypt Firman banning the trade of Black African (Zanj) slaves.[onesha uthibitisho]
1858 Kigezo:Country data Ottoman Empire Zanj slave trade banned in the Middle East, Balkans and Cyprus.[onesha uthibitisho]
1859 Atlantic Ocean Definitive suppression of the trans-atlantic slave trade.
Bendera ya Marekani United States The Wyandotte Constitution establishes the future state of Kansas as a free state, after four years of armed conflict between pro-slavery and anti-slavery groups in the territory. Southern dominance in the U.S. Senate delays the admission of Kansas as a state until 1861.
Bendera ya Urusi Russia Kazakhs banned from having slaves, although slavery persists in some areas through the rest of the century.Kigezo:Better source needed
1860 Bendera ya Marekani United States Last slave ship to unload illegally on U.S. territory, the Clotilda.
1861 Bendera ya Urusi Russia The Emancipation reform of 1861 abolishes serfdom.
Bendera ya Marekani United States The election of Abraham Lincoln leads to the attempted secession of several slaveholding states and the American Civil War.
1862 Bendera ya Marekani United States

 United Kingdom
Bilateral treaty abolishing the slave trade (African Slave Trade Treaty Act).
Hispania Cuba Slave trade abolished.
Bendera ya Marekani United States Nathaniel Gordon becomes the only person hanged in U.S. history "for being engaged in the slave trade".
1863 Bendera ya Uholanzi Netherlands Slavery abolished in the colonies, emancipating 33,000 slaves in Surinam, 12,000 in Curaçao and Dependencies, and an indeterminate number in the East Indies.
Bendera ya Marekani United States Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation, freeing all slaves in Confederate-controlled areas. Most slaves in "border states" are freed by state action, and a separate law frees the slaves in Washington, D.C.
Denmark Iceland Exemptions introduced to serfdom under the Vistarband system.
Kigezo:Country data Chatham Islands Slavery abolished.
1864 Kigezo:Flagicon image Congress Poland Serfdom abolished.
1865 Bendera ya Marekani United States Slavery abolished, except as punishment for crime, by the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. It frees all remaining slaves, about 40,000, in the border slave states that did not secede. Thirty out of thirty-six states vote to ratify it; New Jersey, Delaware, Kentucky, and Mississippi vote against. Mississippi does not ratify it until 2013.[71]
Kigezo:Country data Republic of Texas Juneteenth: U.S. General Gordon Granger proclaims the end of slavery in Galveston.
Bendera ya Hispania Spain Spanish Abolitionist Society founded in Madrid by Julio Vizcarrondo, José Julián Acosta and Joaquín Sanromá.
1866 Marekani Indian Territory Slavery abolished.[83] US government treaties with the "Five Civilized Tribes" in the Indian Territory (the Cherokee Nation, Choctaw Nation, Chickasaw Nation, Muscogee Nation, and Seminole Nation), which allied with the Confederacy, required all five tribes to abolish slavery for renewed US recognition of their governments.
Iowa-StateSeal.svg Iowa Thirteenth Amendment ratified.
Kigezo:Country data New Jersey
1867 Bendera ya Hispania Spain Law of Repression and Punishment of the Slave Trade.
Bendera ya Marekani United States Peonage Act of 1867, mostly targeting use of Native American peons in New Mexico Territory. Slavery among native tribes in Alaska was abolished after the purchase from Russia in 1867.[84]
1868 Hispania Cuba Carlos Manuel de Céspedes and other independence leaders free their slaves and proclaim the independence of Cuba, starting the Ten Years War.
1869 Bendera ya Ureno Portugal Louis I abolishes slavery in all Portuguese territories and colonies.
1870 Bendera ya Hispania Spain Amidst great opposition from the Cuban and Puerto Rican planters, Segismundo Moret drafts a "Law of Free Wombs" that frees children of slaves, slaves older than 65 years, and slaves serving in the Spanish Army, beginning in 1872.
Kigezo:Country data Republic of Texas Thirteenth Amendment ratified.
1871 Kigezo:Country data Empire of Brazil Brazil Rio Branco Law (Law of Free Birth) makes the children born to slave mothers free.
Kigezo:Country data Ottoman Empire Slave trade criminalized.[onesha uthibitisho]
[[Image:{{{flag alias-1870}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Japani]] Japan Abolition of the han system or Japanese feudalism.
1873 Kigezo:Flagicon image Puerto Rico Slavery abolished.
 United Kingdom

Kigezo:Flagicon image Zanzibar

Kigezo:Flagicon image Madagascar
Triple treaty abolishing the slave trade.
1874 Bendera ya Gold Coast (British colony) Gold Coast Slavery abolished.
1879 Bulgaria Bulgaria Slavery abolished with independence. The Constitution states that any slave that enters Bulgarian territory is immediately freed.
1882 Kigezo:Country data Ottoman Empire A firman emancipates all slaves, white and black.
1884 Bendera ya Kamboja Cambodia Slavery abolished.
1885 Kigezo:Country data Empire of Brazil Brazil Sexagenarians Law (a.k.a. Saraiva-Cotegipe Act) passed, freeing all slaves over the age of 60 and creating other measures for the gradual abolition of slavery, such as a Manumissions Fund administered by the State.
1886 Hispania Cuba Slavery abolished.
1888 Kigezo:Country data Empire of Brazil Brazil Golden Law decreeing the total abolition of slavery with immediate effect.
1889 Kigezo:Country data Kingdom of Italy Italy An Italian court finds that Josephine Bakhita was never legally enslaved according to Italian, British, or Egyptian law and is a free woman.
1890  United Kingdom

Bendera ya Ufaransa France

Ujerumani Germany

Bendera ya Ureno Portugal

Congo Free State Congo

Kigezo:Country data Kingdom of Italy Italy

Bendera ya Hispania Spain

Bendera ya Uholanzi Netherlands

Bendera ya Ubelgiji Belgium

Bendera ya Urusi Russia

Bendera ya Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary

Kigezo:Flagicon image Sweden-Norway

Bendera ya Denmark Denmark

Bendera ya Marekani United States

Kigezo:Country data Ottoman Empire

Kigezo:Flagicon image Zanzibar

Kigezo:Flagicon image Persia

Brussels Conference Act – a collection of anti-slavery measures to put an end to the slave trade on land and sea, especially in the Congo Basin, the Ottoman Empire, and the East African coast.
1894 Korean Empire Korea Slavery abolished, but it survives in practice until 1930.[85]
Denmark Iceland Vistarband effectively abolished (but not de jure).
1895 Jamhuri ya China Taiwan Taiwan is annexed by Japan, where slavery has been abolished.
1895 Flag of Muhammad Ali.svg Egypt Slavery abolished.
Kigezo:Country data Kingdom of Italy First slaves freed[86]
1896 Kigezo:Flagicon image Madagascar Slavery abolished.
1897 Flag of Zanzibar Under British Rule.svg Zanzibar Slavery abolished.[87]
Uthai Siam Slave trade abolished.
Kigezo:Country data Ottoman Empire Bassora Children of freedmen issued separate certificates of liberation to avoid enslavement and separation from their parents.[onesha uthibitisho]
1899 Ufaransa Ndzuwani Slavery abolished.
Tangazo la Kukomesha Utumwa katika Makoloni ya Ufaransa, 27 Aprili 1848, 1849, na François Auguste Biard, Ikulu ya Versailles

Kukomeshwa kwa utumwa kulitokea kwa nyakati tofauti katika nchi tofauti. Ilitokea mara kwa mara mfululizo katika hatua zaidi ya moja - kwa mfano, kama kukomesha biashara ya watumwa katika nchi fulani, na kisha kukomesha utumwa katika milki zote. Kila hatua kawaida ilikuwa matokeo ya sheria tofauti au kitendo. Ratiba ya nyakati hii inaonyesha sheria za kukomesha au vitendo vilivyoorodheshwa kwa mpangilio. Pia inashughulikia kukomesha serfdom .

Ingawa utumwa ni kinyume cha sheria katika nchi zote leo, hali zinazolingana na utumwa zinaendelea katika maeneo mengi ulimwenguni, haswa barani Afrika na Asia, mara nyingi kwa msaada wa serikali. [88]

Nyakati za kale[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Wakati wa kale, jamii kadhaa huko Ulaya na Mashariki ya Kati zilidhibiti utumwa wa deni na utaratibu wa kufanana wa huduma ya deni (ambako mwia anaweza kudai kazi ya lazima kutoka kwa mdaiwa katika ulipaji wa deni lake; hapo mdaiwa hakuwa mtumwa rasmi na hakutazamiwa kama mali kamili, kama vile kumilikiwa daima, kuuzwa kwenye soko, au kuvuliwa jamii ).

Mabadiliko yaliyoorodheshwa hapa ni pamoja na sheria za Solon huko Athene, Lex Poetelia Papiria katika Jamhuri ya Roma, au kanuni zilizoainishwa katika Biblia ya Kiebrania katika Kitabu cha Kumbukumbu la Torati kwa ujumla zilidhibiti usambazaji wa watumwa na wahudumu wa deni kwa kukataza au kudhibiti utumwa wa vikundi fulani vyenye upendeleo (kwa hivyo, mageuzi ya Kirumi yalilinda raia wa Kirumi, mageuzi ya Athene yalilinda raia wa Athene, na sheria katika Kumbukumbu la Torati zilithibitisha uhuru kwa Mwebrania baada ya muda maalum wa huduma), lakini hakuna hata mmoja aliyekomesha utumwa kimsingi. Kanuni zote hazikuhusu wageni au wale wasiotazamiwa kuwa raia.

