Yosefina Bakhita

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Mt. Bakhita.

Yosefina Margaret Bakhita, F.D.C.C., (Olgossa, Darfur[1] 1869 hivi - Schio, Veneto, Italia, 8 Februari 1947) alikuwa mtumwa kutoka kabila la Wadaju[2][3] nchini Sudan ambaye kisha kuletwa Italia akawa huru, akabatizwa, akajiunga na shirika la Wakanosa, akaishi na kufanya kazi huko kwa miaka 45.

Papa Yohane Paulo II alimtangaza mwenye heri tarehe 17 Mei 1992 na mtakatifu tarehe 1 Oktoba 2000. Sikukuu yake huadhimishwa katika tarehe ya kifo chake.

Maisha[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Katika familia yake aliishi kwa furaha [4] pamoja na ndugu zake sita (watatu wa kiume na watatu wa kike) hadi alipotekwa na Waarabu waliofanya biashara ya utumwa akiwa na umri wa miaka 7/9, mnamo Februari 1877, kama ilivyomtokea dada yake miaka miwili ya nyuma.

Baada ya kulazimishwa kusafiri miguu mitupu 960 kilometers (600 mi) hadi El Obeid; njiani aliuzwa na kununuliwa mara mbili tayari. katika miaka 12 iliyofuata (1877–1889) aliuzwa tena mara tatu.

Inasemekana kwamba uchungu wa matukio hayo ulimfanya asahau jina lake, akaanza kutumia lile alilopewa na mabwana wake, Bakhita, kwa Kiarabu Mwenye bahati.[5][6]

Pia alisilimishwa .[7]

Utumwani[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Huko El Obeid, Bakhita alinunuliwa na Mwarabu tajiri sana aliyemtumia kuhudumia mabinti wake wawili waliompenda na kumtendea vema. Lakini kaka yao alimpiga kikatili hivi kwamba alishinda kusimama tena zaidi ya mwezi mzima.

Baadaye alinunuliwa na jenerali Mturuki ili kuhudumia mama mkwe na mke wake ambao wote walikuwa wakatili kwa watumwa. Bakhita alisema: "Katika miaka mitatu niliyokaa katika nyumba hiyo, sikumbuki siku iliyopita bila majeraha ya viboko. Jeraha lilipotaka kupona, viboko vingine vilinipata.[8]

Pia alisema kuwa kumbukumbu ya kutisha zaidi ya wakati ule ni ile ya kuchanjwa (kama watumwa wengine) kwa ukatili mkubwa kifuani, tumboni na mkononi.[9][10][11]

Mwishoni mwa mwaka 1882, El Obeid ilitaka kushambuliwa wa askari wa Dola la Mahdi,[12] hivyo jenerali aliuza watumwa wake wote isipokuwa 10 aliokwenda kuwauza Khartoum.

Huko mwaka 1883 Bakhita alinunuliwa na balozi mdogo wa Italia, Callisto Legnani, aliyekuwa mwema sana, hivyo hatimaye Bakhita aliweza kutulia.

Karibu miaka miwili baadaye, Legnani alipotakiwa kurudi Italia, Bakhita alimuomba aende naye. Mwishoni mwa mwaka 1884 walifaulu kukimbia Khartoum iliyozingirwa wakiwa na rafiki yao, Augusto Michieli. Kisha kusafiri katika hatari kubwa kilometa 650 (maili 400) wamepanda ngamia hadi Suakin, bandari kuu ya Sudan.

Mnamo Machi 1885 waliondoka Suakin wakafikia bandari ya Genova, Italia mnamo Aprili. Huko Callisto Legnani alimtoa Bakhita kwa Turina Michieli, mke wa Augusto, kama "zawadi".

Mabwana wapya wa Bakhita walikwenda naye Zianigo, karibu Mirano Veneto, kilometa 25 (maili 16) magharibi kwa Venice.[9] Huko aliishi miaka mitatu akawa yaya wa Alice Michieli, ambaye aliitwa pia Mimmina, na aliyezaliwa mnamo Februari 1886.

Wongofu na uhuru[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Tarehe 29 Novemba 1888, Turina Michieli aliwaacha Bakhita na Alice kwa masista Wakanosa huko Venice ili amfuate mumewe Sudan. Aliporudi kuwachukua aende nao Suakin, Bakhita alikataa katakata, ingawa bibi Turina alimshinikiza siku tatu mfululizo.

Kesi ilipopelekwa mahakamani, tarehe 29 November 1889 uamuzi ukawa kwamba Bakhita hajawahi kuwa mtumwa kisheria, kwa sababu huko Sudan utumwa ulikatazwa kabla hajazaliwa, tena Italia hakuna kabisa.[13]

Hivyo kwa mara ya kwanza Bakhita alijikuta ana maamuzi yote juu ya maisha yake. Akachagua kubaki na Wakanosa.[14]

Tarehe 9 Januari 1890 Bakhita alibatizwa kwa jina la Yosefina Margaret Fortunata (ndiyo tafsiri ya Bakhita). Siku hiyohiyo alipata kipaimara na kupokea ekaristi kwa mikono ya kardinali Giuseppe Sarto, ambaye baadaye akawa Papa Pius X akatangazwa mtakatifu.[15]

Utawani[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Tarehe 7 Desemba 1893 Bakhita aliingia unovisi na tarehe 8 Desemba 1896 aliweka nadhiri zake.

