Wafaranki

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Mahali pa Wafaranki katika karne ya 3.
Kazi bora ya usanii majengo wa Kikarolo: kanisa palatina huko Aachen, Ujerumani.
Milki ya Wafranki wakati wa kifo cha Karolo Mkuu mnamo mwaka 814.

Wafaranki walikuwa Wagermanik waliovamia Dola la Roma na hatimaye kujitokeza kama kabila lenye nguvu kuliko yote ya aina hiyo.

Nchi ya Ufaransa imepata jina lake kutoka kwao, ambao waliitawala na kutoka huko wakaeneza himaya yao juu ya sehemu kubwa ya Ulaya Magharibi, wakizuia Waislamu wasiweze kutoka Hispania.

Ushirikiano wao na Mapapa, kama kabila la kwanza la Kijerumani kuingia Kanisa Katoliki bila kupitia kwanza Uario, ni kati ya mambo yaliyoathiri zaidi historia ya Ulaya.

Kilele cha ustawi wao kilifikiwa chini ya mfalme Karolo Mkuu aliyetawala sehemu kubwa za Ufaransa, Ujerumani, Italia ya kaskazini pamoja na Ubelgiji na Uholanzi ya leo. Papa Leo III alimpa taji la Kaizari wa Roma tarehe 25 Desemba 800. Ndio mwanzo wa Dola Takatifu la Roma. Baada ya Karolo milki yake iligawiwa pande mbili zilizoendelea tofauti na kuwa asili ya mataifa ya Ufaransa na Ujerumani.

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Vyanzo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Fredegar
    • Fredegarius; John Michael Wallace-Hadrill (1981) [1960]. Fredegarii chronicorum liber quartus cum continuationibus (kwa Latin, English opposite). Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. 
    • Unknown; Bachrach, Bernard S. (Translator) (1973). Liber Historiae Francorum. Coronado Press. 
    • Woodruff, Jane Ellen; Fredegar (1987). The Historia Epitomata (third book) of the Chronicle of Fredegar: an annotated translation and historical analysis of interpolated material. Thesis (Ph. D.). Lincoln: University of Nebraska. 

Marejeo mengine[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Bachrach, Bernard S. Merovingian Military Organization, 481–751. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1971. ISBN 0-8166-0621-8
  • Collins, Roger. Early Medieval Europe 300–1000. London: MacMillan, 1991.
  • Geary, Patrick J. Before France and Germany: the Creation and Transformation of the Merovingian World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-19-504458-4
  • Geipel, John (1970) [1969]. The Europeans: The People - Today and Yesterday: Their Origins and Interrelations. New York: PEGASUS: a division of Western Publishing Company, Inc. 
  • Greenwood, Thomas (1836). The First Book of the History of the Germans: Barbaric period. London: Longman, Rees, Orne, and Co. .
  • Howorth, Henry H. (1884). "XVII. The Ethnology of Germany (Part VI). The Varini, Varangians and Franks. - Section II". Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (London: Trübner & Co.) 13: 213–239. doi:10.2307/2841727. 
  • James, Edward (1988). The Franks. The Peoples of Europe. Oxford, UK; Cambridge, Massachusetts: Basil Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-17936-4. 
  • Lewis, Archibald R. "The Dukes in the Regnum Francorum, A.D. 550–751." Speculum, Vol. 51, No 3 (July 1976), pp 381–410.
  • McKitterick, Rosamond. The Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians, 751–987. London: Longman, 1983. ISBN 0-582-49005-7.
  • Murray, Archibald Callander, and Goffart, Walter A. After Rome's Fall: Narrators and Sources of Early Medieval History. University of Toronto Press: Toronto, 1998.
  • Nixon, C. E. V. and Rodgers, Barbara. In Praise of Later Roman Emperors. Berkeley, 1994.
  • Noske, Roland (2007). "Autonomous typological prosodic evolution versus the Germanic superstrate in diachronic French phonology". Katika Aboh, Enoch; van der Linden, Elisabeth; Quer, Josep na wenzake. Romance Languages and Linguistic Theory. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: Benjamins. Ilihifadhi kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo mnamo 2016-03-03. Iliwekwa mnamo 2014-07-20Kigezo:Inconsistent citations  .
  • Perry, Walter Copland (1857). The Franks, from Their First Appearance in History to the Death of King Pepin. London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, and Roberts. 
  • Pfister, M. Christian (1911). "(B) The Franks Before Clovis". Katika Bury, J.B. The Cambridge Medieval History. Volume I: The Christian Roman Empire and the Foundation of the Teutonic Kingdoms. London: Cambridge University PressKigezo:Inconsistent citations 
  • Schutz, Herbert. The Germanic Realms in Pre-Carolingian Central Europe, 400–750. American University Studies, Series IX: History, Vol. 196. New York: Peter Lang, 2000.
  • Wallace-Hadrill, J. M. The Long-Haired Kings. London: Butler & tanner Ltd, 1962.
  • Wallace-Hadrill, J. M. The Barbarian West. London: Hutchinson, 1970.

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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