Historia ya Ufaransa

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Historia ya Ufaransa inahusu eneo ambalo siku hizi linaunda Jamhuri ya Ufaransa.

Historia ya awali[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Ufaransa ulikaliwa na watu tangu muda mrefu sana. Utafiti wa akiolojia umeonyesha vifaa vya mawe vyenye umri wa miaka laki iliyopita.

Gallia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Sarafu ya fedha yenye anwani ya Kigiriki iliyopatikana huko Massalia inathibithisha uwepo wa makoloni ya Wagiriki katika pwani ya Mediteranea (karne ya 5 KKkarne ya 1 KK.

Watu wa Ufaransa waliingia katika historia andishi kupitia taarifa za waandishi wa Roma ya Kale walioeleza habari za majirani wao Wagallia katika Italia kaskazini na Ufaransa wa leo. Hao Wagallia walikuwa Wakelti na mara kwa mara katika hali ya vita kati yao na Waroma.

Kuanzia mwaka 58 KK Juliasi Caesar aliteka na kutawala Gallia yote kwa niaba ya Jamhuri ya Roma.

Gallia ikaendelea kuwa moja ya majimbo tajiri ya Roma na wakazi wengi walitumia lahaja za Kilatini kilichopata kuwa mama wa Kifaransa cha sasa. Lahaja za Kikelti zilibaki katika maeneo ya kando tu, kwa mfano Bretagne.

Polepole wakazi wengi walipata kuwa Wakristo wa Kanisa Katoliki.

Sehemu ya Milki ya Wafaranki[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Ubatizo wa Chlodwig ulivyochongwa katika pembe ya ndovu (karne ya 9).

Wakati wa kuporomoka kwa Dola la Roma makabila ya Kigermanik waliingia katika eneo la Ufaransa na kuchukua utawala mikononi mwao.

Kabila la Kigermanik la Wafaranki[1] lilitawala sehemu kubwa ya Ufaransa pamoja na Ujerumani ya magharibi mnamo mwaka 500.

Ushindi wa Wafaranki juu ya Waislamu huko Tours (732) ulizuia uenezi wa dini hiyo Ulaya Magharibi.

Mfalme wao Chlodwig (tamka klod-vig) alipokea Ukristo wa Kikatoliki kama dini rasmi ya milki yake.

Mfalme Karolo Mkuu alipanua mipaka ya milki hadi Ujerumani ya kaskazini na Italia na mwaka 800 akapokea cheo cha Kaisari wa Roma kwa mikono ya Papa Leo III.

Chanzo cha ufalme wa Ufaransa[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Baada ya kifo cha Karolo na mwanawe, milki iligawiwa kati ya warithi kwenye mkataba wa Verdun mwaka 843.

Miaka 100 baadaye mtemi wa Paris Hugo Capet alichukua nafasi ya wajukuu wa Karolo na wafuasi wake waliendelea kuimarisha mamlaka ya kifalme.

Ugawaji wa mwaka 843 ulikuwa chanzo cha Ufaransa kama nchi ya pekee. Mwanzoni ilijulikana kama "milki ya Wafaranki wa magharibi" ilhali sehemu za Ujerumani ziliitwa "milki ya Wafaranki wa mashariki". Lakini Wagermanik katika Ufaransa walikuwa wameshaacha lugha yao asilia na kutumia kile Kilatini-Kifaransa cha siku zile.

Wafalme wa sehemu walikuwa dhaifu mwanzoni na mamlaka kubwa ilikuwa mikononi wa makabaila katika majimbo ya ufalme.

Ufaransa na Uingereza[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mahame ya abasia ya Cluny, kiini cha urekebisho wa umonaki uliochangia sana ukombozi wa Kanisa kutoka mikono ya wanasiasa.

Kwa karne kadhaa historia ya Ufaransa ilikuwa na ugumu wa pekee kutokana na mchanganyiko wake na historia ya Uingereza. Mwaka 1066 mtemi William wa Normandi aliyekuwa chini ya mfalme wa Ufaransa alivamia Uingereza na kuwa mfalme huko lakini yeye pamoja na warithi wake waliendelea kuwa watemi wa jimbo la Normandi. Kwa njia hiyo watemi wa Normandi waliingia mara nyingi kwa nguvu katika siasa ya Ufaransa.