Tarehe Mamlaka Maelezo
Mapema karne ya sita KK Polis ya Athene Solon mtoa sheria wa sheria anafutilia mbali utumwa wa deni la raia wa Athene na kuwaachilia raia wote wa Athene ambao hapo awali walikuwa wametumwa. [89] [90] Utumwa wa mavazi ya Athene uliendelea kutekelezwa, na kupoteza dhamana ya deni kama chanzo kinachoshindana cha kazi ya lazima inaweza hata kuchochea utumwa kuwa muhimu zaidi katika uchumi wa Athene tangu sasa. [91]
Karne ya 3 KK Dola la Maurya Mfalme wa India Ashoka anafutilia mbali biashara ya watumwa na anahimiza watu kuwatendea watumwa vizuri. [92]
326 KK Jamhuri ya Kirumi Lex Poetelia Papiria afuta mikataba ya Nexum, aina ya kuahidi utumwa wa deni la raia maskini wa Kirumi kwa wadai matajiri kama usalama wa mikopo. Utumwa wa Chattel haukukomeshwa, na utumwa wa Kirumi ungeendelea kushamiri kwa karne nyingi.
9–12 BK Nasaba ya Xin (China ya kale) Wang Mang, mfalme wa kwanza na wa pekee wa Nasaba ya Xin, alinyakua kiti cha enzi cha China na kuanzisha mfululizo wa mageuzi makubwa, pamoja na kukomesha utumwa na mageuzi makubwa ya ardhi kutoka 9-12 BK [93] [94] Walakini, mageuzi haya na mengine aligeuza hisia maarufu na za wasomi dhidi ya Wang Mang, na utumwa ulirejeshwa baada ya kuuawa na umati wa watu wenye hasira mnamo 23 AD

Nyakati za Kati[hariri | hariri chanzo]

NB: Marekebisho mengi yaliyoorodheshwa yalirudishwa nyuma katika karne zilizofuata.
Date Jurisdiction Description
590–604 Kigezo:Country data Rome Pope Gregory I bans Jews from owning Christian slaves.
7th century Francia Queen Balthild, a former slave, and the Council of Chalon-sur-Saône (644–655) condemn the enslavement of Christians. Balthild purchases slaves, mostly Saxon, and manumits (frees) them.
741–752 Kigezo:Country data Rome Pope Zachary bans the sale of Christian slaves to Muslims, purchases all slaves acquired in the city by Venetian traders, and sets them free.
840 Triquetra-Cross.svg Carolingian Empire

Kigezo:Country data Republic of Venice
Pactum Lotharii: Venice pledges to neither buy Christian slaves in the Empire, nor sell them to Muslims. Venetian slavers switch to trading Slavs from the East.
873 Christendom Pope John VIII declares the enslavement of fellow Christians a sin and commands their release.[95]
~900 Byzantine Empire Emperor Leo VI the Wise prohibits voluntary self-enslavement and commands that such contracts shall be null and void and punishable by flagellation for both parties to the contract.
922 West Francia The Council of Koblenz equates the enslavement and sale of a Christian with homicide.[96]
956 Goryeo Dynasty (Korea) Slaves were freed on a large scale in 956 by the Goryeo dynasty. Gwangjong of Goryeo proclaimed the Slave and Land Act, an act that "deprived nobles of much of their manpower in the form of slaves and purged the old nobility, the meritorious subjects and their offspring and military lineages in great numbers".
960 Kigezo:Country data Republic of Venice Slave trade banned in the city under the rule of Doge Pietro IV Candiano.
1080 Kigezo:Flagicon image Norman England William the Conqueror prohibits the sale of any person to "heathens" (non-Christians) as slaves.
1100 Kigezo:Flagicon image Normandy Serfdom no longer present.
1102 Kigezo:Flagicon image Norman England The Council of London bans the slave trade: "Let no one dare hereafter to engage in the infamous business, prevalent in England, of selling men like animals."[97]
c. 1160 Kigezo:Flagicon image Norway The Gulating bans the sale of house slaves out of the country.[onesha uthibitisho]
1171 Kigezo:Country data Lordship of Ireland All English slaves in the island freed by the Council of Armagh.
1198 Kigezo:Flagicon image France Trinitarian Order founded with the purpose of redeeming war captives.
1214 Korčula The Statute of the Town abolishes slavery.[98]
1218 Kigezo:Country data Catalonia Aragon Mercedarians founded in Barcelona with the purpose of ransoming poor Christians enslaved by Muslims.
~1220 Kigezo:Flagicon image Holy Roman Empire The Sachsenspiegel, the most influential German code of law from the Middle Ages, condemns slavery as a violation of man's likeness to God.[99]
1245 Kigezo:Country data Catalonia Aragon James I bans Jews from owning Christian slaves, but allows them to own Muslims and Pagans.
1256 Kigezo:Country data Bologna Liber Paradisus promulgated. Slavery and serfdom abolished, all serfs in the commune are released.
1274 Royal Banner of Norway (14th Century).svg Norway Landslov (Land's Law) mentions only former slaves, implying that slavery was abolished in Norway.
1315 Flag of France (XII-XIII).svg France Louis X publishes a decree abolishing slavery and proclaiming that "France signifies freedom", that any slave setting foot on French ground should be freed.[100] However some limited cases of slavery continued until the 17th century in some of France's Mediterranean harbours in Provence, as well as until the 18th century in some of France's overseas territories.[101] Most aspects of serfdom are also eliminated de facto between 1315 and 1318.[102]
1318 Flag of France (XII-XIII).svg France King Philip V abolishes serfdom in his domain.[103]
1335 Royal Banner of Sweden (14th Century).svg Sweden Slavery abolished (including Sweden's territory in Finland). However, slaves are not banned entry into the country until 1813.[104] In the 18th and 19th centuries, slavery was practiced in the Swedish-ruled Caribbean island of Saint Barthélemy. Sweden never practiced serfdom, except in a few territories it later acquired which were ruled under a local legal code.
1347 Kigezo:Flagicon image Poland The Statutes of Casimir the Great issued in Wiślica emancipate all non-free people.[105]
1368 Ming dynasty (Chinese characters).svg Ming Dynasty The Hongwu Emperor abolishes all forms of slavery,[93] but it continues across China. Later rulers, as a way of limiting slavery in the absence of a prohibition, pass a decree that limits the number of slaves per household and extracts a severe tax from slave owners.[106]
1416 Kigezo:Country data Ragusa Slavery and slave trade abolished.
1423 Kigezo:Flagicon image Poland King orders to free all Christian slaves.[107]
1435 Kigezo:Flagicon image Canary Islands Pope Eugene IV's Sicut Dudum bans enslavement of Christians in the Canary Islands on pain of excommunication.[108] However non-Christian Guanches can still be enslaved.
1441 Bendera ya Ureno Portugal First slaves captured in Africa were brought to Portugal.
1477 Kigezo:Country data Crown of Castile Castile Isabella I bans slavery in newly conquered territories.
1480 ArmorialsegarXIII.jpg Galicia Remnant serfdom abolished by the Catholic Monarchs.
1486 Kigezo:Country data Crown of Aragon Aragon Ferdinand II promulgates the Sentence of Guadalupe, abolishing Carolingian-remnant serfdom (remença) in Old Catalonia.
1490 Kigezo:Country data Crown of Castile Castile After a long court case, the Catholic Monarchs order that all La Gomera natives enslaved in the aftermath of the 1488 rebellion must be freed and returned to the island at Conquistador Pedro de Vera's expense. De Vera is also relieved from his post as Governor of Gran Canaria in 1491.
1493 Queen Isabella bans the enslavement of Native Americans unless they are hostile or cannibalistic. Native Americans are ruled to be subjects of the Crown. Columbus is preempted from selling Indian captives in Seville and those already sold are tracked, purchased from their buyers and released.

1500-1700 (Mwanzo wa Nyakati za Kisasa)[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Date Jurisdiction Description
1503 Kigezo:Country data Crown of Castile Castile Native Americans allowed to travel to Spain only on their own free will.
1512 The Laws of Burgos establish limits to the treatment of natives in the Encomienda system.
1518 Kigezo:Country data Spanish Empire Spain Decree of Charles V establishing the importation of African slaves to the Americas, under monopoly of Laurent de Gouvenot, in an attempt to discourage enslavement of Native Americans.
1528 Charles V forbids the transportation of Native Americans to Europe, even on their own will, in an effort to curtail their enslavement. Encomiendas are banned from collecting tribute in gold with the reasoning that Natives were selling their children to get it.
1530 Outright slavery of Native Americans under any circumstance is banned. However, forced labor under the Encomienda continues.
1536 The Welser family is dispossessed of the Asiento monopoly (granted in 1528) following complaints about their treatment of Native American workers in Venezuela.
1537 New World Pope Paul III forbids slavery of the indigenous peoples of the Americas and any other population to be discovered, establishing their right to freedom and property (Sublimis Deus).[109]
1542 Kigezo:Country data Spanish Empire Spain The New Laws ban slave raiding in the Americas and abolish the slavery of natives, but replace it with other systems of forced labor like the repartimiento. Slavery of Black Africans continues.[101] New limits are imposed to the Encomienda.
1549 Encomiendas banned from using forced labor.
1550-1551 Valladolid Debate on the innate rights of indigenous peoples of the Americas.
1552 Bartolomé de las Casas, "the first to expose the oppression of indigenous peoples by Europeans in the Americas and to call for the abolition of slavery there."
1570 Bendera ya Ureno Portugal King Sebastian of Portugal bans the enslavement of Native Americans under Portuguese rule, allowing only the enslavement of hostile ones. This law was highly influenced by the Society of Jesus, which had missionaries in direct contact with Brazilian tribes.
1574 Kigezo:Country data Kingdom of England Last remaining serfs emancipated by Elizabeth I.[102]
[[Image:{{{flag alias-1535}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Philippines]] Philippines Slavery abolished by royal decree.[110]
1588 Kigezo:Flagicon image Lithuania The Third Statute of Lithuania abolishes slavery.[111]
1590 [[Image:{{{flag alias-1870}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Japani]] Japan Toyotomi Hideyoshi bans slavery except as punishment for criminals.
1595 Bendera ya Ureno Portugal Trade of Chinese slaves banned.[112]
1602 Kigezo:Country data Kingdom of England The Clifton Star Chamber Case set a precedent, that impressing / enslaving children to serve as actors was illegal.
1609 Kigezo:Country data Spanish Empire Spain The Moriscos, many of whom are serfs, are expelled from Peninsular Spain unless they become slaves voluntarily (known as moros cortados, "cut Moors") However, a large proportion avoid expulsion or manage to return.
1624 Bendera ya Ureno Portugal Enslavement of Chinese banned.[113][114]
1649 Russian coa 1589 grozny.png Russia The sale of Russian slaves to Muslims is banned.
1652 Ensign of New England (St George's Cross).svg Providence Plantations Roger Williams and Samuel Gorton work to pass legislation abolishing slavery in Providence Plantations, the first attempt of its kind in North America. It does not go into effect.
1677 Flag of the Maratha Empire.svg Maratha Empire Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj banned, freed and stopped import and export of all slaves under his Empire.
1679 [[Image:{{{flag alias-1668}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Urusi]] Russia Feodor III converts all Russian field slaves into serfs.
1683 Kigezo:Country data Spanish Empire Spanish Chile Slavery of Mapuche prisoners of war abolished.[115]
1687 Kigezo:Country data Spanish Empire Spanish Florida Fugitive slaves from the Thirteen Colonies granted freedom in return for conversion to Catholicism and four years of military service.
1688 English Red Ensign 1620.svg Pennsylvania The Germantown Quaker Petition Against Slavery is the first religious petition against African slavery in what would become the United States.

