Nenda kwa yaliyomo

Guatemala

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
República de Guatemala
Jamhuri ya Guatemala
Bendera ya Guatemala Nembo ya Guatemala
Bendera Nembo
Kaulimbiu ya taifa: Kihispania: El País de la Eterna Primavera
(maana yake: "Nchi ya Kivuli cha Milele")
Wimbo wa taifa: Himno Nacional de Guatemala
Lokeshen ya Guatemala
Mji mkuu Guatemala City
14°38′ N 90°33′ W
Mji mkubwa nchini Guatemala City
Lugha rasmi Kihispania (rasmi)
(lugha za asili 23 zimetambuliwa rasmi lakini mambo yote huendeshwa kwa Kihispania)
Serikali Jamhuri ya kirais
Bernardo Arévalo
Uhuru
Tarehe
Kutoka Hispania
15 Septemba 1821
Eneo
 - Jumla
 - Maji (%)
 
108,890 km² (106th)
0.4
Idadi ya watu
 - Julai 2023 kadirio
 - Msongamano wa watu
 
18,917, 714[1] (69th)
173,7/km² ()
Fedha Quetzal (GTQ)
Saa za eneo
 - Kiangazi (DST)
(UTC-6)
(UTC)
Intaneti TLD .gt
Kodi ya simu +502

-



Guatemala (pia Gwatemala; kutoka lugha ya Kinahuatl Cuauhtēmallān, "kwenye miti mingi") ni nchi ya Amerika ya Kati. Inapakana na Bahari ya Pasifiki upande wa Magharibi, na Atlantiki upande wa Mashariki, tena na nchi za Mexiko, Belize, Honduras na El Salvador.

Kanisa la San Andrés Xecul.

Eneo lake ni km2 108,889 ambamo wanaishi watu 17,980,803 (2023).

Wakazi wengi (56%) ni machotara waliotokana na Waindio na Wazungu au watu wenye asili ya Ulaya tu. Waindio wenyewe ni 43.4%.

Lugha rasmi na inayotumika zaidi (69.9%) ni Kihispania, lakini zipo pia nyingine 23 za wakazi asili.

Upande wa dini, wakazi wengi ni wafuasi wa Yesu katika Kanisa Katoliki (45%) na madhehebu mengine ya Ukristo, hasa ya Uprotestanti (42%). Asilimia 11 hawana dini.

