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Bartolomeo Las Casas

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Picha yake akiwa na mavazi ya Kidominiko.

Bartolomeo Las Casas, O.P., kwa Kihispania Bartolomé de las Casas (Sevilia, 1484 hivi – Madrid 18 Julai 1566) alikuwa mwanahistoria, mwanaharakati, mtawa wa Shirika la Wahubiri, askofu wa Kanisa Katoliki na mtu wa kwanza kutambulika rasmi kama "Mtetezi wa Waindio".

Maandishi yake mengi, yakiwemo Historia fupi ya uangamizaji wa Uindio na Historia ya Uindio, yanasimulia miongo ya kwanza ya ukoloni wa Hispania barani Amerika na kukazia hasa maovu ya wakoloni dhidi ya wenyeji.[1]

Maisha[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Akiwa mmoja wa walowezi wa kwanza kutoka Ulaya, kwanza alishiriki, lakini baadaye alijisikia wajibu wa kupinga kabisa maovu hayo.

Mwaka 1515 alibadili mtazamo wake wa awali, aliachilia watumwa wake na haki zake, akatetea zile za Waindio mbele ya Kaisari Karolo V.

Katika maandishi yake ya kwanza alipendekeza Waafrika washike nafasi ya Waindio kama watumwa katika makoloni ya Amerika, na kwa sababu hiyo amelaumiwa kuchangia mwanzo wa Biashara ya ng'ambo ya Atlantiki.

Lakini baadaye alifuta pendekezo hilo, akitambua utumwa wowote ni mbaya sawia.

Mwaka 1522 alijaribu kuanzisha aina mpya ya ukoloni isiyo na ukatili kwenye pwani ya Venezuela, lakini aliposhindwa Las Casas aliamua kujiunga na utawa wa Wadominiko, akaacha shughuli za kijamii kwa miaka 10 hivi.

Baadaye alisafiri hadi Amerika ya Kati ili kuinjilisha kwa amani Wamaya wa Guatemala akashiriki mijadala kuhusu namna bora ya kuwaingiza Waindio katika Ukristo.

Aliporudi Hispania kutafuta wamisionari wapya, alizidi kupinga dhuluma hata akafaulu kufanya zipitishwe sheria mpya mwaka 1542.

Aliteuliwa kuwa askofu wa kwanza wa Chiapas, lakini baada ya muda mfupi ilimbidi arudi Hispania kutokana na upinzani wa wakoloni.

Miaka yake ya mwisho aliishi ikulu, akiathiri sera za Hispania kuhusu Waindio. Mwaka 1550 alishiriki mdahalo wa Valladolid dhidi ya Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda aliyedai Waindio si binadamu kamili, hivyo wanahitaji kutawaliwa na Wahispania wapate ustaarabu. Las Casas alipinga kabisa na kusema kuwatumikisha ni kinyume cha haki.

Bartolomeo Las Casas alitumia miaka 50 kupinga utumwa na dhuluma za ukoloni, akihimiza serikali kuwa na sera adilifu zaidi. Ingawa hakufaulu sana, walau alileta nafuu fulani na uzingatifu wa maadili. Kwa sababu hiyo Las Casas anahersabiwa mara nyingi kati ya watetezi wa kwanza wa haki za binadamu.