1701-1799 (Marehemu ya kisasa)[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Date Jurisdiction Description
1703 Kigezo:Flagicon image Ottoman Empire The forced conversion and induction of Christian children into the army known as Devshirme or "Blood Tax", is abolished.
1706 Kigezo:Country data Kingdom of England In Smith v. Browne & Cooper, Sir John Holt, Lord Chief Justice of England, rules that "as soon as a Negro comes into England, he becomes free. One may be a villein in England, but not a slave."
1711-1712 Banner of the Kingdom of Imereti.svg Imereti Slave trade banned by Mamia I of Imereti.
1712 Bendera ya Hispania Spain Moros cortados expelled.
1715 Kigezo:Flagicon image North Carolina

Kigezo:Flagicon image South Carolina
Native American slave trade in the American Southeast reduces with the outbreak of the Yamasee War.
1723  Russia Peter the Great converts all house slaves into house serfs, effectively making slavery illegal in Russia.
1723–1730 Seal of Qing dynasty.svg Qing Dynasty The Yongzheng emancipation seeks to free all slaves to strengthen the autocratic ruler through a kind of social leveling that creates an undifferentiated class of free subjects under the throne. Although these new regulations freed the vast majority of slaves, wealthy families continued to use slave labor into the twentieth century.[106]
1732 Kigezo:Flagicon image Georgia Province established without African slavery in sharp contrast to neighboring colony of Carolina. In 1738, James Oglethorpe warns against changing that policy, which would "occasion the misery of thousands in Africa." Native American slavery is legal throughout Georgia, however, and African slavery is later introduced in 1749.
1738 Hispania Spanish Florida Fort Mosé, the first legal settlement of free blacks in what is today the United States, is established. Word of the settlement sparks the Stono Rebellion in Carolina the following year.
1761 [[Image:{{{flag alias-1750}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Ureno]] Portugal The Marquis of Pombal bans the importation of slaves to metropolitan Portugal.
1766 Bendera ya Hispania Spain Muhammad III of Morocco purchases the freedom of all Muslim slaves in Seville, Cádiz, and Barcelona.
1770 Kigezo:Country data Circassia The Circassians of the Abdzakh region started a great revolution in Circassian territory in 1770. Classes such as slaves, nobles and princes were completely abolished. The Abdzakh Revolution coincides with the French Revolution. While many French nobles took refuge in Russia, some of the Circassian nobles took the same path and took refuge in Russia.
1772 Kigezo:Country data Kingdom of England Somersett's case rules that no slave can be forcibly removed from England. This case was generally taken at the time to have decided that the condition of slavery did not exist under English law in England and Wales, and resulted in the emancipation of the remaining ten to fourteen thousand slaves or possible slaves in England and Wales, who were mostly domestic servants.
1773 [[Image:{{{flag alias-1750}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Ureno]] Portugal A new decree by the Marquis of Pombal, signed by the king Dom José, emancipates fourth-generation slaves and every child born to an enslaved mother after the decree was published.
1774 Kigezo:Flagicon image East India Company Government of Bengal passed regulations 9 and 10 of 1774, prohibiting the trade in slaves without written deed, and the sale of anyone not already enslaved.[116]
1775 Kigezo:Flagicon image Virginia Dunmore's Proclamation promises freedom to slaves who desert the American revolutionaries and join the British Army as Black Loyalists.
Marekani Pennsylvania Pennsylvania Abolition Society formed in Philadelphia, the first abolition society within the territory that is now the United States of America.
Bendera ya Marekani United States Atlantic slave trade banned or suspended in the United Colonies during the Revolutionary War. This was a continuation of the Thirteen Colonies' non-importation agreements against Britain, as an attempt to cut all economic ties with Britain during the war.[117]
1777 Ureno Madeira Slavery abolished.
Kigezo:Country data Vermont Republic The Constitution of the Vermont Republic partially bans slavery, freeing men over 21 and women older than 18 at the time of its passage.[118] The ban is not strongly enforced.[119]
1778 Bendera ya Uskoti Scotland Joseph Knight successfully argues that Scots law cannot support the status of slavery.[120]
1779 Kigezo:Flagicon image British America The Philipsburg Proclamation frees all slaves who desert the American rebels, regardless of their willingness to fight for the Crown.
1780 Marekani Pennsylvania An Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery passed, freeing future children of slaves. Those born prior to the Act remain enslaved for life. The Act becomes a model for other Northern states. Last slaves freed 1847.
1783 Bendera ya Russian Empire Russian Empire Slavery abolished in the recently annexed Crimean Khanate.[121]
Ensign of New England (pine only).svg Massachusetts Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court rules slavery unconstitutional, a decision based on the 1780 Massachusetts constitution. All slaves are immediately freed.
Kigezo:Country data Holy Roman Empire Joseph II abolishes slavery in Bukovina.
ColonyofNewHampshireSeal.png New Hampshire Gradual abolition of slavery begins.
1784 Kigezo:Flagicon image Connecticut Gradual abolition of slavery, freeing future children of slaves, and later all slaves.
Kigezo:Flagicon image Rhode Island Gradual abolition of slavery begins.
1786 Kigezo:Flagicon image New South Wales A policy of completely banning slavery is adopted by governor-designate Arthur Phillip for the soon-to-be established colony.
1787 Bendera ya Marekani United States The United States in Congress Assembled passes the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, outlawing any new slavery in the Northwest Territories.
Kigezo:Flagicon image Sierra Leone Founded by Great Britain as a colony for emancipated slaves.[122]
 Great Britain Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade founded in Great Britain.
1788 Sir William Dolben's Act regulating the conditions on British slave ships enacted.
Kigezo:Country data Kingdom of France Abolitionist Society of the Friends of the Blacks founded in Paris.
 Denmark Limits imposed to serfdom under the Stavnsbånd system.
1789 Kigezo:Country data Kingdom of France Last remaining seigneurial privileges over peasants abolished.[123]
1791 Kigezo:Country data Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth The Constitution of May 3, 1791 introduced elements of political equality between townspeople and nobility, and placed the peasants under the protection of the government; thus, it mitigated the worst abuses of serfdom.
1791 Kigezo:Country data Kingdom of France Emancipation of second-generation slaves in the colonies.
1792 Kigezo:Country data Denmark-Norway Transatlantic slave trade declared illegal after 1803, though slavery continues in Danish colonies to 1848.[124]
1792 Ufalme wa Muungano Saint Helena The importation of slaves to the island of Saint Helena was banned in 1792, but the phased emancipation of over 800 resident slaves did not take place until 1827, which was still some six years before the British parliament passed legislation to ban slavery in the colonies.
1793 Kigezo:Flagicon image Saint-Domingue Commissioner Leger-Felicite Sonthonax abolishes slavery in the northern part of the colony. His colleague Etienne Polverel does the same in the rest of the territory in October.
Bendera ya Upper Canada Upper Canada Importation of slaves banned by the Act Against Slavery.
1794 Kigezo:Country data French First Republic Slavery abolished in all French territories and possessions.[125]
Bendera ya Marekani United States The Slave Trade Act bans both American ships from participating in the slave trade and the export of slaves in foreign ships.
Kigezo:Country data Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth The Proclamation of Połaniec, issued during the Kościuszko Uprising, ultimately abolished serfdom in Poland, and granted substantial civil liberties to all peasants.
1798 Kigezo:Country data French First Republic Occupied Malta Slavery banned in the islands after their capture by French forces under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte.[126]
1799 Kigezo:Country data New York Gradual emancipation act freeing the future children of slaves, and all slaves in 1827.[127]
Bendera ya Uskoti Scotland The Colliers (Scotland) Act 1799 ends the legal servitude or slavery of coal and salt miners that had been established in 1606.

1800-1829[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Date Jurisdiction Description
1800 Joseon State slavery banned in 1800. Private slavery continued until being banned in 1894.
1800 Bendera ya Marekani United States American citizens banned from investment and employment in the international slave trade in an additional Slave Trade Act.
1802 Kigezo:Country data French First Republic Napoleon re-introduces slavery in sugarcane-growing colonies.
Marekani Ohio State constitution abolishes slavery.
1803 Kigezo:Country data Denmark-Norway Abolition of Danish participation in the transatlantic slave trade takes effect on January 1.
1804 Kigezo:Country data New Jersey Slavery abolished.
[[Image:{{{flag alias-1803}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Haiti]] Haiti Haiti declares independence and abolishes slavery.
1804–1813 Kigezo:Flagicon image Serbia Local slaves emancipated.
1805  United Kingdom A bill for abolition passes in House of Commons but is rejected in the House of Lords.
1806 Bendera ya Marekani United States In a message to Congress, Thomas Jefferson calls for criminalizing the international slave trade, asking Congress to "withdraw the citizens of the United States from all further participation in those violations of human rights ... which the morality, the reputation, and the best of our country have long been eager to proscribe."
1807 International slave trade made a felony in Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves; this act takes effect on 1 January 1808, the earliest date permitted under the Constitution.
 United Kingdom Abolition of the Slave Trade Act abolishes slave trading throughout the British Empire. Captains fined £120 per slave transported. Patrols sent to the African coast to arrest slaving vessels. The West Africa Squadron (Royal Navy) is established to suppress slave trading; by 1865, nearly 150,000 people freed by anti-slavery operations.
Poland Warsaw Constitution abolishes serfdom.
Kigezo:Country data Prussia The Stein-Hardenberg Reforms abolish serfdom.[128]
Marekani Michigan Territory Judge Augustus Woodward denies the return of two slaves owned by a man in Windsor, Upper Canada. Woodward declares that any man "coming into this Territory is by law of the land a freeman."[129]
1808 Bendera ya Marekani United States Importation and exportation of slaves made a crime.[130]
1810 Kigezo:Flagicon image New Spain Independence leader Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla proclaimed the abolition of slavery three months after the start of the Independence of Mexico from Spain.
1811  United Kingdom Slave trading made a felony punishable by transportation for both British subjects and foreigners.
Bendera ya Hispania Spain The Cortes of Cádiz abolish the last remaining seigneurial rights.
Kigezo:Flagicon image British East India Company The Company issued regulations 10 of 1811, prohibiting the transport of slaves into Company territory, adding to the 1774 restrictions.[116]
Bendera ya Chile Chile The First National Congress approves a proposal of Manuel de Salas that declares Freedom of Wombs, freeing the children of slaves born in Chilean territory, regardless of their parents' condition. The slave trade is banned and the slaves who stay for more than six months in Chilean territory are automatically declared freedmen.
1812 Bendera ya Hispania Spain The Cortes of Cádiz passes the Spanish Constitution of 1812, giving citizenship and equal rights to all residents in Spain and her territories, excluding slaves. During deliberations, Deputies José Miguel Guridi y Alcocer and Agustín Argüelles unsuccessfully argue for the abolition of slavery.
1813 Kigezo:Flagicon image New Spain Independence leader José María Morelos y Pavón declares slavery abolished in Mexico in the documents Sentimientos de la Nación.
Kigezo:Flagicon image United Provinces Law of Wombs passed by the Assembly of Year XIII. Slaves born after 31 January 1813 will be granted freedom when they are married, or on their 16th birthday for women and 20th for men, and upon their manumission will be given land and tools to work it.[131]
1814 Kigezo:Flagicon image United Provinces After the occupation of Montevideo, all slaves born in modern Uruguayan territory are declared free.
Bendera ya Uholanzi Netherlands Slave trade abolished.
1815 Kigezo:Country data French First Republic Napoleon abolishes the slave trade.
[[Image:{{{flag alias-1750}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Ureno]] Portugal Slave trade banned north of the Equator in return for a £750,000 payment by Britain.
Hispania Florida British withdrawing after the War of 1812 leave a fully armed fort in the hands of maroons, escaped slaves and their descendants, and their Seminole allies. Becomes known as Negro Fort.
 United Kingdom