Tazama pia

[hariri | hariri chanzo]
  • Adas, M.; Stearns; Schwarz, S.B. (2009). Turbulent Passage: A Global History of the Twentieth Century (toleo la 4th). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. ISBN 978-0205700325. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |authorformat= ignored (help)
  • Aguirre, Lily (1949). The land of eternal spring: Guatemala, my beautiful country. Patio Press. uk. 253. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |authorformat= ignored (help)
  • Kigezo:Aut, :Kigezo:Aut (1945). ¡Ecce Pericles! (kwa Spanish). Guatemala: Tipografía Nacional. {{cite book}}: Check |first= value (help); Invalid |ref=harv (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Aycinena, Pedro de (1854). Concordato entre la Santa Sede y el presidente de la República de Guatemala (kwa Latín y Español). Guatemala: Imprenta La Paz. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |authorformat= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Baily, John (1850). Central America; Describing Each of the States of Guatemala, Honduras, Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. London: Trelawney Saunders. uk. 55. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |authorformat= ignored (help)
  • Banco de Guatemala (29 Desemba 1996). "Ilustraciones de Cada una de las 11 Denominaciones. Anverso y Reverso". Banguat.gob.gt (kwa Spanish). Ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo mnamo 2007-06-07. Iliwekwa mnamo 22 Septemba 2013. {{cite web}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link) CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Calvert, Peter (1985). Guatemala: A Nation in Turmoil. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. ISBN 978-0865315723. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |authorformat= ignored (help)
  • Campbell, Lyle (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |authorformat= ignored (help)
  • Kigezo:Aut, :Kigezo:Aut (2007). Bananas: How the United Fruit Company Shaped the World. NY: Canongate. {{cite book}}: Check |first= value (help); Invalid |ref=harv (help)
  • Compagnie Belge de Colonisation (1844). Colonisation du district de Santo-Thomas de Guatemala par la Communauté de l'Union. Collection de renseignements publiés ou recueillis par la Compagnie (kwa French). Original held and digitised by the British Library. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |authorformat= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Conservation International (2007). "Biodiversity Hotspots-Mesoamerica-Overview". Conservation International. Ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo mnamo 4 Julai 2008. Iliwekwa mnamo 1 Februari 2007. {{cite web}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |authorformat= ignored (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Cooper, Allan (2008). p. 171 The Geography of Genocide. University Press of America. ISBN 0761840974. {{cite book}}: Check |url= value (help); Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |authorformat= ignored (help)
  • Kigezo:Aut, :Kigezo:Aut (2006). Voyage to an Unknown Land: The saga of an Italian Family from Lombardy to Guatemala. ISBN 1-4257-0187-6. {{cite book}}: Check |first= value (help); Invalid |ref=harv (help)
  • Kigezo:Aut, :Kigezo:Aut (1993). Doing Business with the Dictators: A Political History of United Fruit in Guatemala. Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources Inc. {{cite book}}: Check |first= value (help); Invalid |ref=harv (help)
  • Foster, Lynn V. (2000). A Brief History of Central America. New York, NY: Facts On File, Inc. ISBN 0-8160-3962-3. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |authorformat= ignored (help)
  • Gleijeses, Piero (1992). Shattered hope: the Guatemalan revolution and the United States, 1944-1954. United States: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691025568. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |authorformat= ignored (help)
  • Kigezo:Aut, Kigezo:Aut. "Upcoming presidential elections", Guatemala: Guatemala. (Spanish) 
  • Kigezo:Aut, Kigezo:Aut. "Interview from Enrique Gómez Carrillo with His Excellency, President Manuel Estrada Cabrera". (Spanish) 
  • González Davison, Fernando (2008). La montaña infinita; Carrera, caudillo de Guatemala (kwa Spanish). Guatemala: Artemis y Edinter. ISBN 84-89452-81-4. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |authorformat= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Guateantaño (17 Oktoba 2011). "Parques y plazas antiguas de Guatemala". Guatepalabras Blogspot. Guatemala. Ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo mnamo 27 Januari 2015. {{cite web}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |authorformat= ignored (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Hernández de León, Federico. "El capítulo de las efemérides: José Milla y Rafael Carrera". (Spanish) 
  • Hernández de León, Federico (1930). El libro de las efemérides (kwa Spanish). Juz. Tomo III. Guatemala: Tipografía Sánchez y de Guise. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |authorformat= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Instituto Nacional de Estadística (2014). "Poblacion de Guatemala (Demografía)". Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE) (kwa Spanish). Guatemala. Ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo mnamo 14 Machi 2014. {{cite web}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |authorformat= ignored (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link) CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • International Monetary Fund (2013). "Guatemala". International Monetary Fund online. Ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo mnamo 5 Julai 2014. Iliwekwa mnamo 18 Aprili 2013. {{cite web}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Marroquín Rojas, Clemente (1971). Francisco Morazán y Rafael Carrera (kwa Spanish). Guatemala: Piedrasanta. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |authorformat= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Martínez Peláez, Severo (1988). "Racismo y Análisis Histórico de la Definición del Indio Guatemalteco" (kwa Spanish). Guatemala: Universitaria. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |authorformat= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Martínez Peláez, Severo (1990). La patria del criollo; ensayo de interpretación de la realidad colonial guatemalteca (kwa Spanish). México: Ediciones en Marcha. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |authorformat= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Mendoza, Juan Manuel (1946). Biografía de Enrique Gómez Carrillo: su vida, su obra y su época (kwa Spanish) (toleo la 2nd). Guatemala: Tipografía Nacional. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |authorformat= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Miceli, Keith (1974). "Rafael Carrera: Defender and Promoter of Peasant Interests in Guatemala, 1837–1848". The Americas. 31 (1). Academy of American Franciscan History. JSTOR 980382. {{cite journal}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |authorformat= ignored (help)
  • Minster, Christofer. Biography of Rafael Carrera Archived 19 Machi 2014 at the Wayback Machine..
  • Kigezo:Aut, Kigezo:Aut. "Yo, el Supremo". Retrieved on 20 July 2014. (Spanish) Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. 
  • Montúfar, Lorenzo; Salazar, Ramón A. (1892). El centenario del general Francisco Morazán (kwa Spanish). Guatemala: Tipografía Nacional. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |authorformat= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Rain Forest Wordpress (4 Aprili 2013). "Guatemala Rainforest Interesting fact | rainforest facts". Rainforestcentralamerica.wordpress.com. Iliwekwa mnamo 22 Septemba 2013. {{cite web}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Rosa, Ramón (1974). Historia del Benemérito Gral. Don Francisco Morazán, ex Presidente de la República de Centroamérica (kwa Spanish). Tegucigalpa: Ministerio de Educación Pública, Ediciones Técnicas Centroamericana. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |authorformat= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Solano, Luis (2012). Contextualización histórica de la Franja Transversal del Norte (FTN) (PDF). Centro de Estudios y Documentación de la Frontera Occidental de Guatemala, CEDFOG. Ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo (PDF) mnamo 13 Novemba 2014. Iliwekwa mnamo 31 Oktoba 2014. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Stephens, John Lloyd; Catherwood, Frederick (1854). Incidents of travel in Central America, Chiapas, and Yucatan. London, England: Arthur Hall, Virtue and Co. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |authorformat= ignored (help)
  • Taracena, Arturo (2011). Invención criolla, sueño ladino, pesadilla indigena, Los Altos de Guatemala: de región a Estado, 1740–1871 (kwa Spanish) (toleo la 3rd). Guatemala: Biblioteca básica de historia de Guatemala. ISBN 978-9929-587-42-7. Ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo mnamo 2016-01-09. Iliwekwa mnamo 2015-02-14. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |authorformat= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Torres Espinoza, Enrique (2007). Enrique Gómez Carrillo, el cronista errante (kwa Spanish) (toleo la 2nd). Guatemala: Artemis-Edinter. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |authorformat= ignored (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Trigger, Bruce G.; Washburn, Wilcomb E.; Adams, Richard E. W. (2000). The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |authorformat= ignored (help)
  • Troika study abroad programs (2006). "Guatemala". Community colleges for international development. Ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo mnamo 18 Septemba 2010. Iliwekwa mnamo 12 Juni 2012. {{cite web}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |authorformat= ignored (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • United Nations (2011). "Human Development Report 2011; Statistical annex" (PDF). United Nations online. Ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo (PDF) mnamo 11 Januari 2012. Iliwekwa mnamo 22 Desemba 2011. {{cite web}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |authorformat= ignored (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Weaver, Frederic S. (Machi 1999). "Reform and (Counter) Revolution in Post-Independence Guatemala: Liberalism, Conservatism, and Postmodern Controversies". Latin American Perspectives. 26 (2): 129–158. JSTOR 2634298. {{cite journal}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |authorformat= ignored (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • White, Douglas R. (2002). The Marriage Core of the Elite Network of Colonial Guatemala (PDF). Irvine, CA: University of California, Irvine, School of Social Sciences. Ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo (PDF) mnamo 10 Desemba 2004. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |authorformat= ignored (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Woodward, Ralph Lee (1993). Rafael Carrera and the Emergence of the Republic of Guatemala, 1821–1871. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press. ISBN 978-0820314488. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |authorformat= ignored (help)

Viungo vya nje

[hariri | hariri chanzo]
WikiMedia Commons
WikiMedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons ina media kuhusu:
Makala hii kuhusu maeneo ya Amerika ya Kati bado ni mbegu.
Je unajua kitu kuhusu Guatemala kama historia yake, biashara, taasisi zilizopo, watu au utamaduni?
Labda unaona habari katika wikipedia ya Kiingereza au lugha nyingine zinazofaa kutafsiriwa?
Basi unaweza kuisaidia Wikipedia kwa kuihariri na kuongeza habari.
  1. Kigezo:Cita web