Gregori wa Nazianzo

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Gregori wa Nazianzo katika mavazi ya Askofu.

Gregori wa Nazianzo (Arianzo, leo Güzelyurt nchini Uturuki, 329 - Arianzo, 25 Januari 390) alikuwa askofu, mwanateolojia na mwanashairi maarufu kutoka nchi ambayo leo inaitwa Uturuki.

Tangu zamani anaheshimiwa na Kanisa Katoliki, Waorthodoksi na Waanglikana kama mtakatifu na mmojawapo kati ya mababu wa Kanisa muhimu zaidi.

Kwa Wakatoliki ni pia (tangu 1568, alipotangazwa na Papa Pius V) mwalimu wa Kanisa.

Sikukuu yake inaadhimishwa mwezi Januari tarehe 2, 25 au 30, kadiri ya madhehebu.

Maisha[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mchoro wa Andrei Rublev, Gregory the Theologian (1408), kwenye kanisa kuu la Bikira Maria Kulala, huko Vladimir (Urusi).

Alizaliwa Arianzo, kijiji karibu na Nazianzo, mkoani Kapadokia, katika familia ya kisharifu ya watakatifu. Baba yake aliitwa Gregori mzee na mama yake Nonna.

Baba, aliyekuwa Myahudi, aliongokea Ukristo kwa msaada wa mke wake na hatimaye akawa askofu wa Nazianzo.

Gregori, aliyezaliwa miaka 4 baada ya Mtaguso wa kwanza wa Nisea (325) uliolaani uzushi wa Ario, aliathiriwa na mapambano hayo ya kiimani maisha yake yote.

Mwenye akili kali na ubunifu mkubwa, alielekea sana upweke na maisha ya sala, lakini wema, ari na ufasaha wa ajabu wa mahubiri yake vilimrudisha daima kati ya watu. Ila alipokabiliana na upinzani mkali, moyo wake mpole na mwepesi kuguswa ulimfanya pengine akimbie tena upwekeni.

Alisoma kwanza huko Kaisarea wa Kapadokia, alipofunga urafiki wa kudumu na Basili Mkuu, halafu Kaisarea ya Palestina, Aleksandria ya Misri na hatimaye (350 - 357) huko Athens.

Aliporudi kwao tu, ndipo alipobatizwa.

Baada ya kujiunga na Basili (358) kwenye monasteri ya Annisoi, katika mkoa wa Ponto, na kumsaidia kutunga Filokalia, alirudi nyumbani alipotarajia kuishi upwekeni zaidi. Kumbe mwaka 361 baba yake aliamua kumpa upadrisho. Kwanza alikimbia, lakini baadaye alikubali.

Mwaka 372 Basili, akiwa askofu mkuu wa Kaisarea wa Kapadokia, alimteua kuwa askofu wa Sasima. Kutokana na upinzani wa kaisari, Gregori hakuweza kwenda kamwe, akatawa huko Seleukia, lakini alipofiwa baba yake alirudi Nazianzo, aongoze kanisa la huko.

Mwaka 379 aliitwa aongoze Wakristo wachache wa Konstantinopoli walioshika Kanuni ya imani ya Nisea. Majengo yote yalikuwa yanamilikiwa na Waario. Lakini Theodosius I alipotawazwa kama kaisari mwaka 380 aliyatoa kwa Waorthodoksi.

Jijini huko alitoa hotuba tano zilizomstahilia jina la "Mwanateolojia". Mwenyewe alieleza kuwa "teolojia" si "teknolojia", yaani haitegemei hoja za binadamu, bali inatokana na maisha ya sala.

Theodosius I alimtawaza Patriarki wa Konstantinopoli na kuhakikisha kwamba atambuliwe hivyo na Mtaguso wa kwanza wa Konstantinopoli mnamo Mei 381.

Majadiliano katika huo mtaguso mkuu yalikuwa makali hata dhidi yake, kwa sababu alitetea kwa nguvu umungu wa Yesu Kristo na wa Roho Mtakatifu, kwa hiyo pia dogma ya Utatu mtakatifu. Hatimaye, akikiri hawezi kusuluhisha, aliacha mtaguso aliokuwa anauendesha.