[[Image:{{{flag alias-1750}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Ureno]] Portugal

Kigezo:Flagicon image Sweden-Norway

Kigezo:Country data Bourbon Restoration

Austria Austria

Bendera ya Urusi Russia

Bendera ya Hispania Spain

Kigezo:Country data Prussia
The Congress of Vienna declares its opposition to slavery.[132]
1816 Eestimaa värvid.svg Estonia Serfdom abolished.
Hispania Florida Negro Fort destroyed in the Battle of Negro Fort by U.S. forces under the command of General Andrew Jackson.
AlgierRegency2.svg Algeria Algiers bombarded by the British and Dutch navies in an attempt to end North African piracy and slave raiding in the Mediterranean. 3,000 slaves freed.
1817 Flag of the Courland Governorate.svg Courland Serfdom abolished.
Bendera ya Hispania Spain Ferdinand VII signs a cedula banning the importation of slaves in Spanish possessions beginning in 1820, in return for a £400,000 payment from Britain. However, some slaves are still smuggled in after this date. Both slave ownership and internal commerce in slaves remained legal.
Kigezo:Flagicon image Venezuela Simon Bolivar calls for the abolition of slavery.
Kigezo:Country data New York 4 July 1827 set as date to free all ex-slaves from indenture.[133]
Flag of Argentina (alternative).svg United Provinces Constitution supports the abolition of slavery, but does not ban it.
1818  United Kingdom

Bendera ya Hispania Spain
Bilateral treaty abolishing the slave trade.[134]
 United Kingdom

[[Image:{{{flag alias-1816}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Ureno]] Portugal
Bilateral treaty abolishing the slave trade.
Kigezo:Country data Bourbon Restoration Slave trade banned.
 United Kingdom

Bendera ya Uholanzi Netherlands
Bilateral treaty taking additional measures to enforce the 1814 ban on slave trading.
1819 Livonian colours.svg Livonia Serfdom abolished.
Ufalme wa Muungano Upper Canada Attorney-General John Robinson declares all black residents free.
Kigezo:Country data Hawaii The ancient Hawaiian kapu system is abolished during the ʻAi Noa, and with it the distinction between the kauwā slave class and the makaʻāinana (commoners).[135]
1820 Bendera ya Marekani United States The Compromise of 1820 bans slavery north of the 36º 30' line; the Act to Protect the Commerce of the United States and Punish the Crime of Piracy is amended to consider the maritime slave trade as piracy, making it punishable with death.
Indiana-StateSeal.svg Indiana The supreme court orders almost all slaves in the state to be freed in Polly v. Lasselle.
Bendera ya Hispania Spain The 1817 abolition of the slave trade takes effect.[136]
1821 Kigezo:Country data First Mexican Empire The Plan of Iguala frees the slaves born in Mexico.
Bendera ya Marekani United States

Bendera ya Hispania Spain
In accordance with Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819, Florida becomes a territory of the United States. A main reason was Spain's inability or unwillingness to capture and return escaped slaves.
Kigezo:Flagicon image Peru Abolition of slave trade and implementation of a plan to gradually end slavery.
Kigezo:Country data Gran Colombia Emancipation for sons and daughters born to slave mothers, program for compensated emancipation set.[66]
1822 Haiti Haiti Jean Pierre Boyer annexes Spanish Haiti and abolishes slavery there.
Marekani Liberia Founded by the American Colonization Society as a colony for emancipated slaves.
Kigezo:Country data Muscat Muscat and Oman

Bendera ya Ufalme wa Muungano United Kingdom
First bilateral treaty limiting the slave trade in Zanzibar.
1823 Bendera ya Chile Chile Slavery abolished.
 United Kingdom The Society for the Mitigation and Gradual Abolition of Slavery Throughout the British Dominions (Anti-Slavery Society) is founded.
Bendera ya Ugiriki Greece Prohibition of slavery is enshrined in the Greek Constitution of 1823, during the Greek War of Independence.[137]
1824 Bendera ya Mexiko Mexico The new constitution effectively abolishes slavery.
Flag of the Federal Republic of Central America.svg Central America Slavery abolished.
1825 Kigezo:Flagicon image Uruguay Importation of slaves banned.
Haiti Haiti France, with warships at the ready, demanded Haiti compensate France for its loss of slaves and its slave colony
1827  United Kingdom

Kigezo:Flagicon image Sweden-Norway
Bilateral treaty abolishing the slave trade.
Kigezo:Country data New York Last vestiges of slavery abolished. Children born between 1799 and 1827 are indentured until age 25 (females) or age 28 (males).[138]
Ufalme wa Muungano Saint Helena Phased emancipation of over 800 resident slaves, some six years before the British parliament passed legislation to ban slavery in all colonies.
1829 Bendera ya Mexiko Mexico Last slaves freed just as the first president of partial African ancestry (Vicente Guerrero) is elected.

1830-1849[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Date Jurisdiction Description
1830 Kigezo:Flagicon image Coahuila y Tejas Mexican President Anastasio Bustamante attempts to implement the abolition of slavery. To circumvent the law, Anglo-Texans declare their slaves "indentured servants for life".[139]
1830 Bendera ya Uruguay Uruguay Slavery abolished.
Kigezo:Country data Ottoman Empire Mahmud II issues a firman freeing all white slaves.
1831 Kigezo:Flagicon image Bolivia Slavery abolished.
Kigezo:Country data Empire of Brazil Brazil Law of 7 November 1831, abolishing the maritime slave trade, banning any importation of slaves, and granting freedom to slaves illegally imported into Brazil. The law was seldom enforced prior to 1850, when Brazil, under British pressure, adopted additional legislation to criminalize the importation of slaves.
1832 Kigezo:Country data Kingdom of Greece Slavery abolished with independence.
1832 Kigezo:Flagicon image Coahuila y Tejas Anahuac Disturbances: Juan Davis Bradburn, American-born Mexican officer at Anahuac,Texas, confronts slave-owning American settlers, enforcing Mexican abolition of slavery and refusing to hand over two escaped slaves.
1834  United Kingdom The Slavery Abolition Act 1833 comes into force, abolishing slavery throughout most of the British Empire but on a gradual basis over the next six years.[140] Legally frees 700,000 in the West Indies, 20,000 in Mauritius, and 40,000 in South Africa. The exceptions are the territories controlled by the East India Company and Ceylon.
Kigezo:Country data July Monarchy French Society for the Abolition of Slavery founded in Paris.
1835 Kigezo:Country data Principality of Serbia Freedom granted to all slaves in the moment they step on Serb soil.[141]
 United Kingdom

Kigezo:Country data July Monarchy
Bilateral treaties abolishing the slave trade.
 United Kingdom

Bendera ya Denmark Denmark
Bendera ya Peru Peru A decree of Felipe Santiago Salaverry re-legalizes the importation of slaves from other Latin American countries. The line "no slave shall enter Peru without becoming free" is taken out of the Constitution in 1839.
1836 Bendera ya Ureno Portugal Prime Minister Sá da Bandeira bans the transatlantic slave trade and the importation and exportation of slaves to or from the Portuguese colonies south of the equator.
Kigezo:Country data Republic of Texas Slavery made legal again with independence.
1837 Bendera ya Hispania Spain Slavery abolished outside of the colonies.
1838  United Kingdom All slaves in the colonies become free after a period of forced apprenticeship following the Slavery Abolition Act 1833. Society for the Mitigation and Gradual Abolition of Slavery Throughout the British Dominions (now London Anti-Slavery Society) winds up.
1839  United Kingdom The British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society (after several changes, now known as Anti-Slavery International) is founded.
Kigezo:Flagicon image East India Company The Indian indenture system is abolished in territories controlled by the Company, but this is reversed in 1842.
Papal States Catholic Church Pope Gregory XVI's In supremo apostolatus resoundingly condemns slavery and the slave trade.
1840  United Kingdom

Bendera ya Venezuela Venezuela
Bilateral treaty abolishing the slave trade.
 United Kingdom First World Anti-Slavery Convention meets in London.
 New Zealand Taking slaves banned by Treaty of Waitangi.[142]
1841  United Kingdom

Kigezo:Country data July Monarchy

Bendera ya Urusi Russia

Kigezo:Country data Prussia

Kigezo:Country data Austrian Empire Austria
Quintuple Treaty agreeing to suppress the slave trade.
Bendera ya Marekani United States United States v. The Amistad finds that the slaves of La Amistad were illegally enslaved and were legally allowed, as free men, to fight their captors by any means necessary.
1842  United Kingdom

Bendera ya Ureno Portugal
Bilateral treaty extending the enforcement of the slave trade ban to Portuguese ships south of the Equator.
Bendera ya Paraguay Paraguay Law for the gradual abolition of slavery passed.
1843 Kigezo:Flagicon image East India Company The Indian Slavery Act, 1843, Act V abolishes slavery in territories controlled by the Company.
 United Kingdom

Bendera ya Uruguay Uruguay
Bilateral treaties abolishing the slave trade.
 United Kingdom

[[Image:{{{flag alias-1824}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Mexiko]] Mexico
 United Kingdom

Bendera ya Chile Chile
 United Kingdom

Flag of Bolivia (state, 1826-1851).svg Bolivia
1844 Kigezo:Country data Moldavia Mihail Sturdza abolishes slavery in Moldavia.
1845  United Kingdom 36 Royal Navy ships assigned to the Anti-Slavery Squadron, making it one of the largest fleets in the world.
Seal of Illinois.svg Illinois In Jarrot v. Jarrot, the Illinois Supreme Court frees the last indentured ex-slaves in the state who were born after the Northwest Ordinance.[143]
1846 Bendera ya Tunisia Tunisia Slavery abolished under Ahmad I ibn Mustafa bey rule.[144]
1847 Kigezo:Country data Ottoman Empire Slave trade from Africa abolished.[145]
Kigezo:Flagicon image Saint Barthélemy Last slaves freed.
Kigezo:Country data Pennsylvania The last indentured ex-slaves, born before 1780 (fewer than 100 in the 1840 census) are freed.
Denmark Danish West Indies Royal edict ruling the freedom of children born from female slaves and the total abolition of slavery after 12 years. Dissatisfaction causes a slave rebellion in Saint Croix the next year.
1848 Kigezo:Country data Austrian Empire Austria Serfdom abolished.[146][147][148]
Kigezo:Country data French Second Republic Slavery abolished in the colonies. Gabon is founded as a settlement for emancipated slaves.
Denmark Danish West Indies Governor Peter von Scholten declares the immediate and total emancipation of all slaves in an attempt to end the slave revolt. For this he is recalled and tried for treason, but the charges are later dropped.
Bendera ya Denmark Denmark Last remains of the Stavnsbånd effectively abolished.
 United Kingdom

Kigezo:Country data Muscat Muscat and Oman
Bilateral treaties abolishing the slave trade.
1849  United Kingdom

Kigezo:Country data Trucial States
Ufalme wa Muungano Sierra Leone The Royal Navy destroys the slave factory of Lomboko.

