Historia ya Italia

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Historia ya Italia inahusu eneo la rasi ya Italia, hasa linalounda leo Jamhuri ya Italia.

Akiolojia imethibitisha uwepo wa Homo neanderthaliensis miaka 200,000 hivi iliyopita. Homo sapiens sapiens alifika miaka 40,000 hivi iliyopita.

Kufikia milenia ya 1 KK wakazi wengi walikuwa wa jamii ya Kizungu na kutumia lugha za Kihindi-Kiulaya.

Peninsula ya Italia iliunganishwa mara ya kwanza na Jamhuri ya Roma (509-27 KK), lakini hiyo ilipoenea Ulaya kusini na magharibi, Afrika ya Kaskazini na Asia ya Magharibi ikawa na sura ya kimataifa kama Dola la Roma.

Umoja ulipotea kuanzia uvamizi wa jiji la Roma uliofanywa na Wagermanik (476 BK) na hasa baada ya ufalme wa Karolo Mkuu aliyetawala sehemu ya kaskazini tu.

Juhudi za kuurudisha umoja zilifanywa hasa katika karne ya 19, ambapo Ufalme wa Sardinia uliteka sehemu kubwa ya Italia (hasa miaka 1860, 1866 na 1870) na kubadilika kuwa Ufalme wa Italia wenye makao makuu Roma.

Baada ya vita vikuu vya pili iligeuka Jamhuri yenye katiba inayotia mamlaka kuu mikononi mwa bunge.

Ni kati ya nchi sita zilizoanzisha Umoja wa Ulaya mwaka 1957 ikaendelea kuunga mkono ustawi wake hadi uanzishaji wa pesa ya pamoja (Euro).

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mandhari[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Coppa, Frank J. ed. Dictionary of Modern Italian History (1985)
  • Di Scala, Spencer M. Italy: From Revolution to Republic, 1700 to the Present. (1998) 436pp online edition
  • Domenico, Roy. The Regions of Italy: A Reference Guide to History and Culture (2002) online edition
  • Duggan, Christopher. The Force of Destiny: A History of Italy Since 1796 (2008) excerpt and text search
  • Hearder, Henry, and D. P. Waley; A Short History of Italy: From Classical Times to the Present Day (1963) online edition
  • Holmes, George. The Oxford Illustrated History of Italy (2001) excerpt and text search
  • Killinger; Charles L. The History of Italy (2002) online edition
  • Smith, Denis Mack. Modern Italy: A Political History (1997)

Jiografia na mazingira[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Armiero, Marco, and Marcus Hall, eds. Nature and History in Modern Italy (Ecology and History Series) (Ohio University Press, 2010) 295 pp. ISBN 978-0-8214-1916-8Script error: No such module "check isxn". online review
  • Arnone Sipari, Lorenzo, ed. Scritti scelti di Erminio Sipari sul Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo (1922–1933) (Nature and Parks series) (Trento, 2011) 349 pp. ISBN 978-88-97372-05-9Script error: No such module "check isxn".
  • Delano-Smith, Catherine. Western Mediterranean Europe: A Historical Geography of Italy, Spain, and Southern France Since the Neolithic (1980)

Kale[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Cary, M. and H. H. Scullard. A History of Rome: Down to the Reign of Constantine (3rd ed. 1996), 690pp
  • Forsythe, Gary. A Critical History of Early Rome (2005) 400pp
  • Grant, Michael. History of Rome (1997)
  • Heather, Peter. The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians (2006) 572pp
  • Scullard, H. H. A History of the Roman World 753–146 BCE (5th ed. 2002), 596pp

Karne za Kati[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Abulafia, David. Italy in the Central Middle Ages: 1000–1300 (Short Oxford History of Italy) (2004) excerpt and text search
  • Bullough, Donald A. Italy and Her Invaders (1968)
  • Herlihy, David, Robert S. Lopez, and Vsevolod Slessarev, eds., Economy, Society and Government in Medieval Italy (1969)
  • Hyde, J. K. Society and Politics in Medieval Italy (1973)
  • La Rocca, Cristina. Italy in the Early Middle Ages: 476–1000 (Short Oxford History of Italy) (2002) excerpt and text search
  • Smith, Denis Mack. Medieval Sicily, 800–1713 (1968)
  • Tobacco, Giovanni. The Struggle for Power in Medieval Italy: Structures of Political Power (1989)
  • Wickham, Chris. Early Medieval Italy: Central Power and Local Society, 400–1000 (1981)

Renaissance[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Hale, John Rigby (1981). A concise encyclopaedia of the Italian Renaissance. London: Thames & Hudson. OCLC 636355191. .
  • Kohl, Benjamin G. and Allison Andrews Smith, eds. Major Problems in the History of the Italian Renaissance (1995).
  • Najemy, John M. Italy in the Age of the Renaissance: 1300–1550 (The Short Oxford History of Italy) (2005) excerpt and text search
  • White, John. Art and Architecture in Italy, 1250–1400 (1993)

Historia ya awali ya enzi ya sasa[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Cochrane, Eric. Italy, 1530–1630 (1988) online edition
  • Carpanetto, Dino, and Giuseppe Ricuperati. Italy in the Age of Reason, 1685–1789 (1987) online edition
  • Marino, John A. Early Modern Italy: 1550–1796 (Short Oxford History of Italy) (2002) excerpt and text search
  • Venturi, Franco. Italy and the Enlightenment (1972)
  • Woolf, Stuart. A History of Italy, 1700–1860 (1988)

