Kuba

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Rukia: urambazaji, tafuta
-Kwa "kuba" (pia: kubba) kama sehemu ya jengo tazama Kuba (jengo)-
República de Cuba
Jamhuri ya Kuba
Bendera ya Kuba Nembo ya Kuba
Bendera Nembo
Kaulimbiu ya taifa: Kihispania: Patria o Muerte
(„Taifa au mauti“)[1]
Wimbo wa taifa: "La Bayamesa" ("Wimbo la Bayamo")
Lokeshen ya Kuba
Mji mkuu Havana
23°8′ N 82°23′ W
Mji mkubwa nchini Havana
Lugha rasmi Kihispania
Serikali Jamhuri ya kijamii
Raul Castro
Uhuru
Kutoka Hispania
tangazo la Jamhuri ya Kuba
tarehe inayokumbukwa nchini Kuba

10 Oktoba 1868
20 Mei 1902
1 Januari 1959
Eneo
 - Jumla
 - Maji (%)
 
110,861 km² (ya 105)
negligible
Idadi ya watu
 - [[]] kadirio
 - 2013 sensa
 - Msongamano wa watu
 
(ya 73)
11,210,064
102/km² (ya 106)
Fedha Peso (CUC)
Saa za eneo
 - Kiangazi (DST)
EST (UTC-5)
(Starts 1 Aprili, end date varies) (UTC-4)
Intaneti TLD .cu
Kodi ya simu +53

-


Ramani ya Kuba

Kuba (pia: Kyuba, Cuba) ni nchi ya kisiwani katika Bahari ya Karibi kusini kwa Marekani. Nchi inajumuisha kisiwa kikuu cha Kuba ambacho ni kisiwa kikubwa cha Antili Kubwa) pamoja na kisiwa cha Isla de Pinos na visiwa vidogo vingine vingi.

Kuba ni nchi kubwa kati ya nchi za Karibi yenye wakazi wengi.

Utamaduni wake unaonyesha athari za historia yake kama koloni la Hispania kwa miaka mingi, pia ya wakazi wenye asili katika watumwa kutoka Afrika na ya kuwa jirani na Marekani.

Jiografia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Hali ya hewa ni ya kitropiki. Kisiwa hupigwa mara kwa mara na dhoruba kali aina za tufani.

Historia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kuba ilikuwa koloni la Hispania hadi mwaka 1898. Wakati ule Marekani iliingilia kati katika uasi wa Wakuba wa kupigania uhuru. Wahispania wakalazimishwa kuondoka baada ya Vita ya Marekani dhidi Hispania.

Baadaye Kuba ilikuwa chini ya usimamizi wa Marekani hadi mwaka 1934. Hadi leo kuna mabaki ya kipindi hicho, yaani kituo cha kijeshi cha Marekani cha Guantanamo Bay.

Fidel Castro, kiongozi wa mapinduzi na wa nchi kwa miaka 49

Mwaka 1959 kikundi cha wanamapinduzi pamoja na Fidel Castro waliteka mji mkuu wa Havana na kuanzisha serikali ya ujamaa. Baada ya kupingwa na Marekani, Castro alitafuta ushirikiano na usaidizi kutoka Urusi wa kikomunisti. Castro alitangaza siasa ya kikomunisti akaendelea kutawala bila uchaguzi huru hadi alipojiuzulu mnamo Februari 2008 kwa sababu za afya.

Watu[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Wakazi wengi ni machotara. Vipimo vya DNA vimeonyesha kwamba Wazungu wameichangia 72%, Waafrika 20% na Waindio 8%.

Lugha rasmi na ya kawaida ni Kihispania. Inafuata Krioli ya Haiti.

Upande wa dini, baada ya serikali kuipinga vikali kwa miaka mingi, 59% ni Wakristo, hasa wa Kanisa Katoliki.

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. As shown on the obverse of the coins; see this photo of a 1992 coin. Iliwekwa mnamo 2006-09-26. Note that the Spanish word "Patria" is better translated into English as homeland, rather than "fatherland" or "motherland".