1850-1899[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Date Jurisdiction Description
1850 Bendera ya Marekani United States The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 requires the return of escaped slaves to their owners regardless of the state they are in.
Kigezo:Country data Empire of Brazil Brazil Eusébio de Queirós Act (Law 581 of 4 September 1850) criminalizing the maritime slave trade as piracy, and imposing other criminal sanctions on the importation of slaves (already banned in 1831).[149]
1851 Kigezo:Country data Empire of Brazil Brazil

Bendera ya Uruguay Uruguay

Bilateral treaty of October 12, Uruguay accepts returning to Brazil the escaped slaves from that country. Brazilians who owned land in Uruguay were allowed to have slaves in their properties.
Kigezo:Flagicon image Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Slavery nominally abolished along with opium, gambling, polygamy and foot binding.[150][151]
Flag of New Granada.svg New Granada Slavery abolished.[66] After years of laws that only purported a partial advancement towards abolition, President José Hilario López pushed Congress to pass total abolition on May 21. Former owners were compensated with government issued bonds.
[[Image:{{{flag alias-1845}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Ekuador]] Ecuador Slavery abolished in the country.[152]
Lagos Reduction of Lagos: The British capture the city of Lagos and replace King Kosoko with Akitoye because of the former's refusal to ban the slave trade.
1852 Kigezo:Country data Hawaii Hawaii 1852 Constitution officially declared slavery illegal.[68]
Bendera ya Ufalme wa Muungano United Kingdom

Lagos
Bilateral treaty banning the slave trade and human sacrifice.
1853 Kigezo:Country data Argentine Confederation Argentina Slavery abolished.[153]
1854 Bendera ya Peru Peru Slavery abolished by Ramón Castilla.[154]
Bendera ya Venezuela Venezuela Slavery abolished.
Kigezo:Country data Ottoman Empire Trade of Circassian children banned.[onesha uthibitisho]
1855 Kigezo:Country data Moldavia Slavery abolished.
1856 Kigezo:Country data Wallachia
1857 Bendera ya Marekani United States Dred Scott v. Sanford rules that black slaves and their descendants cannot gain American citizenship and that slaves are not entitled to freedom even if they live in a free state for years.
Kigezo:Flagicon image Egypt Firman banning the trade of Black African (Zanj) slaves.[onesha uthibitisho]
1858 Kigezo:Country data Ottoman Empire Zanj slave trade banned in the Middle East, Balkans and Cyprus.[onesha uthibitisho]
1859 Atlantic Ocean Definitive suppression of the trans-atlantic slave trade.
Bendera ya Marekani United States The Wyandotte Constitution establishes the future state of Kansas as a free state, after four years of armed conflict between pro-slavery and anti-slavery groups in the territory. Southern dominance in the U.S. Senate delays the admission of Kansas as a state until 1861.
Bendera ya Urusi Russia Kazakhs banned from having slaves, although slavery persists in some areas through the rest of the century.Kigezo:Better source needed
1860 Bendera ya Marekani United States Last slave ship to unload illegally on U.S. territory, the Clotilda.
1861 Bendera ya Urusi Russia The Emancipation reform of 1861 abolishes serfdom.
Bendera ya Marekani United States The election of Abraham Lincoln leads to the attempted secession of several slaveholding states and the American Civil War.
1862 Bendera ya Marekani United States

 United Kingdom
Bilateral treaty abolishing the slave trade (African Slave Trade Treaty Act).
Hispania Cuba Slave trade abolished.
Bendera ya Marekani United States Nathaniel Gordon becomes the only person hanged in U.S. history "for being engaged in the slave trade".
1863 Bendera ya Uholanzi Netherlands Slavery abolished in the colonies, emancipating 33,000 slaves in Surinam, 12,000 in Curaçao and Dependencies, and an indeterminate number in the East Indies.
Bendera ya Marekani United States Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation, freeing all slaves in Confederate-controlled areas. Most slaves in "border states" are freed by state action, and a separate law frees the slaves in Washington, D.C.
Denmark Iceland Exemptions introduced to serfdom under the Vistarband system.
Kigezo:Country data Chatham Islands Slavery abolished.
1864 Kigezo:Flagicon image Congress Poland Serfdom abolished.
1865 Bendera ya Marekani United States Slavery abolished, except as punishment for crime, by the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. It frees all remaining slaves, about 40,000, in the border slave states that did not secede. Thirty out of thirty-six states vote to ratify it; New Jersey, Delaware, Kentucky, and Mississippi vote against. Mississippi does not ratify it until 2013.[71]
Kigezo:Country data Republic of Texas Juneteenth: U.S. General Gordon Granger proclaims the end of slavery in Galveston.
Bendera ya Hispania Spain Spanish Abolitionist Society founded in Madrid by Julio Vizcarrondo, José Julián Acosta and Joaquín Sanromá.
1866 Marekani Indian Territory Slavery abolished.[155] US government treaties with the "Five Civilized Tribes" in the Indian Territory (the Cherokee Nation, Choctaw Nation, Chickasaw Nation, Muscogee Nation, and Seminole Nation), which allied with the Confederacy, required all five tribes to abolish slavery for renewed US recognition of their governments.
Iowa-StateSeal.svg Iowa Thirteenth Amendment ratified.
Kigezo:Country data New Jersey
1867 Bendera ya Hispania Spain Law of Repression and Punishment of the Slave Trade.
Bendera ya Marekani United States Peonage Act of 1867, mostly targeting use of Native American peons in New Mexico Territory. Slavery among native tribes in Alaska was abolished after the purchase from Russia in 1867.[156]
1868 Hispania Cuba Carlos Manuel de Céspedes and other independence leaders free their slaves and proclaim the independence of Cuba, starting the Ten Years War.
1869 Bendera ya Ureno Portugal Louis I abolishes slavery in all Portuguese territories and colonies.
1870 Bendera ya Hispania Spain Amidst great opposition from the Cuban and Puerto Rican planters, Segismundo Moret drafts a "Law of Free Wombs" that frees children of slaves, slaves older than 65 years, and slaves serving in the Spanish Army, beginning in 1872.
Kigezo:Country data Republic of Texas Thirteenth Amendment ratified.
1871 Kigezo:Country data Empire of Brazil Brazil Rio Branco Law (Law of Free Birth) makes the children born to slave mothers free.
Kigezo:Country data Ottoman Empire Slave trade criminalized.[onesha uthibitisho]
[[Image:{{{flag alias-1870}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Japani]] Japan Abolition of the han system or Japanese feudalism.
1873 Kigezo:Flagicon image Puerto Rico Slavery abolished.
 United Kingdom

Kigezo:Flagicon image Zanzibar

Kigezo:Flagicon image Madagascar
Triple treaty abolishing the slave trade.
1874 Bendera ya Gold Coast (British colony) Gold Coast Slavery abolished.
1879 Bulgaria Bulgaria Slavery abolished with independence. The Constitution states that any slave that enters Bulgarian territory is immediately freed.
1882 Kigezo:Country data Ottoman Empire A firman emancipates all slaves, white and black.
1884 Bendera ya Kamboja Cambodia Slavery abolished.
1885 Kigezo:Country data Empire of Brazil Brazil Sexagenarians Law (a.k.a. Saraiva-Cotegipe Act) passed, freeing all slaves over the age of 60 and creating other measures for the gradual abolition of slavery, such as a Manumissions Fund administered by the State.
1886 Hispania Cuba Slavery abolished.
1888 Kigezo:Country data Empire of Brazil Brazil Golden Law decreeing the total abolition of slavery with immediate effect.
1889 Kigezo:Country data Kingdom of Italy Italy An Italian court finds that Josephine Bakhita was never legally enslaved according to Italian, British, or Egyptian law and is a free woman.
1890  United Kingdom

Bendera ya Ufaransa France

Ujerumani Germany

Bendera ya Ureno Portugal

Congo Free State Congo

Kigezo:Country data Kingdom of Italy Italy

Bendera ya Hispania Spain

Bendera ya Uholanzi Netherlands

Bendera ya Ubelgiji Belgium

Bendera ya Urusi Russia

Bendera ya Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary

Kigezo:Flagicon image Sweden-Norway

Bendera ya Denmark Denmark

Bendera ya Marekani United States

Kigezo:Country data Ottoman Empire

Kigezo:Flagicon image Zanzibar

Kigezo:Flagicon image Persia

Brussels Conference Act – a collection of anti-slavery measures to put an end to the slave trade on land and sea, especially in the Congo Basin, the Ottoman Empire, and the East African coast.
1894 Korean Empire Korea Slavery abolished, but it survives in practice until 1930.[157]
Denmark Iceland Vistarband effectively abolished (but not de jure).
1895 Jamhuri ya China Taiwan Taiwan is annexed by Japan, where slavery has been abolished.
1895 Flag of Muhammad Ali.svg Egypt Slavery abolished.
Kigezo:Country data Kingdom of Italy First slaves freed[158]
1896 Kigezo:Flagicon image Madagascar Slavery abolished.
1897 Flag of Zanzibar Under British Rule.svg Zanzibar Slavery abolished.[159]
Uthai Siam Slave trade abolished.
Kigezo:Country data Ottoman Empire Bassora Children of freedmen issued separate certificates of liberation to avoid enslavement and separation from their parents.[onesha uthibitisho]
1899 Ufaransa Ndzuwani Slavery abolished.
Date Jurisdiction Description
1952 Bendera ya Qatar Qatar Slavery abolished.[1]
1953 Bendera ya Australia Australia

Bendera ya Kanada Canada

Bendera ya Liberia Liberia

Bendera ya New Zealand New Zealand

Bendera ya Afrika Kusini South Africa

Bendera ya Uswisi Switzerland

Bendera ya Ufalme wa Muungano United Kingdom
1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1954 [[Image:{{{flag alias-1930}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Afghanistan]] Afghanistan

Bendera ya Austria Austria

Bendera ya Kuba Cuba

Bendera ya Denmark Denmark

Bendera ya Misri Egypt

Bendera ya Ufini Finland

Bendera ya Uhindi India

Bendera ya Italia Italy

Bendera ya Mexiko Mexico

Bendera ya Monako Monaco

Bendera ya Uswidi Sweden

Bendera ya Syria Syria
1955 Bendera ya Ekuador Ecuador

Kigezo:Country data Kingdom of Greece Greece

Kigezo:Country data Kingdom of Iraq Iraq

Bendera ya Israel Israel

Bendera ya Uholanzi Netherlands

Bendera ya Pakistan Pakistan

[[Image:{{{flag alias-1936}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Philippines]] Philippines