Baada ya kifo cha mtawala wa mwisho kutoka ukoo wa Hugo Capet Wanormandi walidai cheo cha mfalme wa Ufaransa na hii ilikuwa chanzo cha vita ya miaka 100. Mwishowe Waingereza walipaswa kuacha karibu mali yote kutoka urithi wa Wanormandi.

Kilele cha ufalme hadi mapinduzi ya 1789[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Ufaransa, 1703

Milki ya Ufaransa iliendelea kuwa nchi yenye nguvu katika Ulaya.

Katika vita ya miaka 30 (1618 - 1648) iliweza kujipatia nafasi ya mwamuzi katika siasa ya Ulaya bara.

Wakati huohuo matengenezo ya Kiprotestanti yalikuwa yameshaenea na watemi Waprotestanti walitawala maeneo makubwa ya Ufaransa.

Mfalme Louis XIV wa Ufaransa aliona hali hiyo kama [[hatari] kwa mamlaka yake, akafuta ahadi zote kwa Waprotestanti hadi wakaondoka nchini kwa wingi.

Baada ya Louis XIV, waandamizi wake waliongeza madeni ya serikali kwa vita vingi dhidi ya Uingereza na ujenzi wa majumba makubwa.

Gereza la Bastille likitekwa na umati wa wananchi wenye hasira, 14 Julai 1789.

Matatizo makali ya kiuchumi pamoja na mawazo mapya ya Zama za Mwangaza yalisababisha mapinduzi ya Kifaransa ya mwaka 1789.

Mamlaka ya mfalme iliondolewa na baada ya kipindi jamhuri kutangaziwa ilhali mfalme alishtakiwa kuwa msaliti na kupewa adhabu ya mauti.

Napoleone[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Baada ya mapinduzi, Ufaransa uliingia katika vita na falme nyingine za Ulaya zilizoona mapinduzi ni hatari kwao. Wapinzani walikuwa hasa Uingereza, Austria na pia Prussia. Kwa jumla jeshi la kimapinduzi lilifaulu kutetea eneo la Ufaransa na kuingia katika sehemu za Ujerumani, Uholanzi na Italia.

Katika vita hivyo afisa kijana, kwa jina Napoleon Bonaparte, alipanda vyeo haraka hadi kuingia katika siasa; mwaka 1799 alichukua mamlaka yote kwa kutumia cheo cha "konsuli wa kwanza" na tangu 1804 alijiita "Kaisari wa Wafaransa".

Katika vita vya mfululizo aliteka sehemu kubwa ya nchi za Ulaya au kuzilazimisha kumfuata. Baada ya kushinda Prussia na Austria na kutawala Italia pamoja na Hispania alikuwa mkuu wa Ulaya.

Lakini vita alivyoanzishwa mwaka 1812 dhidi ya Urusi vilikuwa msingi wa kushindwa kwake.

Mwaka 1814 alipaswa kusalimu amri, akapelekwa kwenye kisiwa cha Elba (Italia); aliporudi barani na kujaribu kuwa mkuu wa Ufaransa tena, jeshi lake lilishindwa katika mapigano ya Waterloo mwaka 1815 na Napoleon akawa mfungwa kwenye kisiwa cha St Helena hadi kifo chake.

Karne mbili za mwisho[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Baadaye ufalme ulirudishwa kwa msaada wa nchi zilizoshauriana pamoja kwenye mkutano wa Vienna 1815, lakini ulipinduliwa tena.

Katika karne ya 19 Ufaransa ulijitwalia makoloni mengi, hasa Afrika.

Katika vita vikuu vya kwanza, ulivamiwa na Wajerumani, lakini mwisho uliibuka na ushindi na kurudishiwa mikoa ya Alsace na Lorraine iliyotekwa na Ujerumani katika vita vya mwaka 1870.

