George Padmore

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Jump to navigation Jump to search

George Padmore (jina la kuzaliwa: Malcolm Ivan Meredith; 28 Juni 1903 - 23 Septemba 1959) alikuwa mwanahabari, mwanasiasa na mwandishi kutoka kisiwa cha Trinidad[1] anayekumbukwa kama mwanaharakati wa muungano wa Afrika.

Maisha[hariri | hariri chanzo]

George Padmore alizaliwa Trinidad iliyokuwa wakati ule koloni ya Uingereza katika familia ya mwalimu.

Baada ya kumaliza shule ya sekondari alianza kazi ya mwanahabari kwenye gazeti la Trinidad Guardian. Mwaka 1924 alihamia Marekani kwa shabaha ya kusoma tiba lakini hakumaliza masomo badala yake alijiunga na Chama cha Kikomunisti. Katika kipindi hiki alibadilisha jina.1927 alihudhuria mkutano wa Umoja wa Wafanyakazi Weusi wa Marekani (American Negro Labor Congress). 1929 alitumwa Moscow kuhudhuria mkutano wa Umoja wa Kimataifa wa Kikomunisti kuhusu harakati ya wafanyakazi wa Marekani.

Alialikwa kubaki kwenye Umoja wa Kisovieti alipofanya kazi katika kwenye idara ya kimataifa ya Umoja huu. Aliongoza "Ofisi ya mambo ya Weusi" (Negro Bureau) katika makao makuu ya Kongamano ya Kimataifa ya Kikomunisti ya Wafanyakazi. Alitembelea nchi mbalimbali wa Afrika kama Senegal, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Liberia na Pwani la Dhahabu (Ghana) alipokutana na viongozi wa wafanyakazi na wanaharakati.

Mwaka 1930 alisafiri Hamburg, Ujerumani akahudhuria mkutano alipokutana na viongozi wa wafanyakazi kutoka nchi kadhaa za Afrika, pamoja na Jomo Kenyatta (Kenya), I.T.A. Wallace-Johnson (Sierra Leone) na Albert Nzula (Afrika Kusini). Kati ya maazimio ya mkutano huu yalikuwa madai ya mwisho wa ukoloni, uhuru wa koloni zote na haki ya kila taifa kujitawala, jinsi ilivyotangazwa kama lengo la Wakomunisti wakati ule. Mkutano uliunda Kamati ya Kimataifa ya Wafanyakazi Weusi (International Trade Union Committee for Black Workers). Padmore alibaki Hamburg alipohariri gazeti la "The Negro Worker"[2]. Mwaka 1933 chama cha NSDAP cha Adolf Hitler kilishika serikali ya Ujerumani na kupiga marufuku shughuli zote za Wakomunisti. Padmore alikamatwa na kufukuzwa Ujerumani.

Katika miaka iliyofuta Padwell alijitenga na ukomunisti; sababu yalikuwa mabadiliko ya Umoja wa Kimataifa wa Kikomunisti chini ya uongozi wa Stalin ambao sasa ulilenga kujenga umoja dhidi ya siasa ya kifashisti ya Hitler na Mussolini pale Italia. Hapa Stalin alijaribu kujenga ushirikiano na Uingereza na Ufaransa; kwa kurahisisha ushirikiano aliamuru Wakomunisti wa nchi hizi wasipinge tena -angalau kwa muda- siasa ya kikoloni ya nchi hizi. Katika hali hii Wakomunisti Waafrika mbalimbali walijisikia wanasalitiwa Stalin na uongozi wa ukomunisti. Padmore alivunja uanachama wake katika chama cha kikomunisti lakini aliendelea kuunga mkono ujamaa. [3]

Padmore aliishi kwa muda huko Ufaransa, kabla ya kutua London . Mwishowe mwa maisha yake alihamia Accra, Ghana, ambako alisaidia kazi ya Kwame Nkrumah na chama chake. [4] 1958 alichaguliwa katibu mkuu wa All-African Peoples' Conference na wawakilishi wa nchi 28 za Afrika.

Kutokana na hali ya afya yake alisafiri 1959 hadi London, alipotibiwa sirosisi hospitalini akaaga dunia 23 Septemba 1959.[5]

Majivu yake yalifanyiwa mazishi ya kiserikali tarehe 4 Oktoba 1959 mjini Accra katika ikulu ya nchi, ngome ya Osu.[6]

Maandiko yake[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • The Life and Struggles of Negro Toilers (London: Red International of Labour of Unions Magazine for the International Trade Union Committee of Negro Workers, 1931)
  • Haiti, an American Slave Colony (Centrizdat, 1931)
  • The Negro Workers and the Imperialist War Intervention in the USSR (1931)
  • How Britain Rules Africa (London: Wishart Books, 1936)
  • Africa and World Peace (Foreword by Sir Stafford Cripps; London: Martin Secker and Warburg Ltd, 1937)
  • Hands Off the Protectorates (London: International African Service Bureau, 1938)
  • The White Man's Duty: An Analysis of the Colonial Question in the Light of the Atlantic Charter (with Nancy Cunard) (London: W. H. Allen, 1942)
  • The Voice of Coloured Labour (Speeches and Reports of Colonial Delegates to the World Trade Union Conference, 1945) (editor) (Manchester: Panaf Service, 1945)
  • How Russia Transformed Her Colonial Empire: A Challenge to the Imperialist Powers (in collaboration with Dorothy Pizer) (London: Dennis Dobson, 1946)
  • "History of the Pan-African Congress (Colonial and Coloured Unity: A Programme of Action)" (editor) (1947). Reprinted in Hakim Adi and Marika Sherwood, The 1945 Manchester Pan-African Congress Revisited (London: New Beacon Books, 1995)
  • Africa: Britain's Third Empire (London: Dennis Dobson, 1949)
  • The Gold Coast Revolution: The Struggle of an African People from Slavery to Freedom (London: Dennis Dobson, 1953)
  • Pan-Africanism or Communism? The Coming Struggle for Africa (Foreword by Richard Wright. London, Dennis Dobson, 1956)

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. James R. Hooker, Black Revolutionary: George Padmore's Path from Communism to Pan-Africanism (1967), p. 2.
  2. Susan Campbell: The Negro Worker A Comintern Publication of 1928-37 tovuti ya www.marxists.org, iliangaliwa Oktoba 2019
  3. C. L. R. James, The Black Jacobins. Toussaint Louverture and the San Domingo Revolution (1963).
  4. Jeffrey Ahlman (2017). Living With Nkrumahism: Nation, State, and Pan-Africanism in Ghana. Athens: Ohio University Press, 14. ISBN 978-0821422939. 
  5. Polsgrove, Ending British Rule, pp. 162–63.
  6. Marika Sherwood: George Padmore; Dictionary of African Biography, Volumes 1-6, ed Emmanuel Kwaku Akyeampong, Henry Louis Gates, Mr. Steven J. Niven, OUP USA, 2 Feb 2012, uk. 73-75online hapa via google books