Bendera ya Republic of China Taiwan

Bendera ya Uturuki Turkey
1956 Kigezo:Country data United Nations Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery.
Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Byelorussia

Bendera ya Soviet Union Soviet Union

Marekani United States

Bendera ya South Vietnam South Vietnam
1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1957 Kigezo:Country data United Nations The Abolition of Forced Labour Convention eliminates some exceptions admitted in the 1930 Forced Labour Convention.
Bendera ya Albania Albania

Bendera ya Libya Libya

[[Image:{{{flag alias-1948}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Myanmar]] Myanmar

Bendera ya Norwei Norway

Bendera ya Romania Romania

Bendera ya Sudan Sudan
1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1958 Bendera ya Bhutan Bhutan Slavery abolished.
Bendera ya Hungaria Hungary

Bendera ya Sri Lanka Ceylon
1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1959 Bendera ya Jordan Jordan

Bendera ya Moroko Morocco

Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Ukraine
1960 Bendera ya Niger Niger Slavery abolished.[2]
Bendera ya Mali Mali First president Modibo Keita makes the effective abolition of slavery a prominent goal of the government. However, his efforts are largely abandoned during the dictatorship of Moussa Traoré (1968–1991).
1961 Bendera ya Nigeria Nigeria 1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1961 Bendera ya Moroko Morocco Slavery abolished under Moroccan Constitution, although domestic slave practices continued.
1962 Bendera ya Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Slavery abolished.
Bendera ya Yemen Arab Republic North Yemen
Bendera ya Ubelgiji Belgium

Bendera ya Sierra Leone Sierra Leone

Bendera ya Tanganyika (nchi) Tanganyika
1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1963 Bendera ya Algeria Algeria

Bendera ya Ufaransa France

Bendera ya Guinea Guinea

Bendera ya Kuwait Kuwait

Bendera ya Nepal Nepal
1964 Kigezo:Country data Trucial States Slavery abolished.[onesha uthibitisho]
Bendera ya Jamaika Jamaica

Bendera ya Madagaska Madagascar

Bendera ya Niger Niger



Bendera ya Uganda Uganda

1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1965 Bendera ya Malawi Malawi
1966 Bendera ya Brazil Brazil

Bendera ya Malta Malta

Bendera ya Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago

Bendera ya Tunisia Tunisia
1967 Bendera ya People's Democratic Republic of Yemen South Yemen Slavery abolished.[160]
1968 [[Image:{{{flag alias-1945}}}|22x20px|border|Bendera ya Mongolia]] Mongolia 1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1969 Kigezo:Country data Ethiopian Empire Ethiopia

Bendera ya Morisi Mauritius
1970 Bendera ya Omani Oman Slavery abolished.[161]
1972 Bendera ya Fiji Fiji 1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1973 Bendera ya West Germany West Germany

Bendera ya Mali Mali

Bendera ya Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia

Bendera ya Zambia Zambia
1974 Bendera ya Lesotho Lesotho
1976 Bendera ya The Bahamas Bahamas

Bendera ya Barbados Barbados
Kigezo:Country data Kentucky Thirteenth Amendment ratified.
1981 Bendera ya Mauritania Mauritania Slavery abolished,[162] though the ban was not enforced and many people continued to be held as slaves.[163]
Bendera ya Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Bendera ya Solomon Islands Solomon Islands
1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1982 Bendera ya Papua Guinea Mpya Papua New Guinea
1983 Bendera ya Bolivia Bolivia

Bendera ya Guatemala Guatemala
1984 Bendera ya Kamerun Cameroon
1985 Bendera ya Bangladesh Bangladesh
1986 Bendera ya Kupro Cyprus

Bendera ya Mauritania Mauritania

Bendera ya Nikaragua Nicaragua
1987 Bendera ya Yemen Arab Republic North Yemen
1990 Bendera ya Bahrain Bahrain

Bendera ya Saint Lucia Saint Lucia
1992 Bendera ya Kroatia Croatia
1993 Bendera ya Bosnia na Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina
1994 Bendera ya Dominica Dominica
1995 Bendera ya Chile Chile
Kigezo:Country data Mississippi The Mississippi Legislature unanimously votes to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution after a clerk discovers it never had. It is the last eligible state in the union to do so. However, state officials fail to send the required documentation to the state register.[7]
1996 Bendera ya Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
Bendera ya Eire Ireland Last Magdalene Laundry closes.
1997 Bendera ya Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan

Bendera ya Turkmenistan Turkmenistan
1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
1998 Bendera ya Ghana Ghana Forced ritual servitude of girls in Ewe shrines banned.
2001 Serbia na Montenegro Yugoslavia

Bendera ya Uruguay Uruguay
1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
2003 Bendera ya Niger Niger Slavery criminalized.
2006 Bendera ya Montenegro Montenegro 1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
Bendera ya Mali Mali Temedt, an organization against slavery and the discrimination of former slaves, is founded in Essakane.
2007 Bendera ya Mauritania Mauritania Slavery criminalized.
Bendera ya Paraguay Paraguay 1926 Slavery Convention ratified.
2008 Bendera ya Kazakhstan Kazakhstan
2009 Bendera ya Ufalme wa Muungano United Kingdom Section 71 of the Coroners and Justice Act 2009.[164]
2010 Bendera ya Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Slavery criminalized.[165]
2013 Kigezo:Country data Mississippi Ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment legally recorded.
2015 Bendera ya Ufalme wa Muungano United Kingdom Modern Slavery Act 2015.[166]
2017 Kigezo:Flagicon image Navajo Nation Criminalization of human trafficking.[167]
Bendera ya Chad Chad Slavery criminalized.[168]
2018 Kigezo:Country data Colorado Prison exception removed from Colorado's constitutional ban on slavery.[169]
2019 Bendera ya Iraq Iraq

Bendera ya Syria Syria
Defeat and debellatio of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant leads to the freeing of thousands of slaves, including Yazidi and Christian sex slaves.[170][171][172]
2020 Kigezo:Country data Utah

Kigezo:Country data Nebraska
Prison exception removed from both states' constitutional ban on slavery.[173][174]
Present Worldwide Although slavery is now abolished de jure in all countries,[19][20] de facto practices akin to it continue today in many places throughout the world, almost exclusively in Africa and Asia.[175][176][177][178]

 

  • Campbell, Gwyn. Muundo wa Utumwa katika Bahari ya Hindi Afrika na Asia (Frank Cass, 2004)
  • Davis, David Brion. Utumwa wa Kibinadamu: Kuinuka na Kuanguka kwa Utumwa katika Ulimwengu Mpya (2008)
  • Drescher, Seymour. Kukomesha: Historia ya Utumwa na Uhasama (Cambridge University Press, 2009)
  • Drescher, Seymour. Njia kutoka kwa utumwa: Uhamasishaji wa Briteni na wakoloni katika mtazamo wa ulimwengu (Routledge, 2018).
  • Drescher, Seymour. "Asasi za Kiraia na Njia za Kukomesha." Jarida la Utumwa wa Ulimwenguni 1.1 (2016): 44-71.
  • Finkelman, Paul, na Joseph Miller, eds. Macmillan Encyclopedia ya Utumwa Ulimwenguni (2 vol 1998)
  • Finkelman, Paul, na Seymour Drescher. "Shida ya milele ya utumwa katika sheria za kimataifa: Kuua vampire wa utamaduni wa wanadamu." Mapitio ya Sheria ya Jimbo la Michigan (2017): 755+ mkondoni .
  • Utumwa katika Ulimwengu wa Kiarabu (1989)
  • Kusaga, Peter. Kuwapinga Watumwa; Kampeni ya Royal Navy dhidi ya Biashara ya Watumwa ya Atlantiki (LB Tauris 2016) 
  • Hinks, Peter, na John McKivigan, eds. Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition (2 juz. 2007) 795pp; 
  • Upendo, Paul. Mabadiliko katika Utumwa: Historia ya Utumwa Barani Afrika (Cambridge UP, 1983)
  • Mathews, Nathaniel. . Jarida la utumwa wa ulimwengu 4.2 (2019): 226-265.
  • Morgan, Kenneth. Utumwa na Dola ya Uingereza: Kutoka Afrika hadi Amerika (2008)
  • Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. Ensaiklopidia ya Kihistoria ya Utumwa Ulimwenguni (1997)
  • Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. Ensaiklopidia ya Ukombozi na Kukomesha katika Ulimwengu wa Transatlantic (2007)
  • Sinha, Manisha. "Shida ya Kukomesha Wakati wa Ubepari Shida ya Utumwa katika Enzi ya Mapinduzi, 1770-1823, na David Brion Davis." Mapitio ya Kihistoria ya Amerika 124.1 (2019): 144-163.