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Albornoz, Sara Carrillo de (2006). "On a mission: how Cuba uses its doctors abroad". BMJ 333: 464. doi:10.1136/bmj.333.7566.464
     .
Alvarez, José (2001). "Rationed Products and Something Else: Food Availability and Distribution in 2000", Cuba in Transition, Volume 11. Silver Spring, MD: ASCE, 305–322. ISBN 0-9649082-0-4. Retrieved on 25 March 2013. 
Alvarez, José (2004). Cuban Agriculture Before 1959: The Social Situation. Gainesville, FL: Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Florida. Retrieved on 25 March 2013. 
Baklanoff, Eric N. (1998). "Cuba on the Eve of the Socialist Transition: A Reassessment of the Backwardness-Stagnation Thesis", Cuba in Transition, Volume 8. Silver Spring, MD: ASCE, 260–272. ISBN 0-9649082-7-1. Retrieved on 25 March 2013. 
(2004) The Cuba Reader: History, Culture, Politics. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-3197-1. 
Corbett, Ben (2002). This Is Cuba: An Outlaw Culture Survives. Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-8133-3826-2. 
(1997) "Cuban Tourism in 2007: Economic Impact", Cuba in Transition, Volume 7. Silver Spring, MD: ASCE, 150–161. ISBN 0-9649082-6-3. Retrieved on 25 March 2013. 
Domínguez, Jorge I. (1978). Cuba: Order and Revolution. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press. ISBN 978-0-674-17925-7. 
Domínguez, Jorge I. (1989). To Make a World Safe for Revolution: Cuba's Foreign Policy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-89325-2. 
Domínguez, Jorge I. (2003). A Constitution for Cuba's Political Transition: The Utility of Retaining (and Amending) the 1992 Constitution. Coral Gables, FL: Institute for Cuban and Cuban-American Studies, University of Miami. ISBN 978-1-932385-04-5. Retrieved on 19 August 2012. 
Espino, María Dolores (2000). "Cuban Tourism During the Special Period", Cuba in Transition, Volume 10. Silver Spring, MD: ASCE. ISBN 0-9649082-8-X. Retrieved on 25 March 2013. 
Falk, Pamela S. (1988). "Washing and Havana". The Wilson Quarterly 12 (5): 64–74.
Feinsilver, Julie M. (1989). "Cuba as a 'World Medical Power': The Politics of Symbolism". Latin American Research Review 24 (2): 1–34.
Gebru Tareke (2009). The Ethiopian Revolution: War in the Horn of Africa. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-14163-4. 
Gleijeses, Piero (1994). "'Flee! The White Giants are Coming!': The United States, the Mercenaries, and the Congo, 1964–1965". Diplomatic History 18 (2): 207–237. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.1994.tb00611.x
     . http://vi.uh.edu/pages/buzzmat/DH%20articles/gleijeses%20flee%20the%20white%20giants.pdf.
Gleijeses, Piero (1996). "Cuba's First Venture in Africa: Algeria, 1961–1965". Journal of Latin American Studies 28 (1): 159–195. doi:10.1017/s0022216x00012670
     .
Gleijeses, Piero (1997). "The First Ambassadors: Cuba's Contribution to Guinea-Bissau's War of Independence". Journal of Latin American Studies 29 (1): 45–88. doi:10.1017/s0022216x96004646
     .
Gleijeses, Piero (2002). Conflicting Missions: Havana, Washington, and Africa, 1959–1976. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-2647-8. 
Gleijeses, Piero (2010). "Cuba and the Cold War, 1959–1980", In Melvyn P. Leffler & Odd Arne Westad, eds., The Cambridge History of the Cold War, Volume II: Crises and Détente. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 327–348. ISBN 978-0-521-83720-0. 
Gleijeses, Piero (2013). Visions of Freedom: Havana, Washington, Pretoria, and the Struggle for Southern Africa, 1976–1991. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-1-4696-0968-3. 
Gott, Richard (2004). Cuba: A New History. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10411-0. 
Horowitz, Irving Louis (1988). Cuban Communism. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books. ISBN 0-88738-672-5. 
Luxenberg, Alan H. (1988). "Did Eisenhower Push Castro into the Arms of the Soviets?". Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 30 (1): 37–71.
Kolko, Gabriel (1994). Century of War: Politics, Conflicts, and Society since 1914. New York, NY: The New Press. ISBN 978-1-56584-191-8. 
McAlister, Lyle N. (1984). Spain and Portugal in the New World, 1492–1700. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-1216-1. 
Pedraza, Silvia (2007). Political Disaffection in Cuba's Revolution and Exodus. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-86787-0. 
Pérez-López, Jorge F. (1996). "Cuban Military Expenditures: Concepts, Data and Burden Measures", Cuba in Transition, Volume 6. Washington, DC: ASCE, 124–144. ISBN 0-9649082-5-5. Retrieved on 25 March 2013. 
Ramazani, Rouhollah K. (1975). The Persian Gulf and the Strait of Hormuz. Alphen aan den Rijn: Sijthoff & Noordhoff. ISBN 90-286-0069-8. 
Roberg, Jeffrey L.; Kuttruff, Alyson (2007). "Cuba: Ideological Success or Ideological Failure?". Human Rights Quarterly 29 (3): 779–795. doi:10.1353/hrq.2007.0033
     .
Roy, Joaquín (2000). Cuba, the United States, and the Helms-Burton Doctrine: International Reactions. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press. ISBN 978-0-8130-1760-0. 
Scheina, Robert L. (2003). Latin America's Wars, Volume I: The Age of the Caudillo, 1791–1899. Dulles, VA: Brassey's. ISBN 978-1-57488-449-4. 
Scott, Rebecca J. [1985] (2000). Slave Emancipation in Cuba: The Transition to Free Labor, 1860–1899. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 978-0-8229-5735-5. 
Smith, Wayne S. (1996). "Cuba's Long Reform". Foreign Affairs 75 (2): 99–112.
(1998) "Renaisssance and Decay: A Comparison of Socioeconomic Indicators in Pre-Castro and Current-Day Cuba", Cuba in Transition, Volume 8. Silver Spring, MD: ASCE, 247–259. ISBN 0-9649082-7-1. Retrieved on 25 March 2013. 
Sweig, Julia E. [2002] (2004). Inside the Cuban Revolution: Fidel Castro and the Urban Underground, New, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01612-5. 
Thomas, Hugh (1997). The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1440–1870. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-81063-8. 
Thomas, Hugh [1971] (1998). Cuba; or, The Pursuit of Freedom, updated, Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-80827-2. 
Westad, Odd Arne (2012). Restless Empire: China and the World Since 1750. London: The Bodley Head. ISBN 978-1-84792-197-0. 
(2008) Primary Health Care in Cuba: The Other Revolution. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-5994-3. 
Wright, Irene Aloha (1916). The Early History of Cuba, 1492–1586. New York, NY: The Macmillan Company. 

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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