Baada ya vita vikuu vya pili ambako nchi ilitekwa na Ujerumani kwa kiasi kikubwa, Ufaransa ulipata katiba mpya na kujiunga na NATO (1949) na mwanzo wa Umoja wa Ulaya (tangu 1951). Ilihesabiwa kati ya washindi wa vita na kupata kiti cha kudumu kwenye Baraza la Usalama la UM.

Wakati huohuo utawala wake juu ya makoloni ulianza kuporomoka. Baada ya kushindwa katika Vita vya kwanza vya Indochina mwaka 1954 Ufaransa ulipaswa kukubali uhuru wa Vietnam Kaskazini, Vietnam Kusini, Laos na Kambodia.

Makoloni yake mengi katika Afrika yalipata uhuru bila vita mnamo 1960. Ila Aljeria, iliyowahi kutangazwa kuwa sehemu ya Ufaranya yenyewe, ilipata uhuru wake baada ya vita vikali vya kupigania uhuru vya miaka 1954 - 1962.

De Gaulle na Konrad Adenauer wa Ujerumani mwaka 1961.

Katika kipindi hiki cha vurugu jenerali Charles de Gaulle alichaguliwa kuwa rais chini ya katiba mpya iliyounda mfumo wa rais kama kiongozi wa serikali mwenye mamlaka makubwa.

Vyama mbalimbali vilivyoendelea kutetea itikadi ya de Gaulle hata baada ya kifo chake vinaendelea kuwa mkondo muhimu katika siasa ya Ufaransa na marais walichaguliwa ama kutoka mkondo huo (Jaques Chirac, Nicolas Sarkozy) au kutoka Chama cha Kisoshalisti (Francois Mitterand, Francois Hollande).

Tangu miaka ya 1980 chama kipya cha Front National kilianza kupata kura kikipinga uhusiano wa karibu na Umoja wa Ulaya na wahamiaji Waislamu kutoka nchi za Afrika ya Kaskazini.

Katika uchaguzi wa rais wa mwaka 2017 ilitokea kwa mara ya kwanza ya kwamba wagombea wa vyama vikubwa walishindwa kupata kura nyingi na awamu ya mwisho ya uchaguzi ilikuwa kati ya mgombea wa kujitegemea Emmanuel Macron (aliyepata urais) na Marie Le Pen wa Front National.

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. jina la Kilatini "Franci" ni asili ya maneno kama "Ufaransa, Kifaransa" na pia "Frankonia" inayotaja sehemu ya Ujerumani - hasa Bavaria kaskazini- ambako watu hujiita "Franken" hadi leo. Maumbo tofauti kwa Kiswahili yametokea na jina asilia; yaani herufi "c" ilipata mara matamshi kama "k" (Franki) au "s" (-faransa)

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Ya jumla[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Fenby, Jonathan France: A Modern History from the Revolution to the War with Terror (2016) excerpt
  • Fierro, Alfred. Historical Dictionary of Paris (1998) 392pp, an abridged translation of his Histoire et dictionnaire de Paris (1996), 1580pp
  • Goubert, Pierre. The Course of French History (1991), standard French textbook excerpt and text search; also complete text online
  • Haine, W. Scott. The History of France (2000), 280 pp. textbook. and text search; also online edition
  • Jones, Colin, and Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie. The Cambridge Illustrated History of France (1999) excerpt and text search
  • Jones, Colin. Paris: Biography of a City (2004), 592pp; comprehensive history by a leading British scholar excerpt and text search
  • McMillan, James F. Twentieth-Century France: Politics and Society in France 1898–1991 (2009)
  • Popkin, Jeremy D. A History of Modern France (2005), 384pp; textbook coverage from the 1750s; excerpt and text search
  • Price, Roger. A Concise History of France (1993) excerpt and text search
  • Raymond, Gino. Historical Dictionary of France (2nd ed. 2008) 528pp