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 BBC – Religions – Islam: Slavery in Islam. bbc.co.uk. Iliwekwa mnamo 21 March 2018."BBC – Religions – Islam: Slavery in Islam". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 21 March 2018. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "1962abolition" defined multiple times with different content
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Anti-Slavery International (28 October 2008). Niger slavery: Background. The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. Iliwekwa mnamo 7 October 2014.Anti-Slavery International (28 October 2008). "Niger slavery: Background". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 7 October 2014. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "NigerSlavery" defined multiple times with different content
  3. Miers, Suzanne (2003). Slavery in the Twentieth Century: The Evolution of a Global Problem. ISBN 9780759103405. 
  4. Miers, Suzanne (21 March 2018). Slavery in the Twentieth Century: The Evolution of a Global Problem. Rowman Altamira. ISBN 9780759103405. 
  5. Bales, Kevin (2004). Disposable People. ISBN 0520243846. 
  6. "Mauritanian MPs pass slavery law". 
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Mar. 16, 1995 | Mississippi Ratifies Abolition of Slavery, 130 Years After its Adoption. calendar.eji.org."Mar. 16, 1995 | Mississippi Ratifies Abolition of Slavery, 130 Years After its Adoption". calendar.eji.org. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "auto1" defined multiple times with different content
  8. Coroners and Justice Act 2009.
  9. Human rights in Tindouf refugee camp.
  10. Modern Slavery Act 2015.
  11. Navajo Sign Law Criminalizing Human Trafficking – Indian Country Media Network. indiancountrymedianetwork.com. Iliwekwa mnamo 21 March 2018.
  12. Refugees. Refworld | 2018 Trafficking in Persons Report - Chad. Refworld.
  13. Colorado Abolishes Prison Slavery in Huge Win for Prisoners Rights. Microsoft News (7 November 2018).
  14. Life Under Islamic State: Child Slaves | Voice of America - English. www.voanews.com.
  15. Callimachi (27 July 2017). Freed From ISIS, Yazidi Women Return in 'Severe Shock'.
  16. Five years a slave of Islamic State. www.newstatesman.com.
  17. "Utahns vote to remove slavery as a punishment for a crime from constitution". 
  18. "Nebraska votes to remove slavery language from state constitution". 
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 Kevin Bales (2004). New Slavery: A Reference Handbook. ABC-CLIO, 4. ISBN 978-1-85109-815-6. Kevin Bales (2004). New Slavery: A Reference Handbook. ABC-CLIO. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-85109-815-6. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Bales2004" defined multiple times with different content
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 Shelley K. White (27 May 2014). Sociologists in Action on Inequalities: Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality. SAGE Publications, 43. ISBN 978-1-4833-1147-0. Shelley K. White; Jonathan M. White; Kathleen Odell Korgen (27 May 2014). Sociologists in Action on Inequalities: Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality. SAGE Publications. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-4833-1147-0. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "WhiteWhite2014" defined multiple times with different content
  21. Smith (17 October 2013). 30 million people still live in slavery, human rights group says. NBC News. Iliwekwa mnamo 7 October 2014.
  22. Kelly (3 April 2013). Modern-day slavery: an explainer. The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. Iliwekwa mnamo 7 October 2014.
  23. Ethics – Slavery: Modern Slavery. BBC. Iliwekwa mnamo 7 October 2014.
  24. "Qatar's Showcase of Shame". 
  25. Miers, Suzanne (2003). Slavery in the Twentieth Century: The Evolution of a Global Problem. ISBN 9780759103405. 
  26. Miers, Suzanne (21 March 2018). Slavery in the Twentieth Century: The Evolution of a Global Problem. Rowman Altamira. ISBN 9780759103405. 
  27. Bales, Kevin (2004). Disposable People. ISBN 0520243846. 
  28. "Mauritanian MPs pass slavery law". 
  29. Coroners and Justice Act 2009.
  30. Human rights in Tindouf refugee camp.
  31. Modern Slavery Act 2015.
  32. Navajo Sign Law Criminalizing Human Trafficking – Indian Country Media Network. indiancountrymedianetwork.com. Iliwekwa mnamo 21 March 2018.
  33. Refugees. Refworld | 2018 Trafficking in Persons Report - Chad. Refworld.
  34. Colorado Abolishes Prison Slavery in Huge Win for Prisoners Rights. Microsoft News (7 November 2018).
  35. Life Under Islamic State: Child Slaves | Voice of America - English. www.voanews.com.
  36. Callimachi (27 July 2017). Freed From ISIS, Yazidi Women Return in 'Severe Shock'.
  37. Five years a slave of Islamic State. www.newstatesman.com.
  38. "Utahns vote to remove slavery as a punishment for a crime from constitution". 
  39. "Nebraska votes to remove slavery language from state constitution". 
  40. Smith (17 October 2013). 30 million people still live in slavery, human rights group says. NBC News. Iliwekwa mnamo 7 October 2014.
  41. Kelly (3 April 2013). Modern-day slavery: an explainer. The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. Iliwekwa mnamo 7 October 2014.
  42. Ethics – Slavery: Modern Slavery. BBC. Iliwekwa mnamo 7 October 2014.
  43. "Qatar's Showcase of Shame". 
  44. Miers, Suzanne (2003). Slavery in the Twentieth Century: The Evolution of a Global Problem. ISBN 9780759103405. 
  45. Miers, Suzanne (21 March 2018). Slavery in the Twentieth Century: The Evolution of a Global Problem. Rowman Altamira. ISBN 9780759103405. 
  46. Bales, Kevin (2004). Disposable People. ISBN 0520243846. 
  47. "Mauritanian MPs pass slavery law". 
  48. Coroners and Justice Act 2009.
  49. Human rights in Tindouf refugee camp.
  50. Modern Slavery Act 2015.
  51. Navajo Sign Law Criminalizing Human Trafficking – Indian Country Media Network. indiancountrymedianetwork.com. Iliwekwa mnamo 21 March 2018.
  52. Refugees. Refworld | 2018 Trafficking in Persons Report - Chad. Refworld.
  53. Colorado Abolishes Prison Slavery in Huge Win for Prisoners Rights. Microsoft News (7 November 2018).
  54. Life Under Islamic State: Child Slaves | Voice of America - English. www.voanews.com.
  55. Callimachi (27 July 2017). Freed From ISIS, Yazidi Women Return in 'Severe Shock'.
  56. Five years a slave of Islamic State. www.newstatesman.com.
  57. "Utahns vote to remove slavery as a punishment for a crime from constitution". 
  58. "Nebraska votes to remove slavery language from state constitution". 
  59. Smith (17 October 2013). 30 million people still live in slavery, human rights group says. NBC News. Iliwekwa mnamo 7 October 2014.
  60. Kelly (3 April 2013). Modern-day slavery: an explainer. The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. Iliwekwa mnamo 7 October 2014.
  61. Ethics – Slavery: Modern Slavery. BBC. Iliwekwa mnamo 7 October 2014.
  62. "Qatar's Showcase of Shame". 
  63. David T. Haberly (1972). Abolitionism in Brazil: Anti-slavery and anti-slave. Luso-Brazilian, 30–46. 
  64. Chinese Cultural Studies: The Taiping Rebellion, 1851-1864. Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 1 December 2015. Iliwekwa mnamo 2015-11-25.
  65. Hays. TAIPING REBELLION – Facts and Details. factsanddetails.com. Iliwekwa mnamo 21 March 2018.
  66. 66.0 66.1 66.2 66.3 Aguilera, Miguel (1965). La Legislacion y el derecho en Colombia, Historia extensa de Colombia 14. Bogota: Lemer, 428–442. Aguilera, Miguel (1965). La Legislacion y el derecho en Colombia. Historia extensa de Colombia. 14. Bogota: Lemer. pp. 428–442. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "aguilera" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "aguilera" defined multiple times with different content
  67. Esclavitud – Historia del Ecuador – Enciclopedia Del Ecuador. enciclopediadelecuador.com (28 March 2016). Iliwekwa mnamo 21 March 2018.
  68. 68.0 68.1 68.2 Wong, Helen (1987). Hawaii's Royal History. Honolulu: Bess Press, 101. ISBN 978-0-935848-48-9. Wong, Helen; Rayson, Ann (1987). Hawaii's Royal History. Honolulu: Bess Press. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-935848-48-9. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "WongRayson1987" defined multiple times with different content
  69. Robert J. Cottrol (2013). The Long, Lingering Shadow: Slavery, Race, and Law in the American Hemisphere. University of Georgia Press, 121. ISBN 9780820344058. 
  70. Jorge Basadre (1998). Historia de la República del Perú. 1822 - 1933, 8th 4 (in es), Ricardo Parma University Press, 833–835. 
  71. 71.0 71.1 71.2 Ben Waldron (February 18, 2013). Mississippi Officially Abolishes Slavery, Ratifies 13th Amendment. ABC News. Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya June 27, 2013. Iliwekwa mnamo April 23, 2013.Ben Waldron (18 February 2013). "Mississippi Officially Abolishes Slavery, Ratifies 13th Amendment". ABC News. Archived from the original on 27 June 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2013. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Mississippi13thAmendmentABCNews" defined multiple times with different content
  72. Hornsby, Jr., Alton (2008). A Companion to African-American History, 127. ISBN 9781405137355. 
  73. Leland Donald (1997). Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America, 244. ISBN 9780520918115. 
  74. Junius P. Rodriguez (1997). The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery. ABC-CLIO, xxiii. 
  75. The Somali Bantu Their History and Culture.
  76. Swahili Coast. National Geographic (2002-10-17). Iliwekwa mnamo 2013-08-28.
  77. David T. Haberly (1972). Abolitionism in Brazil: Anti-slavery and anti-slave. Luso-Brazilian, 30–46. 
  78. Chinese Cultural Studies: The Taiping Rebellion, 1851-1864. Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 1 December 2015. Iliwekwa mnamo 2015-11-25.
  79. Hays. TAIPING REBELLION – Facts and Details. factsanddetails.com. Iliwekwa mnamo 21 March 2018.
  80. Esclavitud – Historia del Ecuador – Enciclopedia Del Ecuador. enciclopediadelecuador.com (28 March 2016). Iliwekwa mnamo 21 March 2018.
  81. Robert J. Cottrol (2013). The Long, Lingering Shadow: Slavery, Race, and Law in the American Hemisphere. University of Georgia Press, 121. ISBN 9780820344058. 
  82. Jorge Basadre (1998). Historia de la República del Perú. 1822 - 1933, 8th 4 (in es), Ricardo Parma University Press, 833–835. 
  83. Hornsby, Jr., Alton (2008). A Companion to African-American History, 127. ISBN 9781405137355. 
  84. Leland Donald (1997). Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America, 244. ISBN 9780520918115. 
  85. Junius P. Rodriguez (1997). The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery. ABC-CLIO, xxiii. 
  86. The Somali Bantu Their History and Culture.
  87. Swahili Coast. National Geographic (2002-10-17). Iliwekwa mnamo 2013-08-28.
  88. https://www.globalslaveryindex.org/2018/data/maps/#prevalence
  89. Athenaion Politeia 12.4, quoting Solon s:Athenian Constitution#12
  90. Garland, Robert (2008). Ancient Greece: Everyday Life in the Birthplace of Western Civilization. New York City, New York: Sterling, 13. ISBN 978-1-4549-0908-8. 
