Ushoga

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Utafiti wa mwaka 2013 (Pew Global Research Poll): Asilimia ya wanaokubali ushogs uwe halali katika jamii:      81–90%      71–80%      61–70%      51–60%      41–50%      31–40%      21–30%      11–20%      1–10%      Hakuna taarifa

Ushoga (kwa Kiingereza: “homosexuality”) ni mwelekeo wa kimapenzi unaokwenda tofauti na kawaida inayofanya mwanamume na mwanamke kupendana na kuzaliana katika familia. Jinsia hizo mbili zinalenga kukamilishana katika ndoa. Kadiri ya Biblia Mungu baada ya kumuumba Adamu alisema, “Si vema mtu awe peke yake. Nitamfanyia msaidizi wa kufanana naye” (Mwa 2:18). Umbile la mwanamume linaelekea kukamilishana na lile la mwanamke kiroho na kimwili. Lakini roho haionekani, hivyo ni rahisi zaidi kuona jinsi miili yao inavyofaa kuungana iwe mwili mmoja. Hata hivyo tuelewe mkamilishano huo unafanyika katika nafsi pia, ambazo zina vipawa tofauti vinavyowezesha kwa pamoja kukabili vizuri maisha ya nyumbani, ya uchumi, ya siasa, ya dini n.k.

Mwelekeo wa kimapenzi humaanisha muundo wa kudumu wa kimhemko, kimahaba, na/au mivuto ya kimapenzi kwa jinsia fulani. Mwelekeo wa kimapenzi kwa kawaida humfanya mtu kupenda jinsia tofauti na ya kwake (kuwa na mvuto kwa wahusika wa jinsia nyingine), jambo ambalo linawezesha uzazi kadiri ya maumbile. Hata hivyo kuna mashoga/wasagaji (mwanamume anayevutiwa na wanaume/mwanamke anayevutiwa na wanawake), na watu wanaopenda jinsia zote mbili (mwanamume au mwanamke anayevutiwa na jinsia zote mbili; kwa Kiingereza: “bisexual”), mbali na wale wasio na mwelekeo wowote wala kusikia mvuto wowote wa namna hiyo (kwa Kiingereza: “asexuals”). Mwelekeo ukifuatwa unageuka tabia.

Chanzo chake[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Vivutio vya msingi ambavyo huunda mwelekeo wa kimapenzi wa watu wazima kwa kawaida huibuka katikati ya utoto na ubalehe. Hakuna makubaliano kati ya wanasayansi juu ya sababu halisi ambazo humfanya mtu kuwa na mwelekeo wa kupenda jinsia ileile ya kwake au kupenda jinsia zote mbili badala ya jinsia tofauti tu kama ilivyo kawaida. Wengi wanafikiria asili (biolojia) pamoja na mazingira vinachangia. Lakini mara nyingine ni kwamba mtu ameathiriwa na tukio ambalo amefanyiwa hasa utotoni au amekubali mwenyewe kujaribu kufanya hata akazoea kiasi cha kushindwa kujinasua.

Kati ya wale ambao wakati wa kubalehe wanayumba kwa muda fulani katika kujitambua, wengi baadaye wanakomaa vizuri katika mwelekeo wa kawaida. Kumbe watetezi wa ushoga wanataka hao vijana wapewe dawa za kusimamisha ubalehe ili baadaye iwe rahisi kuwafanyia upasuaji wa kubadili vyungo vya uzazi. Ukweli ni kwamba suala si kila mtu kuamua awe wa jinsia gani, kama kwamba mwili hauna maana, bali kujitambua na kujikubali alivyo.

Mwelekeo na utashi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Binadamu, akiwa na akili na utashi, halazimiki wala hapaswi kufuata mielekeo yake yote, bali anatakiwa kuidhibiti, la sivyo ataharibika upande wa afya ya mwili na ya nafsi vilevile, mbali ya kuharibu maisha ya jamii. Kwa mfano, mtu anaweza kuwa na mwelekeo wa kuwazini watoto wadogo, mwingine wa kula kupita kiasi, n.k. Wakifuata mielekeo hiyo ataleta madhara tu. Hivyo wafikirie kabla ya kufuata mwelekeo wowote na wazingatie maadili mema.