Historia upande wa jamii, uchumi na utamaduni[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Ariès, Philippe. Centuries of Childhood: A Social History of Family Life (1965)
  • Beik, William. A Social and Cultural History of Early Modern France (2009) excerpt and text search
  • Cameron, Rondo. France and the Economic Development of Europe, 1800–1914: Conquests of Peace and Seeds of War (1961), awide-ranging economic and business history
  • Caron, François. An Economic History of Modern France (1979) online edition
  • Charle, Christophe. A Social History of France in the 19th century (1994).
  • Clapham, H. G. Economic Development of France and Germany, 1824–1914 (1921).
  • Clough, S. B. France, A History of National Economics, 1789–1939 (1939).
  • Dormois, Jean-Pierre. The French Economy in the Twentieth Century (2004) excerpt and text search
  • Dunham, Arthur L. The Industrial Revolution in France, 1815–1848 (1955) online edition
  • Hafter, Daryl M. and Nina Kushner, eds. Women and Work in Eighteenth-Century France (Louisiana State University Press; 2014) 250 pages; Scholarly essays on female artists, "printer widows," women in manufacturing, women and contracts, and elite prostitution.
  • Hewitt, Nicholas, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Modern French Culture (2003) excerpt and text search
  • Heywood, Colin. The Development of the French Economy 1750–1914 (1995) excerpt and text search
  • McMillan, James F. France and Women 1789–1914: Gender, Society and Politics (Routledge, 2000) 286 pp.
  • McPhee, Peter. A Social History of France, 1789–1914 (2nd ed. 2004)

Karne za Kati[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Duby, Georges. France in the Middle Ages 987–1460: From Hugh Capet to Joan of Arc (1993), survey by a leader of the Annales School excerpt and text search
  • Bloch, Marc. Feudal Society: Vol 1: The Growth and Ties of Dependence (1989); Feudal Society: Vol 2: Social Classes and Political Organisation(1989) excerpt and text search
  • Bloch, Marc. French Rural History an Essay on Its Basic Characteristics (1972)
  • Le Roy Ladurie, Emmanuel. Montaillou: Cathars and Catholics in a French Village, 1294–1324 (1978) excerpt and text search
  • Le Roy Ladurie, Emmanuel. The Peasants of Languedoc (1966; English translation 1974) text search
  • Potter, David. France in the Later Middle Ages 1200–1500, (2003) excerpt and text search

Mwanzo wa wakati wa kisasa[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kabla ya mapinduzi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mwangaza[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Baker, Keith Michael. Inventing the French Revolution: Essays on French Political Culture in the Eighteenth Century. 1990. excerpt and text search
  • Blom, Philipp. Enlightening the World: Encyclopédie, the Book That Changed the Course of History. 2005. 416 pp. excerpt and text search
  • Chisick, Harvey. Historical Dictionary of the Enlightenment. 2005. 512 pp
  • Davidson, Ian. Voltaire. A Life (2010). ISBN 9781846682261Script error: No such module "check isxn".
  • Delon, Michel. Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment (2001) 1480pp
  • Goodman, Dena. The Republic of Letters: A Cultural History of the French Enlightenment (1994) 338 pp online edition
  • Hazard, Paul. European thought in the eighteenth century: From Montesquieu to Lessing (1965)
  • Kaiser, Thomas E. "This Strange Offspring of Philosophie: Recent Historiographical Problems in Relating the Enlightenment to the French Revolution." French Historical Studies 15 (Spring 1988): 549–62. in JSTOR
  • Kors, Alan Charles. Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment (4 vol. 1990; 2nd ed. 2003), 1984pp excerpt and tyext search
  • Roche, Daniel. France in the Enlightenment. 1998. 736 pp.
  • Spencer, Samia I., ed. French Women and the Age of Enlightenment. 1984.
  • Vovelle, Michel and Cochrane, Lydia G., eds. Enlightenment Portraits. 1997. 456 pp.
  • Wilson, Arthur. Diderot. 1972.

