Utumwa

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Rukia: urambazaji, tafuta
Picha ya mvulana mtumwa huko Zanzibar, 1890 hivi.
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Watawa Wamersedari walijitosa kukomboa watumwa (mchoro wa mwaka 1637).

Utumwa ni mfumo unaotoa fursa kwa binadamu kummiliki binadamu mwenzake kama mali yake. Binadamu anayemilikiwa anakuwa na hadhi sawa na chombo au kifaa chochote kinachoweza kuuzwa.

Mfumo huu ulianza kabla ya uandishi kubuniwa, ukawa maarufu hasa kabla ya harakati za ukoloni duniani, mathalani kuanzia karne ya 15, ambapo watumwa walihitajika katika shughuli za kilimo na uchimbaji madini katika sehemu mbalimbali za ulimwengu.

Mfumo huu huunda matabaka ya "mabwana" ambao humiliki watumwa na "watwana" ambao ni watumwa wenyewe.

Utumwa tofautitofauti[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Katika historia zilitokea aina mbalimbali za utumwa.

Kulikuwa na utumwa wa muda (yaani mtu huwa mtumwa kwa miaka kadhaa) au kwa maisha yote.

Kulikuwa na utaratibu ambao watoto wa mtumwa walikuwa watumwa tena, hivyo kuzaliwa watumwa; kulikuwa pia na utaratibu wa kwamba watoto wa watumwa walitazamiwa kama watu huru.

Kulikuwa na jamii ambako watumwa hawakuwa na haki kabisa, yaani mabwana waliweza kuwatendea jinsi walivyotaka, hata kuwaua; lakini kulikuwa pia na jamii zilizojua haki fulani za watumwa: hapo watumwa waliweza kuwa na mali ya binafsi na kwa njia hii hata kununua uhuru wao kutoka kwa mabwana.

Watumwa katika utumishi wa watawala waliweza kupata nafasi muhimu katika jamii; mfano ni wamameluki wa Misri waliokuwa watumwa wanajeshi wakatawala nchi hiyo kwa karne kadhaa.

Chanzo cha utumwa[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Chanzo cha utumwa kilikuwa mara nyingi ama vita ama madeni.

Vitani waliotekwa wakauzwa kama watumwa wakihesabiwa kama sehemu ya uwindo wa washindi.

Sababu kuu nyingine ilikuwa madeni ya watu waliokamatwa na kuuzwa ili madeni yalipwe kwa njia hii.

Mahitaji ya kiuchumi ya kupata watumwa wengi yalisababisha biashara ya watumwa.

Ukombozi wa watumwa[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Katika historia ndefu za utumwa, kulitokea juhudi za kukomboa waliotekwa, hasa kwa kuwanunua ili kuwaacha huru.

Kati ya Wakatoliki yalianzishwa hata mashirika maalumu ya kitawa kwa lengo hilo, kwa mfano Watrinitari na Wamersedari.

Tazama pia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Ya jumla[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Bales, Kevin, Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy (1999)
  • Campbell, Gwyn, Suzanne Miers, and Joseph C. Miller, eds. Women and Slavery. Volume 1: Africa, the Indian Ocean World, and the Medieval Atlantic; Women and Slavery. Volume 2: The Modern Atlantic (2007)
  • Davies, Stephen (2008). "Slavery, World". In Hamowy, Ronald. The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE; Cato Institute. pp. 464–9. ISBN 978-1-4129-6580-4
      . LCCN 2008009151
       . OCLC 750831024
      . http://books.google.com/books?id=yxNgXs3TkJYC.
  • Davis, David Brion. The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution, 1770-1823 (1999)
  • Davis, David Brion. The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture (1988)
  • Drescher, Seymour. Abolition: A History of Slavery and Antislavery (2009) highly regarded history of slavery and its abolition, worldwide
  • Finkelman, Paul, ed. Encyclopedia of Slavery (1999)
  • Gordon, M. Slavery in the Arab World (1989)
  • Greene, Jacqueline. Slavery in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, (2001), ISBN 0-531-16538-8
  • Joseph, Celucien L. Race, Religion, and The Haitian Revolution: Essays on Faith, Freedom, and Decolonization (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2012)
  • Joseph, Celucien L. From Toussaint to Price-Mars: Rhetoric, Race, and Religion in Haitian Thought (CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2013)
  • Lal, K. S. (1994). Muslim Slave System in Medieval India. Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 2008-05-12.
  • Miers, Suzanne, and Igor Kopytoff, eds. Slavery In Africa: Historical & Anthropological Perspectives (1979)
  • Morgan, Kenneth. Slavery and the British Empire: From Africa to America (2008)
  • Postma, Johannes. The Atlantic Slave Trade, (2003)
  • Rodriguez, Junius P., ed., The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery (1997)
  • Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. Slavery in the United States: A Social, Political, and Historical Encyclopedia (2007)
  • Shell, Robert Carl-Heinz Children Of Bondage: A Social History Of The Slave Society At The Cape Of Good Hope, 1652–1813 (1994)
  • Westermann, William Linn The Slave Systems of Greek and Roman Antiquity (1955), ISBN 0-87169-040-3
Vyanzo visivyotajwa
  • Hogendorn, Jan and Johnson Marion: The Shell Money of the Slave Trade. African Studies Series 49, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1986.
  • The Slavery Reader, ed. by Rigas Doganis, Gad Heuman, James Walvin, Routledge 2003
Marekani
      . LCCN 2008009151
       . OCLC 750831024
      . http://books.google.com/books?id=yxNgXs3TkJYC.
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