Unyanyapaa na ukatili dhidi ya mashoga[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Watu wana mang'amuzi tofauti juu ya mwelekeo wao wa kimapenzi. Baadhi wanajitambua kwa muda mrefu kabla hawajaanza uhusiano na wengine. Baadhi hujihusisha na vitendo vya kimapenzi kabla ya kujitambua na kuchukua msimamo juu ya mwelekeo wao. Pengine mashoga, wasagaji na wapenda jinsia zote mbili hukumbana na unyanyapaa, na hata ukatili mkubwa kwa sababu ya mwelekeo wao wa kimapenzi tofauti na kawaida. Wengi hubaguliwa kwenye shule, vyuo, na sehemu zao za kazi, wananyimwa huduma za afya na haki, na hupata msaada mdogo kutoka kwa wanafamilia na marafiki. Ubaguzi na unyanyapaa hufanya iwe vigumu kujitangaza kuwa shoga, msagaji, au mpenda jinsia mbili.

Wakati hili ni tatizo la kimataifa, hali ni mbaya hasa katika sehemu kubwa za Afrika. Kituo cha Utafiti cha Pew mnamo mwaka 2007 kiligundua kuwa 3% tu ya Watanzania, Wakenya, na Waganda wanaamini kuwa ushoga unapaswa kukubalika. Hivyo katika nchi zote wanachama wa Jumuiya ya Afrika Mashariki (EAC), isipokuwa Rwanda, ngono ya jinsia moja huchukuliwa kuwa ni uhalifu na pengine adhabu yake ni kifungo cha muda mrefu. Matokeo yake, ni wachache tu walio wazi kuhusu mwelekeo wao wa kimapenzi, wakati wengi wanalazimishwa kuishi kwa usiri na uwongo, ili waendane na maadili yaliyokubalika katika jamii yao.

Chuki dhidi ya mashoga (kwa Kiingereza: “homophobia”) ina madhara makubwa kwa afya ya akili na ustawi wa watu walio mashoga, wasagaji na wapenda jinsia mbili, hasa ikiwa wanajaribu kuficha mwelekeo wao wa kimapenzi. Unyanyapaa na ukatili vinazidisha mafadhaiko waliyonayo tayari kutokana na kutambua tofauti iliyopo kati ya mwili wao na mwelekeo wao. Mara nyingi wanashindwa kukabili hali hiyo na kujikubali walivyo. Hivyo wako katika hatari ya kuingia ulevi wa aina mbalimbali kujiua kuliko wenzao wanaovutiwa na jinsia tofauti. Watu wanaotamani kuwasaidia wanaweza kufanya kazi na mashirika husika kuwapatia ushauri nasaha pamoja na kupambana na unyanyapaa.

Mashoga, wasagaji na wapenda jinsia mbili wanaotaka kupunguza unyanyapaa wanaweza kuwa wazi kuhusu mwelekeo wao wa kimapenzi, huku wakichukua tahadhari muhimu ili kuwa salama kadiri iwezekanavyo. Kuwaambia watu wengine kuwa wewe ni mpenzi wa jinsia moja au tofauti huitwa “kujitokeza”. Mara nyingi hiyo ni hatua muhimu ya kisaikolojia kwa watu walio mashoga, wasagaji na wapenda jinsia mbili. Kati yao wanaohisi lazima wafiche mielekeo yao ya kimapenzi huripoti wasiwasi wa mara kwa mara kuliko mashoga na wasagaji ambao wako wazi. Japokuwa, unapaswa kujitokeza ikiwa unataka na uko tayari. Ingawa unatumaini kuwa marafiki na familia watakupokea, inawezekana kwamba hawatakubali. Ikiwa unategemea wazazi wako kifedha, unaweza kutaka kungojea. Inawezekana kwamba wanaweza kuguswa vibaya na kujaribu kukufukuza nyumbani, kukuweka kwenye ndoa ya jinsia tofauti au kwenye matibabu mabaya ya kiakili. Kama utajitokeza, ni vizuri kuanza kwa kumwambia mtu ambaye una uhakika kuwa atakuwa na mtazamo chanya. Kujitokeza kunaweza kuwa moja ya kazi ngumu sana utakayokabiliana nayo katika maisha yako, lakini pia inaweza kuwa moja ya kazi zenye tunu sana. Kujitokeza ni njia mojawapo ya kuthibitisha hadhi yako na hadhi ya watu wengine walio wasagaji, mashoga, na wapenda jinsia mbili.

