Jamhuri ya Kidemokrasia ya Kongo

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République Démocratique du Congo
Jamhuri ya Kidemokrasia ya Kongo
Bendera ya Jamhuri ya Kidemokrasia ya Kongo Nembo ya Jamhuri ya Kidemokrasia ya Kongo
Bendera Nembo
Kaulimbiu ya taifa: Justice - Paix - Travail
(Kifaransa: "Haki - Amani - Kazi")
Wimbo wa taifa: Debout Congolais
Lokeshen ya Jamhuri ya Kidemokrasia ya Kongo
Mji mkuu Kinshasa
4°24′ S 15°24′ E
Mji mkubwa nchini Kinshasa
Lugha rasmi Kifaransa (Kilingala, Kikongo, Kiswahili, Kiluba ni lugha ya taifa)
Serikali
Rais
Serikali ya mseto
Joseph Kabila
Uhuru
 - Tarehe
Kutoka Ubelgiji
30 Juni 1960
Eneo
 - Jumla
 - Maji (%)
 
2,345,409 km² (11th)
4.3%
Idadi ya watu
 - 2015 kadirio
 - 1938 sensa
 - Msongamano wa watu
 
81,680,000 (19th)
10,217,408
33.01/km² (182nd)
Fedha Congolese franc (CDF)
Saa za eneo
 - Kiangazi (DST)
CET, EET (UTC+1 na +2)
- (UTC+1 na +2)
Intaneti TLD .cd
Kodi ya simu +243

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Jamhuri ya Kidemokrasia ya Kongo (au Kongo-Kinshasa) ni nchi iliyoko Afrika ya Kati; kwa ukubwa wa eneo ni ya pili barani Afrika. Ni tofauti na nchi jirani ya Jamhuri ya Kongo.

Ramani ya Jamhuri.

Jiografia

Nchi imepakana na Jamhuri ya Kongo, Jamhuri ya Afrika ya Kati, Sudan Kusini, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Zambia na Angola.

Ina sehemu ndogo ya pwani kwenye Bahari ya Atlantiki. Sehemu hiyo inatenganisha eneo la Cabinda kutoka maeneo mengine ya Jamhuri ya Angola.

Historia

Nchi jinsi ilivyo ilianzishwa kama koloni la Ubelgiji kwa jina la Kongo ya Kibelgiji.

Jina la Kongo lahusiana na mto Kongo unaopitia nchi yote na pia Ufalme wa Kongo uliopatikana zamani katika sehemu za magharibi za Angola na Kongo ya leo.

Upande wa kusini, kuanzia karne ya 17, kulikuwa na ufalme ulioitwa Dola la Kazembe.

Kati ya 27 Oktoba 1971 na 17 Mei 1997 nchi ilijulikana kwa jina la "Zaire".

Mikoa

  1. Bandundu
  2. Bas-Zaire
  3. Équateur
  4. Kasaï Magharibi
  5. Kasaï Mashariki
  6. Katanga
  7. Kinshasa
  8. Maniema
  9. Kivu Kaskazini
  10. Jimbo la Kaskazini
  11. Kivu Kusini
DCongoNumbered.png

Nchi imegawiwa katika mikoa 11. Katiba mpya (2006) iliagiza ugawaji kwa majimbo mapya 26 lakini kanuni hii haikutekelezwa hadi mwaka 2015.

Watu

Wakazi asilia ni Wabilikimo, ambao kwa sasa ni 600,000. Kumbe walio wengi ni Wabantu.

Lugha

Maeneo ya lugha kuu za Kongo

Kifaransa ni lugha rasmi ya Jamhuri ya Kidemokrasia ya Kongo. Ilikuwa lugha ya utawala ya koloni ikaendelea kutumiwa kama lugha isiyoelekea upande wowote kati ya makabila, lugha na tamaduni za nchi hii.

Lugha ya Kiholanzi iliyotumiwa na Wabelgiji pamoja na Kifaransa katika utawala haiko tena.

Kwa jumla kuna takriban lugha 242, hasa lugha za Kibantu, zinazozungumzwa nchini (angalia orodha ya lugha). Kati yake, lugha 4 zinatambuliwa kama lugha za kitaifa, nazo ni: Kikongo (Kituba), Kingala (Kongo), Kiluba (Tshiluba) na Kiswahili. Wakati wa ukoloni lugha hizo nne za kitaifa ziliwahi kutumiwa kieneo katika shule za msingi.

Kingala kilikuwa lugha rasmi ya jeshi la kikoloni liloitwa "Force Publique" chini ya utawala wa Ubelgiji likaendelea kuwa lugha ya jeshi la jamhuri baada ya uhuru.

Tangu mapinduzi ya 1997 sehemu za jeshi, hasa mashariki, hutumia pia Kiswahili.

Takriban watu 33,000,000 wanatumia Kifaransa kama lugha ya kwanza au lugha ya pili.