  91. Finley, M. I. (1980). Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology. New York: Viking Press, 78. 
  92. Siddharth Kara (10 October 2017). Modern Slavery: A Global Perspective. Columbia University Press, 18. ISBN 978-0-231-52802-3. “Ashoka outlawed the slave trade in the Mauryan Empire” 
  93. 93.0 93.1 (2011) Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition. Greenwood Publishing Group, 155. ISBN 9780313331435. 
  94. Harcourt Education (December 2006). Encyclopedia of Slave Resistance and Rebellion. ISBN 9780313036736. 
  95. Denzinger, Heinrich P. (2012). Compendium of Creeds, Definitions, and Declarations on Matters of Faith and Morals. Santa Francisco, California: Ignatius Press, 229. ISBN 978-0-89870-746-5. 
  96. Internet History Sourcebooks Project. sourcebooks.fordham.edu.
  97. Pijper, Frederik (1909). "The Christian Church and Slavery in the Middle Ages". The American Historical Review (American Historical Association) 14 (4): 681. doi:10.1086/ahr/14.4.675 .
  98. Statute of Korcula from 1214 – Large Print. Korculainfo.com. Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 16 March 2013. Iliwekwa mnamo 2013-08-28.
  99. Backhaus, Jürgen (2012-05-31). Hans A. Frambach in Jürgen Georg Backhaus: "The Liberation of the Serfs", 33. ISBN 9781461400851. 
  100. Miller, Christopher L. (11 January 2008). The French Atlantic triangle: literature and culture of the slave trade, 20. ISBN 978-0822341512. 
  101. 101.0 101.1 David Eltis (25 July 2011). The Cambridge World History of Slavery: Volume 3, AD 1420 – AD 1804. Cambridge University Press, 142–143–326–327–331–332–333–602. ISBN 978-0-521-84068-2. 
  102. 102.0 102.1 Disappearance of Serfdom. France. England. Italy. Germany. Spain.. www.1902encyclopedia.com. Iliwekwa mnamo 21 March 2018.
  103. PITTORESQUE (2018-01-23). 23 janvier 1318 : le roi Philippe V affranchit les serfs de ses domaines (fr-FR). La France pittoresque. Histoire de France, Patrimoine, Tourisme, Gastronomie. Iliwekwa mnamo 2021-03-20.
  104. John Roach (1985). Police and public order in Europe. Taylor & Francis, 256. ISBN 978-0-7099-2242-1. 
  105. Samuel Augustus Mitchell (1859). A general view of the world: comprising a physical, political, and statistical account of its grand divisions ... with their empires, kingdoms, republics, principalities, &c.: exhibiting the history of geographical science and the progress of discovery to the present time ... Illustrated by upwards of nine hundred engravings .... H. Cowperthwait & Co., 335. 
  106. 106.0 106.1 (2011) Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition. Greenwood Publishing Group, 156. ISBN 9780313331435. 
  107. Mizerski, Witold (2013). Tablice historyczne (in Polish). Warsaw: adamantan, 113. ISBN 978-83-7350-246-8. 
  108. Sicut Dudum Pope Eugene IV – January 13, 1435 – Papal Encyclicals. papalencyclicals.net (13 January 1435). Iliwekwa mnamo 21 March 2018.
  109. Denzinger, Heinrich P. (2012). Compendium of Creeds, Definitions, and Declarations on Matters of Faith and Morals. Santa Francisco, California: Ignatius Press, 367–8. ISBN 978-0-89870-746-5. 
  110. Seijas, Tatiana (23 June 2014). Asian Slaves in Colonial Mexico: From Chinos to Indians, 36. ISBN 9781107063129. 
  111. Dembkowski, Harry E. (1982). The union of Lublin, Polish federalism in the golden age. East European Monographs, 1982, 271. ISBN 978-0-88033-009-1. 
  112. Maria Suzette Fernandes Dias (2007). Legacies of slavery: comparative perspectives. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 71. ISBN 978-1-84718-111-4. 
  113. Gary João de Pina-Cabral (2002). Between China and Europe: person, culture and emotion in Macao. Berg Publishers, 114. ISBN 0-8264-5749-5. 
  114. Gary João de Pina-Cabral (2002). Between China and Europe: person, culture and emotion in Macao. Berg Publishers, 115. ISBN 0-8264-5749-5. 
  115. Valenzuela Márquez, Jaime (2009). "Esclavos mapuches. Para una historia del secuestro y deportación de indígenas en la colonia", Historias de racismo y discriminación en Chile (in es), 234–236. 
  116. 116.0 116.1 Andrea Major (2012). Slavery, Abolitionism and Empire in India, 1772-1843. Liverpool University Press, 52–55. ISBN 978-1-84631-758-3. 
  117. Finkelman, Paul (2007). The Abolition of The Slave Trade. New York Public Library. Iliwekwa mnamo 25 June 2014.
  118. Constitution of Vermont (1777). State of Vermont (1777). Iliwekwa mnamo 7 June 2014.
  119. Lee Ann. UVM historian examines Vermont's mixed history of slavery and abolition.
  120. Slavery, freedom or perpetual servitude? – the Joseph Knight case. The National Archives of Scotland. Iliwekwa mnamo 5 July 2014.
  121. Historical survey > Slave societies. Britannica.com. Iliwekwa mnamo 2013-08-28.
  122. A. B. C. Sibthorpe, The history of Sierra Leone (1970) p. 8
  123. 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
  124. Rodriguez, Junius P. (1997). The Historical encyclopedia of world slavery, Volume 1. ISBN 9780874368857. 
  125. David B. Gaspar, David P. Geggus, A Turbulent time: the French Revolution and the Greater Caribbean (1997) p. 60
  126. "Slavery in Malta". 
  127. David N. Gellman (2008). Emancipating New York: The Politics of Slavery and Freedom, 1777–1827. LSU Press, 2, 215. ISBN 9780807134658. 
  128. Kantowicz, Edward R. (1975). Polish-American politics in Chicago, 1888–1940. University of Chicago Press, 6. ISBN 978-0-226-42380-7. 
  129. Woodward. Slavery in the Northwest Territory. Leelanau Communications, Inc. Iliwekwa mnamo 10 September 2012.
  130. Jean Allain (2012). The Legal Understanding of Slavery: From the Historical to the Contemporary, 121. ISBN 9780199660469. 
  131. Carole Elizabeth Boyce Davies (2008). Encyclopedia of the African Diaspora: vol 1, 95. ISBN 9781851097050. 
  132. Mark Jarrett (2014). The Congress of Vienna and its Legacy, 144. ISBN 9781784530563. 
  133. Higginbotham, pp. 146–47.
  134. "Chronological Table of the Statutes" (1959 edition)
  135. Levin, Stephenie Seto (1968). "The Overthrow of the Kapu System in Hawaii". Journal of the Polynesian Society (Wellington, NZ: Polynesian Society) 77: 402–430. http://www.jps.auckland.ac.nz/document/Volume_77_1968/Volume_77,_No._4/The_overthrow_of_the_kapu_system_in_Hawaii,_by_Stephenie_Seto_Levin,_p_402_-_430/p1.
  136. Slavery- A Timeline.
  137. Greek Constitution of 1823, article 9, https://www.hellenicparliament.gr/UserFiles/f3c70a23-7696-49db-9148-f24dce6a27c8/syn07.pdf
  138. David N. Gellman (2008). Emancipating New York: The Politics of Slavery and Freedom, 1777–1827, 2, 215. ISBN 9780807134658. 
  139. Alwyn Barr (1996). Black Texans: A History of African Americans in Texas, 1528–1995, 15. ISBN 9780806128788. 
  140. Oldfield (February 17, 2011). British Anti-slavery. BBC History. BBC. Iliwekwa mnamo January 2, 2017. “the new legislation called for the gradual abolition of slavery. Everyone over the age of six on August 1, 1834, when the law went into effect, was required to serve an apprenticeship of four years in the case of domestics and six years in the case of field hands”
  141. Serbian: Сретењски устав – Устав Књажества Сербије. Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 4 October 2013. Iliwekwa mnamo 2013-06-10.
  142. Slavery in Colonial Times (2010).
  143. Dexter (2004). Slavery In Illinois: How and Why the Underground Railroad Existed. Freedom Trails: Legacies of Hope. Illinois Freedom Trail Commission. Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 4 February 2016. Iliwekwa mnamo 6 February 2016.
  144. The Abolition of Slavery in Tunisia 1841-1846 | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. www.unesco.org.
  145. Ehûd R. Tôledānô (1998). Slavery and Abolition in the Ottoman Middle East, 11. ISBN 9780295802428. 
  146. Anderson, Kevin (15 May 2010). Marx at the margins: on nationalism, ethnicity, and non-western societies. University of Chicago Press, 77. ISBN 978-0-226-01983-3. 
  147. Smith, William Frank (November 2010). Catholic Church Milestones: People and Events That Shaped the Institutional Church. Dog Ear Publishing, 65. ISBN 978-1-60844-821-0. 
  148. Kamusella, Tomasz (2007). Silesia and Central European nationalisms: the emergence of national and ethnic groups in Prussian Silesia and Austrian Silesia, 1848–1918. Purdue University Press, 73. ISBN 978-1-55753-371-5. 
  149. David T. Haberly (1972). Abolitionism in Brazil: Anti-slavery and anti-slave. Luso-Brazilian, 30–46. 
  150. Chinese Cultural Studies: The Taiping Rebellion, 1851-1864. Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 1 December 2015. Iliwekwa mnamo 2015-11-25.
  151. Hays. TAIPING REBELLION – Facts and Details. factsanddetails.com. Iliwekwa mnamo 21 March 2018.
  152. Esclavitud – Historia del Ecuador – Enciclopedia Del Ecuador. enciclopediadelecuador.com (28 March 2016). Iliwekwa mnamo 21 March 2018.
  153. Robert J. Cottrol (2013). The Long, Lingering Shadow: Slavery, Race, and Law in the American Hemisphere. University of Georgia Press, 121. ISBN 9780820344058. 
  154. Jorge Basadre (1998). Historia de la República del Perú. 1822 - 1933, 8th 4 (in es), Ricardo Parma University Press, 833–835. 
  155. Hornsby, Jr., Alton (2008). A Companion to African-American History, 127. ISBN 9781405137355. 
  156. Leland Donald (1997). Aboriginal Slavery on the Northwest Coast of North America, 244. ISBN 9780520918115. 
  157. Junius P. Rodriguez (1997). The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery. ABC-CLIO, xxiii. 
  158. The Somali Bantu Their History and Culture.
  159. Swahili Coast. National Geographic (2002-10-17). Iliwekwa mnamo 2013-08-28.
  160. Miers, Suzanne (2003). Slavery in the Twentieth Century: The Evolution of a Global Problem. ISBN 9780759103405. 
  161. Miers, Suzanne (21 March 2018). Slavery in the Twentieth Century: The Evolution of a Global Problem. Rowman Altamira. ISBN 9780759103405. 
  162. Bales, Kevin (2004). Disposable People. ISBN 0520243846. 
  163. "Mauritanian MPs pass slavery law". 
  164. Coroners and Justice Act 2009.
  165. Human rights in Tindouf refugee camp.
  166. Modern Slavery Act 2015.
  167. Navajo Sign Law Criminalizing Human Trafficking – Indian Country Media Network. indiancountrymedianetwork.com. Iliwekwa mnamo 21 March 2018.
  168. Refugees. Refworld | 2018 Trafficking in Persons Report - Chad. Refworld.
  169. Colorado Abolishes Prison Slavery in Huge Win for Prisoners Rights. Microsoft News (7 November 2018).
  170. Life Under Islamic State: Child Slaves | Voice of America - English. www.voanews.com.
  171. Callimachi (27 July 2017). Freed From ISIS, Yazidi Women Return in 'Severe Shock'.
  172. Five years a slave of Islamic State. www.newstatesman.com.
  173. "Utahns vote to remove slavery as a punishment for a crime from constitution". 
  174. "Nebraska votes to remove slavery language from state constitution". 
  175. Smith (17 October 2013). 30 million people still live in slavery, human rights group says. NBC News. Iliwekwa mnamo 7 October 2014.
  176. Kelly (3 April 2013). Modern-day slavery: an explainer. The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. Iliwekwa mnamo 7 October 2014.
  177. Ethics – Slavery: Modern Slavery. BBC. Iliwekwa mnamo 7 October 2014.
  178. "Qatar's Showcase of Shame".