Mapinduzi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Andress, David. French Society in Revolution, 1789–1799 (1999)
  • Doyle, William. The Oxford History of the French Revolution (1989). online complete edition; also excerpt and text search
  • Doyle, William. The French Revolution: A Very Short Introduction. (2001), 120pp; online edition
  • Forrest, Alan. The French Revolution and the Poor (1981)
  • Fremont-Barnes, Gregory. ed. The Encyclopedia of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars: A Political, Social, and Military History (ABC-CLIO: 3 vol 2006)
  • Frey, Linda S. and Marsha L. Frey. The French Revolution. (2004) 190pp online edition
  • Furet, François. The French Revolution, 1770–1814 (1996) excerpt and text search
  • Furet, François and Mona Ozouf, eds. A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution (1989), 1120pp; long essays by scholars; conservative perspective; stress on history of ideas excerpt and online search from Amazon.com
  • Hampson, Norman. Social History of the French Revolution (2006)
  • Jones, Colin. The Longman Companion to the French Revolution (1989)
  • Jones, Colin. The Great Nation: France from Louis XV to Napoleon (2002) excerpt and text search
  • Jones, Peter. The Peasantry in the French Revolution (1988)
  • Lefebvre, Georges. The French Revolution (1962)
  • Lucas, Colin. ed., The Political Culture of the French Revolution (1988)
  • Neely, Sylvia. A Concise History of the French Revolution (2008)
  • Paxton, John. Companion to the French Revolution (1987), hundreds of short entries.
  • Schwab, Gail M., and John R. Jeanneney, eds. The French Revolution of 1789 and Its Impact (1995) online edition
  • Scott, Samuel F. and Barry Rothaus. Historical Dictionary of the French Revolution, 1789–1799 (2 vol 1984), short essays by scholars
  • Schama, Simon. Citizens. A Chronicle of the French Revolution (1989), highly readable narrative by scholar excerpt and text search
  • Sutherland, D.M.G. France 1789–1815. Revolution and Counter-Revolution (2nd ed. 2003, 430pp) excerpts and online search from Amazon.com

Matokeo yake ya kudumu[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Berenson, Edward, and Vincent Duclert, eds. The French Republic: History, Values, Debates (2011), 38 short essays by leading scholars on the political values of the French Republic excerpt
  • Englund, Steven. "Church and state in France since the Revolution," Journal of Church & State (1992) 34#2 pp 325–61
  • Furet, François. Revolutionary France 1770–1880 (1995) excerpt and text search
  • Gildea, Robert. The Past in French History (1994)
  • Gildea, Robert. Children of the Revolution: The French, 1799–1814 (2008)
  • Harison, Casey. "Teaching the French Revolution: Lessons and Imagery from Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Textbooks," History Teacher (2002) 35#2 pp 137–62 in JSTOR
  • O'Rourke, Kevin H. "The Worldwide Economic Impact of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, 1793–1815," Journal of Global History (2006), 1#1 pp 123–149.
  • Palmer, Robert R. The Age of the Democratic Revolution: A Political History of Europe and America, 1760–1800. (2 vol 1959), highly influential comparative history; vol 1 online
  • Stromberg, Roland N. "Reevaluating the French Revolution," History Teacher (1986) 20#1 pp 87–108. in JSTOR

Napoleone[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Bergeron, Louis (1981). France Under Napoleon. Princeton U.P.. ISBN 0691007896. 
  • Emsley, Clive. Napoleon 2003, succinct coverage of life, France and empire; little on warfare
  • Englund, Steven. Napoleon: A Political Life. (2004). the best political biography excerpt and text search
  • Fisher, Herbert. Napoleon (1913) old classic online edition free
  • Fremont-Barnes, Gregory. ed. The Encyclopedia of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars: A Political, Social, and Military History (ABC-CLIO: 3 vol 2006)
  • Grab, Alexander. Napoleon and the Transformation of Europe. (2003), maps; excellent synthesis
  • Harold, J. Christopher. The Age of Napoleon (1963) popular history stressing empire and diplomacy
  • Markham, Felix. Napoleon 1963. online edition
  • McLynn, Frank. Napoleon: A Biography (2003) stress on military
  • Messenger, Charles, ed. (2013). Reader's Guide to Military History. Routledge, 391–427. ISBN 9781135959708. ; evaluation of major books on Napoleon & his wars
  • Nafziger, George F. Historical Dictionary of the Napoleonic Era. 2002.
  • Nicholls, David. Napoleon: A Biographical Companion. 1999.
  • Richardson, Hubert N. B. A Dictionary of Napoleon and His Times (1920) online free 489pp
  • Roberts, Andrew. Napoleon: A Life (2014), major scholarly biography, 926 pages; favourable to Napoleon
  • Thompson, J. M. Napoleon Bonaparte: His Rise and Fall (1954), scholarly, well-balanced in topics, but pro-Britain
  • Tulard, Jean. Napoleon: The Myth of the Saviour (1984)