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Zinn, Howard (1997). The Zinn Reader. Seven Stories Press. ku. 483. ISBN 978-1-583229-46-0. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Alcedo, Antonio de (1786). Diccionario geográfico-histórico de las Indias Occidentales ó América: es á saber: de los reynos del Perú, Nueva España, Tierra Firme, Chile, y Nuevo reyno de Granada (kwa Spanish). Juz. vol. 1. Madrid: Benito Cano. OCLC 2414115. {{cite book}}: |volume= has extra text (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
Baptiste, Victor N. (1990). Bartolomé de las Casas and Thomas More's Utopia: Connections and Similarities. Labyrinthos. ISBN 978-0-911437-43-0. OCLC 246823100. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
Beuchot, Mauricio (1994). Los fundamentos de los derechos humanos en Bartolomé de las Casas (kwa Spanish). Anthropos Editorial. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
Blackburn, Robin (1997). The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492–1800 (toleo la 1st Verso pbk [1998 printing]). London: Verso Books. ISBN 978-1-85984-195-2. OCLC 40130171. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
Boruchoff, David A. (2008). "Another Face of Empire: Bartolomé de las Casas, Indigenous Rights, and Ecclesiastical Imperialism (review)". Early American Literature. 43 (2): 497–504. doi:10.1353/eal.0.0014. {{cite journal}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
Brading, David (1997). "Prophet and apostle: Bartolomé de las Casas and the spiritual conquest of America". Katika Cummins, J. S. (ed.) (mhr.). Christianity and Missions, 1450–1800. An Expanding World: The European Impact on World History, 1450–1800 [Ashgate Variorum series]. Juz. vol. 28. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Publishing. ku. 117–138. ISBN 978-0-86078-519-4. OCLC 36130668. {{cite book}}: |editor-first= has generic name (help); |volume= has extra text (help); Invalid |ref=harv (help)
Carozza, Paolo G. (2003). "From Conquest to Constitutions: Retrieving a Latin American Tradition of the Idea of Human Rights" (PDF). Human Rights Quarterly. 25 (2). The Johns Hopkins University Press: 281–313. doi:10.1353/hrq.2003.0023. Ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo (PDF) mnamo 2011-07-06. Iliwekwa mnamo 2015-11-06. {{cite journal}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
Castro, Daniel (2007). Another Face of Empire. Duke University Press. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
Comas, Juan (1971). "Historical reality and the detractors of Father Las Casas". Katika Friede, Juan; Keen, Benjamin (eds) (whr.). Bartolomé de las Casas in History: Toward an Understanding of the Man and his Work. Collection spéciale: CER. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press. ku. 487–539. ISBN 978-0-87580-025-7. OCLC 421424974. {{cite book}}: |editor2-first= has generic name (help); Invalid |ref=harv (help)
Friede, Juan (1971). "Las Casas and Indigenism in the Sixteenth Century". Katika Friede, Juan; Keen, Benjamin (eds) (whr.). Bartolomé de las Casas in History: Toward an Understanding of the Man and his Work. Collection spéciale: CER. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press. ku. 127–234. ISBN 978-0-87580-025-7. OCLC 421424974. {{cite book}}: |editor2-first= has generic name (help); Invalid |ref=harv (help)
Giménez Fernández, Manuel (1971). "Fray Bartolomé de Las Casas: A Biographical Sketch". Katika Friede, Juan; Keen, Benjamin (eds) (whr.). Bartolomé de las Casas in History: Toward an Understanding of the Man and his Work. Collection spéciale: CER. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press. ku. 67–126. ISBN 978-0-87580-025-7. OCLC 421424974. {{cite book}}: |editor2-first= has generic name (help); Invalid |ref=harv (help)
Glendon, Mary Ann (2003). "The Forgotten Crucible: The Latin American Influence on the Universal Human Rights Idea". Harvard Human Rights Journal. 16. {{cite journal}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
Guitar, Lynne (1997). "Encomienda System". Katika Rodriguez, Junius P. (ed.) (mhr.). The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery. Juz. vol. 1, A–K. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ku. 250–251. ISBN 978-0-87436-885-7. OCLC 37884790. {{cite book}}: |editor-first= has generic name (help); |volume= has extra text (help)
Hanke, Lewis (1951). Bartolomé de Las Casas: An interpretation of his life and writings. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