Mwishoni mwa mwaka 382 akawa askofu wa Nazianzo lakini, baada ya mwaka mmoja, alirudi upwekeni Arianzo, alipofariki tarehe 25 Januari mwaka 389 au 390.

Mafundisho yake kuhusu Kristo, yanayotetea pia usahihi wa jina la “Mama wa Mungu” kwa Bikira Maria, yalikuja kupitishwa na Mtaguso wa Efeso (431) na Mtaguso wa Kalsedonia (451).

Kama mwanashairi na mwanafasihi alitoa maandishi bora kuhusu imani. Zimetufikia hotuba 45, mbali ya tenzi na barua kadhaa.

Sala yake[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Ee Bwana, umpokee mikononi mwako kaka yangu aliyetuacha.

Kwa wakati wake utupokee sisi pia, kisha kutuongoza katika hija ya duniani hadi lengo ulilotupangia.

Utujalie tuje kwako tukiwa tayari na watulivu kweli, si tumevurugwa na hofu, si katika hali ya uadui nawe, walau siku ya mwisho, siku ya kufariki kwetu.

Utujalie tusijisikie tunaondolewa na kung’olewa kwa nguvu katika ulimwengu na maisha, wala kwa hiyo tusifunge safari shingo upande.

Bali utujalie tuje kwa utulivu na utayari mzuri, kama watu wanaoondoka kuendea uzima wa heri usio na mwisho, uzima ule ulioma katika Kristo Yesu, Bwana wetu, ambaye apate utukufu milele na milele. Amina.

Maandishi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kaburi la Gregori katika Basilika la Mt. Petro huko Vatikano
  • Hotuba za kiliturujia.
  • Hotuba mbalimbali
  • Hotuba za kiteolojia
  • Barua 245