1815–1870[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Agulhon, Maurice. The Republican Experiment, 1848–1852 (The Cambridge History of Modern France) (1983) excerpt and text search
  • Artz, Frederick. France Under the Bourbon Restoration, 1814–1830 (Harvard University Press, 1931) online
  • Campbell, Stuart L. The Second Empire Revisited: A Study in French Historiography (1978)
  • Charle, Christophe. A Social History of France in the Nineteenth Century (1994)
  • Echard, William E. Historical Dictionary of the French Second Empire, 1852–1870 (1985) online edition
  • Fortescue, William. Revolution and Counter-revolution in France, 1815–1852 (Blackwell, 1988).
  • Gildea, Robert. Children of the Revolution: The French, 1799–1914 (2008)
  • Jardin, André, and Andre-Jean Tudesq. Restoration and Reaction 1815–1848 (The Cambridge History of Modern France) (1988)
  • Plessis, Alain. The Rise and Fall of the Second Empire, 1852–1871 (The Cambridge History of Modern France) (1988) excerpt and text search
  • Price, Roger. A Social History of Nineteenth-Century France (1987) 403pp. 403 pgs. online edition
  • Spitzer, Alan B. "The Good Napoleon III," French Historical Studies (1962) 2#3 pp. 308–329 in JSTOR; historiography; praises his domestic policies
  • Wolf, John B. France: 1815 to the Present (1940) online free pp 1–348.

1871–1940[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Bernard, Philippe, and Henri Dubief. The Decline of the Third Republic, 1914–1938 (The Cambridge History of Modern France) (1988) excerpt and text search
  • Bury, J. P. T. France, 1814–1940 (2003) ch 9–16
  • Kedward, Rod. France and the French: A Modern History (2007) pp 1–245
  • Lehning, James R.; To Be a Citizen: The Political Culture of the Early French Third Republic (2001) online edition
  • McMillan, James F. Twentieth-Century France: Politics and Society in France 1898–1991 (1992)
  • Mayeur, Jean-Marie, and Madeleine Rebirioux. The Third Republic from its Origins to the Great War, 1871–1914 (The Cambridge History of Modern France) (1988) excerpt and text search
  • Price, Roger. A Social History of Nineteenth-Century France (1987) 403pp. 403 pgs. complete text online at Questia
  • Robb, Graham. The Discovery of France: A Historical Geography, from the Revolution to the First World War (2007)
  • Sowerwine, Charles. France since 1870: Culture, Society and the Making of the Republic (2009) excerpt and text search
  • Tombs, Robert (2014). France 1814 – 1914. Routledge. 
  • Weber, Eugen. Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France, 1870–1914 (1976) excerpt and text search
  • Wolf, John B. France: 1815 to the Present (1940) online free pp 349–501.
  • Zeldin, Theodore. France, 1848–1945 (2 vol. 1979), topical approach

Vita vikuu vya kwanza[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Greenhalgh, Elizabeth. Victory through Coalition: Britain and France during the First World War (Cambridge University Press, 2005) 304pp
  • Tucker, Spencer, ed. European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia (1999)
  • Winter, J. M. Capital Cities at War: Paris, London, Berlin, 1914–1919 (1999)