Dini

Wananchi wengi (zaidi ya 80%) wanajihesabu Wakristo wa madhehebu mbalimbali; kati yao asilimia 36.8 ni Wakatoliki. Waislamu ni asilimia 10-12%. Baadhi ya wananchi pia ni wafuasi wa dini asilia za Kiafrika (3%).

Marejeo

  • Clark, John F., The African Stakes of the Congo War, 2004.
  • Devlin, Larry (2007). Chief of Station, Congo: A Memoir of 1960–67. New York: PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-58648-405-7. .
  • Drummond, Bill and Manning, Mark, The Wild Highway, 2005.
  • Edgerton, Robert, The Troubled Heart of Africa: A History of the Congo. St. Martin's Press, December 2002.
  • Exenberger, Andreas/Hartmann, Simon. The Dark Side of Globalization. The Vicious Cycle of Exploitation from World Market Integration: Lesson from the Congo, Working Papers in Economics and Statistics 31, University Innsbruck 2007.
  • Exenberger, Andreas/Hartmann, Simon. Doomed to Disaster? Long-term Trajectories of Exploitation in the Congo, Paper to be presented at the Workshop "Colonial Extraction in the Netherlands Indies and Belgian Congo: Institutions, Institutional Change and Long Term Consequences", Utrecht 3–4 December 2010.
  • Gondola, Ch. Didier, "The History of Congo", Westport: Greenwood Press, 2002.
  • Joris, Lieve, translated by Waters, Liz, The Rebels' Hour, Atlantic, 2008.
  • Justenhoven, Heinz-Gerhard; Ehrhart, Hans Georg. Intervention im Kongo: eine kritische Analyse der Befriedungspolitik von UN und EU. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 2008. (In German) ISBN 978-3-17-020781-3.
  • Kingsolver, Barbara. The Poisonwood Bible HarperCollins, 1998.
  • Larémont, Ricardo René, ed. 2005. Borders, nationalism and the African state. Boulder, Colorado and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
  • Lemarchand, Reni and Hamilton, Lee; Burundi: Ethnic Conflict and Genocide. Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1994.
  • Mealer, Bryan: "All Things Must Fight To Live", 2008. ISBN 1-59691-345-2.
  • Melvern, Linda, Conspiracy to Murder: The Rwandan Genocide and the International Community. Verso, 2004.
  • Miller, Eric: "The Inability of Peacekeeping to Address the Security Dilemma", 2010. ISBN 978-3-8383-4027-2.
  • Mwakikagile, Godfrey, Nyerere and Africa: End of an Era, Third Edition, New Africa Press, 2006, "Chapter Six: Congo in The Sixties: The Bleeding Heart of Africa", pp. 147 – 205, ISBN 978-0-9802534-1-2; Mwakikagile, Godfrey, Africa and America in The Sixties: A Decade That Changed The Nation and The Destiny of A Continent, First Edition, New Africa Press, 2006, ISBN 978-0-9802534-2-9.
  • Nzongola-Ntalaja, Georges, The Congo from Leopold to Kabila: A People's History, 2002.
  • O'Hanlon, Redmond, Congo Journey, 1996.
  • O'Hanlon, Redmond, No Mercy: A Journey into the Heart of the Congo, 1998.
  • Prunier, Gérard, Africa's World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe, 2011 (also published as From Genocide to Continental War: The Congolese Conflict and the Crisis of Contemporary Africa: The Congo Conflict and the Crisis of Contemporary Africa).
  • Renton, David; Seddon, David; Zeilig, Leo. The Congo: Plunder and Resistance, 2007. ISBN 978-1-84277-485-4.
  • Reyntjens, Filip, The Great African War: Congo and Regional Geopolitics, 1996–2006 , 2009.
  • Rorison, Sean, Bradt Travel Guide: Congo  — Democratic Republic/Republic, 2008.
  • Schulz, Manfred. Entwicklungsträger in der DR Kongo: Entwicklungen in Politik, Wirtschaft, Religion, Zivilgesellschaft und Kultur, Berlin: Lit, 2008, (in German) ISBN 978-3-8258-0425-1.
  • Stearns, Jason: Dancing in the Glory of Monsters: the Collapse of the Congo and the Great War of Africa, Public Affairs, 2011.
  • Tayler, Jeffrey, Facing the Congo, 2001.
  • Turner, Thomas, The Congo Wars: Conflict, Myth and Reality, 2007.
  • Van Reybrouck, David, Congo: The Epic History of a People, 2014
  • Wrong, Michela, In the Footsteps of Mr. Kurtz: Living on the Brink of Disaster in Mobutu's Congo.
  • Osman, Mohamed Omer Guudle(November,2011) Africa: A rich Continent where poorest people live, The Case of DR Congo and the exploitation of the World Market

Viungo vya nje

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