Négritude

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Négritude[1] ni fremu ya nadharia ya uhakiki na uandishi iliyostawishwa hasa na waandishi na wanasiasa wa Afrika waliozoea lugha ya Kifaransa na kuishi nje ya bara lao katika miaka ya 1930.

Lengo lilikuwa kukuza kati ya Waafrika wote hali ya kujitambua kama watu wa maana kwa kupinga ukoloni na kupigania umoja wa watu wote wenye asili ya Afrika, pengine kwa kutegemea Umarksi.

Historia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Waanzilishi walikuwa Aimé Césaire kutoka Martinika, Léopold Sédar Senghor (baadaye rais wa kwanza wa Senegal) na Léon Damas kutoka Guyana ya Kifaransa.

Négritude ilichangia uanzishaji wa matapo mbalimbali duniani yaliyotetea Waafrika na haki zao, kama vile:

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Négritude is a constructed noun from the 1930s based upon the French word nègre, which, like its English counterpart, was derogatory and had a different meaning from "Black man". The movement's use of the word négritude was a way of re-imagining the word as an emic form of empowerment. The term was first used in its present sense by Aimé Césaire, in the third issue of L'Étudiant noir, a magazine that he had started in Paris with fellow students Léopold Senghor and Léon Damas, as well as Gilbert Gratiant, Leonard Sainville, Louis T. Achille, Aristide Maugée, and Paulette Nardal. L'Étudiant noir also includes Césaire's first published work, Conscience Raciale et Révolution Sociale, with the heading "Les Idées" and the rubric "Négreries", which is notable for its disavowal of assimilation as a valid strategy for resistance and for its use of the word Kigezo:Wiktfr as a positive term. The problem with assimilation was that one assimilated into a culture that considered African culture to be barbaric and unworthy of being seen as "civilized". The assimilation into this culture would have been seen as an implicit acceptance of this view. Nègre previously had been used mainly in a pejorative sense. Césaire deliberately incorporated this derogatory word into the name of his philosophy.

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Christian Filostrat, "La Négritude et la 'Conscience raciale et révolution sociale' d'Aimé Césaire". Présence Francophone, No. 21, Automne 1980, pp. 119–130.
  • Sartre, Jean-Paul. "Orphée Noir". Anthologie de la nouvelle poésie nègre et malgache. ed. Léopold Senghor. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, p. xiv (1948).
  • Condé, Maryse (1998), "O Brave New World", Research in African Literatures 29: 1–7, archived from the original on 2001-04-06 .

Bibliografia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Maandishi asili

Mengineyo

  • Cheikh Thiam, Return to the Kingdom of Childhood: Re-envisioning the Legacy and Philosophical Relevance of Negritude, The Ohio State University Press, 2014
  • T. Denean Sharpley-Whiting, Negritude Women, University of Minnesota Press, 2002, ISBN 0-8166-3680-XScript error: No such module "check isxn".
  • Christian Filostrat, Negritude Agonistes, Africana Homestead Legacy Publishers, 2008, ISBN 978-0-9818939-2-1Script error: No such module "check isxn".
  • Gary Wilder, The French Imperial Nation-State: Negritude & Colonial Humanism Between the Two World Wars, University of Chicago Press, 2005, ISBN 0-226-89772-9Script error: No such module "check isxn".
  • Stovall, Tyler, "Aimé Césaire and the making of black Paris." French Politics, Culture & Society 27#3 (2009): 44–46
  • Thompson, Peter, Negritude and Changing Africa: An Update, in Research in African Literatures, Winter 2002
  • Thompson, Peter, Négritude et nouveaux mondes—poésie noire: africaine, antillaise et malgache. Concord, Mass: Wayside Publishing, 1994

Filamu[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]