Vichy (1940–44)[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Azema, Jean-Pierre. From Munich to Liberation 1938–1944 (The Cambridge History of Modern France) (1985)
  • Berthon, Simon. Allies at War: The Bitter Rivalry among Churchill, Roosevelt, and de Gaulle. (2001). 356 pp.
  • Funk, Arthur Layton. Charles de Gaulle: The Crucial Years, 1943–1944 (1959) online edition
  • Gildea, Robert. Marianne in Chains: Daily Life in the Heart of France During the German Occupation (2004) excerpt and text search
  • Jackson, Julian. France: The Dark Years, 1940–1944 (2003) excerpt and text search
  • Kersaudy, Francois. Churchill and De Gaulle (2nd ed 1990 482pp
  • Lacouture, Jean. De Gaulle: The Rebel 1890–1944 (1984; English ed. 1991), 640pp; excerpt and text search
  • Paxton, Robert O. Vichy France 2nd ed. (2001) excerpt and text search

Baada ya mwaka 1944[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Berstein, Serge, and Peter Morris. The Republic of de Gaulle 1958–1969 (The Cambridge History of Modern France) (2006) excerpt and text search
  • Berstein, Serge, Jean-Pierre Rioux, and Christopher Woodall. The Pompidou Years, 1969–1974 (The Cambridge History of Modern France) (2000) excerpt and text search
  • Bourg, Julian ed. After the Deluge: New Perspectives on the Intellectual and Cultural History of Postwar France (2004) 426 pp. ISBN 978-0-7391-0792-8Script error: No such module "check isxn"..
  • Cerny, Philip G. The Politics of Grandeur: Ideological Aspects of de Gaulle's Foreign Policy. (1980). 319 pp.
  • Chabal, Emile, ed. France since the 1970s: History, Politics and Memory in an Age of Uncertainty (2015) Excerpt
  • Fenby, Jonathan The General: Charles de Gaulle and the France He Saved (2010) excerpt
  • Hauss, Charles. Politics in Gaullist France: Coping with Chaos (1991) online edition
  • Kedward, Rod. France and the French: A Modern History (2007) pp 310–648
  • Kolodziej, Edward A. French International Policy under de Gaulle and Pompidou: The Politics of Grandeur (1974) online edition
  • Lacouture, Jean. De Gaulle: The Ruler 1945–1970 (1993)
  • McMillan, James F. Twentieth-Century France: Politics and Society in France 1898–1991 (1992)
  • Northcutt, Wayne. Historical Dictionary of the French Fourth and Fifth Republics, 1946–1991 (1992)
  • Rioux, Jean-Pierre, and Godfrey Rogers. The Fourth Republic, 1944–1958 (1989) (The Cambridge History of Modern France)
  • Sowerwine, Charles. France since 1870: Culture, Society and the Making of the Republic (2009) excerpt and text search
  • Williams, Charles. The Last Great Frenchman: A Life of General De Gaulle (1997) excerpt and text search
  • Williams, Philip M. and Martin Harrison. De Gaulle's Republic (1965) online edition

Historiografia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Daileader, Philip, and Philip Whalen, eds. French Historians 1900–2000: New Historical Writing in Twentieth-Century France (2010), 640pp; excerpt
  • Gildea, Robert. The Past in French History (1996)
  • Nora, Pierre, ed. Realms of Memory: Rethinking the French Past (3 vol, 1996), essays by scholars; excerpt and text search; vol 2 excerpts; vol 3 excerpts
  • Pinkney, David H. "Two Thousand Years of Paris," Journal of Modern History (1951) 23#3 pp. 262–264 in JSTOR
  • Offen, Karen. "French Women's History: Retrospect (1789–1940) and Prospect," French Historical Studies (2003) 26#4 pp 757+
  • Revel, Jacques, and Lynn Hunt, eds. Histories: French Constructions of the Past (1995). 654pp, 64 essays; emphasis on Annales School
  • Symes, Carol. "The Middle Ages between Nationalism and Colonialism," French Historical Studies (Winter 2011) 34#1 pp 37–46
  • Thébaud, Françoise. "Writing Women's and Gender History in France: A National Narrative?" Journal of Women's History (2007) 19#1 pp. 167–172 in Project Muse

Vyanzo vikuu[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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Basi unaweza kuisaidia Wikipedia kwa kuihariri na kuongeza habari.