Wasani

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Mwanamume wa jamii ya Wasani.
Wakushi waliwarithisha Wasani weupe wa ngozi yao[1][2].

Wasani (au Wakhoisan kutoka Kiingereza: Khoisan /ˈkɔɪsɑːn/, au Khoe-Sān, tamka [kxʰoesaːn], kulingana na othografia ya kisasa ya Khoekhoegowab) ni kundi la makabila ya Afrika Mashariki na Kusini mwa Afrika ambayo ndio wakazi asili wa maeneo hayo, na ambayo yanachanga sura na lugha kwa kiasi kikubwa, tofauti na Wabantu ambao siku hizi ndio wakazi wake walio wengi.[3]

Wasani wengi ndio wazao wa moja kwa moja wa mtawanyiko wa mapema sana wa wanadamu wa kisasa hadi Kusini mwa Afrika kabla ya miaka 150,000 iliyopita ambapo walifika katika Zama za Mwanzo za Mawe.[4] Wengi wao zaidi walimezwa na makabila ya Kibantu, kwa mfano Watswana na Waxhosa.

Nchini Tanzania, waliobaki wa jamii hiyo wanaitwa Wasandawe.

Huko Kusini mwa Afrika wanaishi hasa Namibia (ambapo Wakhoekhoe wa makabila ya Wanama na Wadamara ni makabila yaliyoenea), Botswana na Afrika Kusini, lakini pia Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Lesotho. Baadhi ("San", kwa Kiingereza Bushmen; neno San linatokana na lugha ya Khoekhoe likimaanisha "wale wanaookota vitu kutoka ardhini", yaani ambao hawamiliki mifugo. Ingawa kuna kosmologia na lugha zinazohusishwa na mtindo huu wa maisha, neno hili ni kiwakilishi cha kiuchumi badala ya kitamaduni au kikabila) wamedumisha zaidi taratibu za utamaduni wao kama wawindaji-wakusanyaji, baadhi ("Khoi", yaani "watu", kwa Kiingereza Hottentots) wameiga ufugaji wa makabila ya Kikushi na ya Kibantu yaliyovamia maeneo yao si zaidi ya miaka 3,000 iliyopita, takriban kati ya miaka 1,500 na 2,000 iliyopita.

Machotara wengi wa leo Kusini mwa Afrika wana asili ya baba Mzungu na mama Khoi.

Lugha zao leo zimegawanyika katika angalau familia tatu za lugha tofauti na zisizohusiana: Khoe-Kwadi, Tuu na Kxʼa.

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Pontus Skoglund et al. "Reconstructing Prehistoric African Population Structure", Cell, 2017
  2. Excerpt from The 86th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (2017)
  3. Barnard, Alan (1992) Hunters and Herders of Southern Africa: A Comparative Ethnography of the Khoisan Peoples. New York; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
  4. Their total numbers are estimated at roughly 300,000 Khoikhoi and 90,000 San: 200k Nama people (2010): Brenzinger, Matthias (2011) "The twelve modern Khoisan languages." In Witzlack-Makarevich & Ernszt (eds.), Khoisan languages and linguistics: proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium, Riezlern / Kleinwalsertal (Research in Khoisan Studies 29). 100k Damara people (1996): James Stuart Olson, « Damara » in The Peoples of Africa: An Ethnohistorical Dictionary, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1996, p. 137. 50-60k San people in Botswana (2010): Anaya, James (2 June 2010). Addendum – The situation of indigenous peoples in Botswana (PDF) (Report). United Nations Human Rights Council. A/HRC/15/37/Add.2.

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Barnard, Alan (2004) Mutual Aid and the Foraging Mode of Thought: Re-reading Kropotkin on the Khoisan. Social Evolution & History 3/1: 3–21.
  • Coon, Carleton: The Living Races of Man (1965)
  • Diamond, Jared (1999). Guns, Germs, and Steel. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-31755-2Kigezo:Inconsistent citations{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link).
  • Hogan, C. Michael (2008) "Makgadikgadi" at Burnham, A. (editor) The Megalithic Portal
  • Lee, Richard B. (1979), The !Kung San: Men, Women, and Work in a Foraging Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Smith, Andrew; Malherbe, Candy; Guenther, Mat and Berens, Penny (2000), Bushmen of Southern Africa: Foraging Society in Transition. Athens: Ohio University Press. ISBN 0-8214-1341-4
  • Thomas, Elizabeth Marshall (1958, 1989) The Harmless People.
  • Thomas, Elizabeth Marshall (2006). The Old Way: A Story of the First People.

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Makala hii kuhusu mambo ya utamaduni bado ni mbegu.
Je, unajua kitu kuhusu Wasani kama historia yake au mahusiano yake na mada nyingine?
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