Hanke, Lewis (1952). Bartolomé de Las Casas: Bookman, Scholar & Propagandist. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Jay, Felix (2002). Bartolomé de Las Casas (1474–1566) in the pages of Father Antonio de Remesal. Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN 978-0-7734-7131-3.
Keen, Benjamin (1971). "Introduction: Approaches to Las Casas, 1535–1970". Katika Friede, Juan; Keen, Benjamin (eds) (whr.). Bartolomé de las Casas in History: Toward an Understanding of the Man and his Work. Collection spéciale: CER. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press. ku. 67–126. ISBN 978-0-87580-025-7. OCLC 421424974. {{cite book}}: |editor2-first= has generic name (help); Invalid |ref=harv (help)
Las Casas, Bartolomé de (1997). "Apologetic History of the Indies". Columbia University Sources of Medieval History. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help). Extracts
Losada, Ángel (1971). "Controversy between Sepúlveda and Las Casas". Katika Friede, Juan; Keen, Benjamin (eds) (whr.). Bartolomé de las Casas in History: Toward an Understanding of the Man and his Work. Collection spéciale: CER. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press. ku. 279–309. ISBN 978-0-87580-025-7. OCLC 421424974. {{cite book}}: |editor2-first= has generic name (help); Invalid |ref=harv (help)
MacNutt, Francis Augustus (1909). Bartholomew de Las Casas: His Life, Apostolate, and Writings (PDF online reproduction) (toleo la Project Gutenberg EBook no. 23466, reproduction). Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark. OCLC 2683160.
Orique, David T. (2009). "Journey to the Headwaters: Bartolomé de Las Casas in a Comparative Context". The Catholic Historical Review. 95 (1): 1–24. doi:10.1353/cat.0.0312.
Parish, Helen Rand; Weidman, Harold E. (1976). "The Correct Birthdate of Bartolomé de las Casas". Hispanic American Historical Review. 56 (3). Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, in association with the American Historical Association: 385–403. doi:10.2307/2514372. ISSN 0018-2168. JSTOR 2514372. OCLC 1752092. {{cite journal}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
Pierce, Brian (1992). "Bartolomé de las Casas and Truth: Toward a Spirituality of Solidarity". Spirituality Today. 44 (1): 4–19. Ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo mnamo 2011-06-29. Iliwekwa mnamo 2015-11-06. {{cite journal}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
Rand-Parish, Helen (1980). Las Casas as Bishop: A new interpretation based on his holograph petition in the Hans P. Kraus Collection of Hispanic American Manuscripts. Washington, DC: Library of Congress.
Rand-Parish, Helen; Weidman, Harold E. (1980). Las Casas en Mexico: Historia y obra desconocidas. Ciudad de Mexico: Fondo de Cultura Económica.
Rand-Parish, Helen; Gutiérrez, Gustavo (1984). Bartolomé de las Casas: Liberation of the Oppressed. Berkeley.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
Rubies, Joan Pau (2007). "Review of Castro, Daniel – Another Face of Empire". The Journal of Ecclesiastical History. 58: 767–768. {{cite journal}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
Saunders, Nicholas J. (2005). Peoples of the Caribbean: An Encyclopedia of Archeology and Traditional Culture. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-701-6. OCLC 62090786. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
Sullivan, Patrick Francis, mhr. (1995). Indian Freedom: The Cause of Bartolomé de las Casas, 1484–1566, A Reader. Kansas City, Missouri: Sheed and Ward. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
Tierney, Brian (1997). The Idea of Natural Rights: Studies on Natural Rights, Natural Law and Church Law 1150–1625. Scholar's Press for Emory University. ku. 272–274. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
Wagner, Henry Raup; Parish, Helen Rand (1967). The Life and Writings of Bartolomé de Las Casas. University of New Mexico Press. {{cite book}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
Wynter, Sylvia (1984a). "New Seville and the Conversion Experience of Bartolomé de Las Casas: Part One". Jamaica Journal. 17 (2): 25–32. {{cite journal}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
Wynter, Sylvia (1984b). "New Seville and the Conversion Experience of Bartolomé de Las Casas: Part Two". Jamaica Journal. 17 (3): 46–55. {{cite journal}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)

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