Vyanzo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Børtnes, Jostein; Tomas Hägg (2006). Gregory of Nazianzus: Images and Reflections. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press. ISBN 87-635-0386-7. 
  • "St. Gregory of Nazianzus" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.
  • McGuckin, John A. St. Gregory of Nazianzus: An Intellectual Biography. Crestwood, NY: 2001, St. Vladimir's Seminar Press. ISBN 0-88141-222-8
  • Migne, J.P. (General Editor). Cursus Completus Patrologiae Graecae. Volumes 35–38. Paris: 1857–66.
  • The Orthodox Church of America website article on St. Gregory the Theologian. Retrieved 2 Mei 2007.
  • Ruether, Rosemary Radford. Gregory of Nazianzus. Oxford: 1969, Oxford University Press.
  • Turner, H.E.W. and Francis Young, "Procession(s)" in The Westminster Dictionary of Christian Theology, ed. A. Richardson & J. Bowden. Philadelphia: 1983, Westminster Press, 1983.
  • Michael Azkoul, "St. Gregory the Theologian: Poetry and Faith," Patristic and Byzantine Review 14.1–3 (1995): 59–68.
  • Brian Daley, ed., Gregory Nazianzen. Early Church Fathers. London: Routledge, an imprint of Taylor & Francis Books Ltd., 2005. ISBN 0-415-12181-7. pp. 192.
  • K. Demoen, "Biblical vs. Non-Biblical Vocabulary in Gregorius Nazianzenus; a Quantitative Approach," Informatique 2 (1988–89): 243–53.
  • J. Egan, "Gregory of Nazianzus and the Logos Doctrine," J. Plevnic, ed., Word and Spirit: Essays in Honor of David Michael Stanley. Willowdale, ON: 1975. pp. 281–322.
  • Anna-Stina Ellverson, The Dual Nature of Man: A Study in the Theological Anthropology of Gregory of Nazianzus. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 1981. ISBN 91-554-1206-8. {Amazon.com}
  • Gerald Fitzpatrick, "St Gregory Nazianzen: Education for Salvation," Patristic and Byzantine Review 10.1-2 (1991): 47–55.
  • R.C. Gregg, Consolation Philosophy: Greek and Christian Paideia in Basil and the Two Gregories. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1975. ISBN 0-8132-1000-3. {Amazon.com}
  • Edward R. Hardy, ed. Christology of the Later Fathers, J. Baillie et al., eds. Library of Christian Classics, Vol. 3. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1995. Pbk. ISBN 0-664-24152-2
  • Carol Harrison & Brian Daley (Editor). Gregory Nazianzen. Routledge, 1999. ISBN 0-415-12181-7
  • V. Harrison, "Some Aspects of Saint Gregory (Nazianzen) the Theologian's Soteriology," Greek Orthodox Theological Review 34 (1989): 19–43/11–18.
  • Susan R. Holman, "Healing the Social Leper in Gregory of Nyssa's and Gregory of Nazianzus's peri philoptochias," Harvard Theological Review 92.3 (1999): 283–309.
  • M. Edmund Hussey,."The Theology of the Holy Spirit in the Writings of St. Gregory of Nazianzus," Diakonia 14.3 (1979): 224–233.
  • Vasiliki Limberis, ."'Religion' as the Cipher for Identity: The Cases of Emperor Julian, Libanius, and Gregory Nazianzus," Harvard Theological Review 93.4 (2000): 373–400.
  • George A. Kennedy, Greek Rhetoric Under Christian Emperors. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983. ISBN 0-691-03565-2. pp. 215–239. {Amazon.com}
  • N.B. McLynn, "The Other Olympias: Gregory of Nazianzen and the Family of Vitalianus," ZAC 2 (1998): 227–46.
  • Ruth Majercik, "A Reminiscence of the Chaldean Oracles at Gregory of Nazianzus, Or. 29,2," Vigiliae Christianae 52.3 (1998): 286–292.
  • P.J. Maritz, "Logos Articulation in Gregory of Nazianzus," Acta Patristica et Byzantina 6 (1995): 99-108.
  • E.P. Meijuring, "The Doctrine of the Will and the Trinity in the Orations of Gregory of Nazianzus," Nederlands Theologisch Tijdschrift 27.3 (1973): 224–234.
  • Celica Milovanovic-Barham, "Gregory of Nazianzus: Ars Poetica (In suos versus: Carmen 2.1.39)," Journal of Early Christian Studies 5.4 (1997): 497–510.
  • H. Musurillo, "The Poetry of Gregory of Nazianzus," Thought 45 (1970): 45–55.
  • T.A. Noble, "Gregory Nazianzen's Use of Scripture in Defence of the Deity of the Spirit," Tyndale Bulletin 39 (1988): 101–123.
  • F.W. Norris, "Of Thorns and Roses: The Logic of Belief in Gregory of Nazianzen," Church History, Vol. 53 (1984): 455–464.
  • F.W. Norris, "The Tetragrammaton in Gregory Nazianzen (Or. 30.17)," Vigiliae Christianae 43 (1989): 339–44.
  • F.W. Norris, Faith Gives Fullness to Reasoning: The Five Theological Orations of Gregory Nazianzen. Supplements to Vigiliae Christianae, Vol 13. Leiden: Brill, 1990. ISBN 90-04-09253-6. p. 314. {Amazon.com}
  • Jay Wesley Richards, "Can a Male Savior Save Women?: Gregory of Nazianzus on the Logos' Assumption of Human Nature," Christian Scholar's Review 28.1 (1998): 42–57.
  • K. Skurat, "St. Gregory of Nazianzus on Philosophy and Knowledge of God," Journal of Moscow Patriarchate 10 (Oktoba 1989): 57–62.
  • Frank Thielman, "The Place of the Apocalypse in the Canon of St Gregory Nazianzen," Tyndale Bulletin 49.1 (1998): 155–157.
  • Steven Peter Tsichlis, "The Nature of Theology in the Theological Orations of St. Gregory Nazianzus," Diakonia 16.3 (1981): 238–246.
  • Raymond Van Dam, "Self-Representation in the Will of Gregory of Nazianzus," Journal of Theological Studies 46.1 (1995): 118–148.
  • Kenneth Paul Wesche, "The Union of God and Man in Jesus Christ in the Thought of Gregory of Nazianzus," St. Vladimir's Theological Quarterly 28.2 (1984): 83–98.
  • Donald F. Winslow, "Gregory of Nazianzus and Love for the Poor," Anglican Theological Review 47 (1965): 348–359.
  • Donald F. Winslow, The Dynamics of Salvation: A Study in Gregory of Nazianzus. Cambridge, Mass.: North American Patristic Society, 1979. ISBN 0-915646-06-4.

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