Uandishi

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Rukia: urambazaji, tafuta
Peni ya zamani.

Uandishi ni njia ya mawasiliano kati ya watu inayowakilisha lugha na hisia kwa alama na ishara zilizorekodiwa.

Katika lugha nyingi, uandishi unakamilisha mawasiliano ya sauti, ukitumia miundo yake, kama vile maneno, sarufi na semantiki.

Uandishi si lugha ya pekee, bali aina ya teknolojia iliyostawi pamoja na vifaa wilivyotengenezwa katika jamii fulani.

Kilichopatikana kwa njia ya uandishi kinaitwa matini, na anayeyapokea anaitwa msomaji.

Sababu za kuandika zinajumuisha barua, hadithi, shajara na kutoa vitabu.

Uandishi umewezesha kutunza kumbukumbu za historia, kudumisha utamaduni, kusambaza ujuzi na kuunda mifumo ya sheria.

Pia ni muhimu katika kumwezesha mtu kutokeza ya kwake, kama wanavyofanya washairi na watunzi wengine.

Kadiri jamii zilivyostawi, zilihitaji mabadilishano ya taarifa, utunzaji wa kumbukumbu mbalimbali (k.mf. hesabu, sheria na mikataba).

Kufikia milenia ya 4 KK, biashara na utawala huko Mesopotamia vilizidi uwezo wa kumbukumbu ya binadamu na kuhitaji maandishi;[1] vilevile katika Misri ya Kale na Amerika ya Kati.

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Robinson, 2003, p. 36

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Commons-logo.svg
Wikimedia Commons ina media kuhusu:
  • A History of Writing: From Hieroglyph to Multimedia, edited by Anne-Marie Christin, Flammarion (in French, hardcover: 408 pages, 2002, ISBN 2-08-010887-5)
  • In the Beginning: A Short History of the Hebrew Language. By Joel M. Hoffman, 2004. Chapter 3 covers the invention of writing and its various stages.
  • Origins of writing on AncientScripts.com
  • Museum of Writing: UK Museum of Writing with information on writing history and implements
  • On ERIC Digests: Writing Instruction: Current Practices in the Classroom; Writing Development; Writing Instruction: Changing Views over the Years
  • Angioni, Giulio, La scrittura, una fabrilità semiotica, in Fare, dire, sentire. L'identico e il diverso nelle culture, il Maestrale, 2011, 149–169. ISBN 978-88-6429-020-1
  • Children of the Code: The Power of Writing – Online Video
  • Powell, Barry B. 2009. Writing: Theory and History of the Technology of Civilization, Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-6256-2
  • Reynolds, Jack 2004. Merleau-Ponty And Derrida: Intertwining Embodiment And Alterity, Ohio University Press
  • Rogers, Henry. 2005. Writing Systems: A Linguistic Approach. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-23463-2 (hardcover); ISBN 0-631-23464-0 (paperback)
  • Ankerl, Guy [2000] (2000). Global communication without universal civilization, INU societal research Vol.1: Coexisting contemporary civilizations : Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva: INU Press, 59–66, 235s. ISBN 2-88155-004-5. 
  • Robinson, Andrew "The Origins of Writing" in David Crowley and Paul Heyer (eds) Communication in History: Technology, Culture, Society (Allyn and Bacon, 2003).
  • Falkenstein, A. 1965 Zu den Tafeln aus Tartaria. Germania 43, 269–273
  • Haarmann, H. 1990 Writing from Old Europe. The Journal of Indo-European Studies 17
  • Lazarovici, Gh., Fl. Drasovean & Z. Maxim 2000 The Eagle – the Bird of death, regeneration resurrection and mesenger of Godds. Archaeological and ethnological problems. Tibiscum, 57–68
  • Lazarovici, Gh., Fl. Drasovean & Z. Maxim 2000 The Eye – Symbol, Gesture, Expression.Tibiscum, 115–128
  • Makkay, J. 1969 The Late Neolithic Tordos Group of Signs. Alba Regia 10, 9–50
  • Makkay, J. 1984 Early Stamp Seals in South-East Europe. Budapest
  • Masson, E. 1984 L' écriture dans les civilisations danubiennes néolithiques. Kadmos 23, 2, 89–123. Berlin & New York.
  • Maxim, Z. 1997 Neo-eneoliticul din Transilvania. Bibliotheca Musei Napocensis 19. Cluj-Napoca
  • Milojcic, Vl. 1963 Die Tontafeln von Tartaria (Siebenbürgen), und die Absolute Chronologie des mitteleeuropäischen Neolithikums.Germania 43, 266–268
  • Paul, I. 1990 Mitograma de acum 8 milenii. Atheneum 1, p. 28
  • Paul, I. 1995 Vorgeschichtliche untersuchungen in Siebenburgen. Alba Iulia
  • Vlassa, N. 1962 --- (Studia UBB 2), 23–30.
  • Vlassa, N. 1962 --- (Dacia 7), 485–494;
  • Vlassa, N. 1965 --- (Atti UISPP, Roma 1965), 267–269
  • Vlassa, N. 1976 Contribuții la Problema racordării Neoliticul Transilvaniei, p. 28–43, fig. 7-8
  • Vlassa, N. 1976 Neoliticul Transilvaniei. Studii, articole, note. Bibliotheca Musei Napocensis 3. Cluj-Napoca
  • Winn, Sham M. M. 1973 The Sings of the Vinca Culture
  • Winn, Sham M. M. 1981 Pre-writing in Southeast Europe: The Sign System of the Vinca culture. BAR
  • Merlini, Marco 2004 La scrittura è natta in Europa?, Roma (2004)
  • Merlini, Marco and Gheorghe Lazarovici 2008 Luca, Sabin Adrian ed. "Settling discovery circumstances, dating and utilization of the Tărtăria Tablets"
  • Merlini, Marco and Gheorghe Lazarovici 2005 "New archaeological data referring to Tărtăria tablets", in Documenta Praehistorica XXXII, Department of Archeology Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana. Ljubljana:2005-2019.

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]