Mwaka 1902 alipangwa kwenye konventi ya Schio, Vicenza, alipoishi miaka yote hadi kifo chake, isipokuwa miaka 1935-1939 alipoishi Vimercate (Milan pamoja na kutembelea jumuia nyingine za Wakanosa ili kutimiza agizo la kushirikisha mang'amuzi yake na kuandaa masista vijana kwenda Afrika kama wamisionari.[15] Inasemekana "akili yake ilikuwa daima kwa Mungu, na moyo wake huko Afrika".[16]

Huko Schio, Bakhita alifanya kazi kama mpishi, mtunzasakristia na bawabu. Hasa katika kazi hiyo alikuja kujulikana na wenyeji kwa upole, utulivu na tabasamu yake. Kitabu cha kwanza juu yake (Storia Meravigliosa, kazi ya Ida Zanolini) mwaka 1931 kilimfanya ajulikane na wengi nchini kote.[2][17]

Wakati wa Vita vikuu vya pili (19391945) wakazi wa Schio walitegemea ulinzi wake, na kweli mabomu mengi yaliyorushwa kijijini hayakuua mtu yeyote.

Miaka ya mwisho alisumbuliwa na maradhi na maumivu mengi, akitumia baiskeli ya magurudumu matatu, lakini hakupotewa na tabasamu yake. Alipoulizwa anajisikiaje, jibu lilikuwa, "Bwana anavyotaka".

Saa za mwisho akili yake ilirudia mateso ya utumwani akalia, "Minyororo inanibana mno, muilegeze kidogo, tafadhali!". Alipozinduka, aliulizwa: "U hali gani? Leo ni Jumamosi". "Ndiyo, nina furaha iliyoje: Bibi yetu... Bibi yetu!". Ndiyo maneno yake ya mwisho.[18]

Bakhita alifariki saa 2:10 usiku tarehe 8 February 1947. Siku tatu mfululizo watu waliandamana kuheshimu masalia yake kabla hajazikwa.

Ujumbe[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Alipoulizwa na mwanafunzi: "Kama ungekutana na waliokuteka, ungefanya nini?", akajibu bila kusita: "Kama ningekutana na walioniteka, na hata walionitesa, ningepiga magoti na kubusu mikono yao. Kwa sababu, kama mambo hayo yasingetokea, leo singekuwa Mkristo wala mtawa."[19][20][7][21]

Papa Benedikto XVI, mwanzoni mwa hati "Spe Salvi" ("Tumeokolewa katika tumaini") ya tarehe 30 Novemba 2007, alisimulia kifupi maisha yake kama kielelezo cha tumaini la Kikristo.[22]

Tazama pia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Dagnino, p.10. The map of Sudan here shows the village of Olgossa (Algozney in the Daju tongue) slightly west of the 3,042 m (9,980 feet) Jebel Marrah and of the 785 m Jebel Agilerei. Though on p. 37 she seems to place Olgossa about 40 km north-east of Nyala.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Davis, Cyprian (1986)."Black Catholic Theology: A Historical Perspective", Theological Studies 61 (2000), pp. 656–671.
  3. Dagnino, pp. 23-25.
  4. "I lived a very happy and carefree life, without knowing what suffering".Bakhita in Dagnino, p. 37
  5. O'Malley, p. 32.
  6. Dagnino, pp. 29-32. Kila mtumwa alikuwa anapewa jina jipya, ingawa mwenyewe hakusimulia hilo.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Hutchison, p. 7
  8. Bakhita in Dagnino, p. 49.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Burns and Butler, p. 53.
  10. As her mistress was watching her with a whip in her hand, a dish of white flour, a dish of salt and a razor were brought by a woman. She used the flour to draw patterns on her skin and then she cut deeply along the lines before filling the wounds with salt to ensure permanent scarring. A total of 114 intricate patterns were cut into her breasts, belly, and into her right arm. Dagnino, pp. 52-53
  11. African Online News, 2000 October 14
  12. Mahdist Revolution (1881-1898), was an Islamic revolt against the Ottoman-Egyptian rule of Sudan, begun by Islamic fundamentalist cleric Muhammad Ahmad. El Obeid fell on 19 January 1883, Khartoum on 26 January 1885. The Mahdi Ahmad himself died on 1885 June 22.
  13. Wikipedia Italiana
  14. O'Malley, pp. 33-34.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Burns and Butler, p. 54.
  16. Dagnino, p. 99
  17. O'Malley, p. 34.
  18. Dagnino, p. 104
  19. Dagnino, p. 113.
  20. African Online News.
  21. On 10 February 1993, facing all risks, surrounded by an immense crowd in the huge Green Square of the capital of Sudan, Pope John Paul II solemnly honoured Bakhita on her own soil. "Rejoice, all of Africa! Bakhita has come back to you. The daughter of Sudan sold into slavery as a living piece of merchandise and yet still free. Free with the freedom of the saints." John Paul II, Homily at the Eucharistic Concelebration in honour of Josephine Bakhita, Khartoum, 10 February 1993.
  22. Benedict XVI, Encyclical "Spe salvi", November 30, 2007

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Bakhita: From Slave to Saint(2009)

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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