Risorgimento[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Beales. D.. and E. Biagini, The Risorgimento and the Unification of Italy (2002)
  • Clark, Martin. The Italian Risorgimento (Routledge, 2014)
  • Collier, Martin, Italian Unification, 1820–71 (Heinemann, 2003); textbook, 156 pages
  • (2000) Italy in the nineteenth century: 1796–1900. London: Oxford University Press. 
  • Farmer, Alan. "How was Italy Unified?, History Review 54, March 2006
  • Hearder, Harry. Italy in the Age of the Risorgimento 1790 – 1870 (1983) excerpt
  • Holt, Edgar. The Making of Italy 1815–1870, (1971).
  • Laven, David. Restoration and Risorgimento: Italy 1796–1870 (2012)
  • Pearce, Robert, and Andrina Stiles. Access to History: The Unification of Italy 1789–1896 (4th rf., Hodder Education, 2015), textbook. excerpt
  • Riall, Lucy. Risorgimento: The History of Italy from Napoleon to Nation State (2009)
  • Riall, Lucy. The Italian Risorgimento: State, Society, and National Unification (Routledge, 1994) online
  • Riall, Lucy. Garibaldi: Invention of a hero (Yale UP, 2008).
  • Riall, Lucy (1998). "Hero, saint or revolutionary? Nineteenth-century politics and the cult of Garibaldi". Modern Italy 3 (02): 191–204. doi:10.1080/13532949808454803
     .
  • Ridley, Jasper. Garibaldi (1974), a standard biography.
  • Smith, Denis Mack. Cavour (1985)
  • Smith, Denis Mack. Victor Emanuel, Cavour, and the Risorgimento (Oxford UP, 1971)
  • Stiles, A. The Unification of Italy 1815–70 (2nd edition, 2001)
  • Thayer, William Roscoe (1911). The Life and Times of Cavour vol 1.  old interpretations but useful on details; vol 1 goes to 1859; volume 2 online covers 1859–62

Kuanzia mwaka 1860[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kigezo:Further information

  • Bosworth, Richard J. B. (2005). Mussolini's Italy. 
  • Cannistraro, Philip V. ed. Historical Dictionary of Fascist Italy (1982)
  • Clark, Martin. Modern Italy: 1871–1982 (1984, 3rd edn 2008)
  • De Grand, Alexander. Giovanni Giolitti and Liberal Italy from the Challenge of Mass Politics to the Rise of Fascism, 1882–1922 (2001)
  • De Grand, Alexander. Italian Fascism: Its Origins and Development (1989)
  • Encyclopædia Britannica (12th ed. 1922) comprises the 11th edition plus three new volumes 30-31-32 that cover events 1911–1922 with very thorough coverage of the war as well as every country and colony. Included also in 13th edition (1926) partly online
  • Gilmour, David.The Pursuit of Italy: A History of a Land, Its Regions, and Their Peoples (2011). excerpt
  • Ginsborg, Paul. A History of Contemporary Italy, 1943–1988 (2003). excerpt and text search
  • Lyttelton, Adrian. Liberal and Fascist Italy: 1900–1945 (Short Oxford History of Italy) (2002) excerpt and text search
  • McCarthy, Patrick ed. Italy since 1945 (2000)
  • Smith, D. Mack (1997). Modern Italy: A Political History. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-10895-6. 
  • Toniolo, Gianni. An Economic History of Liberal Italy, 1850–1918 (1990)
  • Toniolo, Gianni, ed. The Oxford Handbook of the Italian Economy since Unification (Oxford University Press, 2013) 785 pp. online review; another online review
  • Williams, Isobel. Allies and Italians under Occupation: Sicily and Southern Italy, 1943–45 (Palgrave Macmillan, 2013). xiv + 308 pp. online review
  • Zamagni, Vera. The Economic History of Italy, 1860–1990 (1993) 413 pp. ISBN 0-19-828773-9Script error: No such module "check isxn"..

Historiografia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Azzi, Stephen Corrado (1993). "The Historiography of Fascist Foreign Policy". Historical Journal 36 (1): 187–203. doi:10.1017/s0018246x00016174
     .
  • Bernhard, Patrick (2014). "Renarrating Italian Fascism: New Directions in the Historiography of a European Dictatorship". Contemporary European History 23 (1): 151–163. doi:10.1017/s0960777313000556
     .
  • Boardman, Jonathan. Umbria: A Cultural History (Signal Books; 2012). Charts a complex history of literature, religion, art, migration, and industry.
  • Dipper, Christof (2015). "Italian Contemporary Historiography. A Snapshot". Vierteljahrshefte Fur Zeitgeschichte 63 (3): 351. doi:10.1515/vfzg-2015-0021
     .
  • Ferrari, Paolo (2015). "The memory and historiography of the First World War in Italy". Comillas Journal of International Relations 2: 117–126.
  • Foot, John. Italy's Divided Memory (Palgrave Macmillan; 262 pages; 2010). Describes regional, political, and other divisions in Italian public memory of history.
  • Musi, Aurelio (2013). "Modern Italy in French, English and American historiography". Nuova Rivista Storica 97 (3): 909–952.
  • Pasquino, Gianfranco. "Political History in Italy," Journal of Policy History (2009) 21#3 pp 282–97, on 20th century historians; covers Italian politics after World War II, and works of Silvio Lanaro, Aurelio Lepre, and Nicola Tranfaglia. Also discusses rise of the Italian Communist party, the role of the Christian Democrats in Italian society, and the development of the Italian parliamentary Republic. summary
  • Ramm, Agatha (1972). "The Risorgimento in Sicily: Recent Literature". English Historical Review 87 (345): 795–811. doi:10.1093/ehr/lxxxvii.cccxlv.795
     .
  • Rao, Anna Maria. "Napoleonic Italy: Old and New Trends in Historiography." in Ute Planert, ed., Napoleon’s Empire (Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2016). pp 84–97.
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