Mtazamo upande wa afya na elimunafsia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Miongo mingi ya utafiti na uzoefu ya kitabibu imepelekea mashirika ya afya na ya afya ya akili kuthibitisha kuwa mielekeo hii si ugonjwa. Shirika la Afya Ulimwenguni (WHO) liliondoa ushoga kutoka kwenye orodha yake ya magonjwa ya akili mnamo 1990 na kwamba mapenzi ya jinsia moja si magonjwa na hivyo hayahitaji matibabu. Hadi leo, hakuna utafiti wa kutosha wa kisayansi kuonyesha kwamba tiba inayolenga kubadili mwelekeo wa mapenzi ya jinsia moja ni salama au inafaa. Kwa kuongezea, inaonekana kwamba uhamasishaji wa matibabu ya mabadiliko huchangia mazingira mabaya kwa mashoga, wasagaji na wapenda jinsia mbili.

Tafiti tofauti kote ulimwenguni zimegundua kuwa mtu 1 hadi 10 kati ya 100 wanavutiwa na watu wa jinsia yao. Ushoga umekuwepo katika jamii na tamaduni nyingi, na pia hutokea katika spishi 500 hivi za wanyama.[1][2] Jambo hilo linatumiwa na watetezi wa ushoga kusema kwamba ni kawaida ya kimaumbile. Lakini wanaosema kuwa ushoga ni kinyume cha maumbile wanamaanisha maumbile ya binadamu yanayotakiwa kuongozwa na akili na utashi, si silika tu kama ilivyo kwa viumbehai wengine wote. Kwa mfano, ubakaji unafanywa na wanyama mbalimbali, lakini kwa binadamu haufai kabisa.

Moja ya dhihirisho la mapema zaidi ulimwenguni la ushoga kati ya watu ni Michoro ya miambani ya Wasan wa Zimbabwe ambayo inaonyesha mahusiano ya jinsia moja ambayo ni ya maelfu ya miaka iliyopita. Michoro hiyo na vilevile ushahidi mwingine wa kihistoria unaonyesha kuwa ushoga umekuwepo katika bara la Afrika katika historia yote, na si umeletwa na mataifa ya Magharibi kama inavyodaiwa. Hata hivyo sasa ustaarabu wa Magharibi unahamasisha ushoga kwa mbinu zote katika kuhimiza mienendo yoyote ya anasa isiyo na uwajibikaji kwa jamii. Katika kuwatetea umefikia pengine hatua ya kuwafanya kielelezo cha maendeleo ambayo hatimaye yamejikomboa kutoka mitindo ya maisha ya zamani na tunu zake, kama vile familia, uzazi n.k. Kwa namna hiyo unabomoa misingi yenyewe ya maisha ya jamii. Pengine wenyewe wanatangaza mtindo wao kama ndio bora na kudharau hiyo mingine (k.mf. maandamano ya "Gay Pride").

Misimamo ya dini[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Tamaduni za kijamii au za kidini hazitakiwi kuhalalisha tena ubaguzi dhidi ya mashoga, wasagaji na wapenda jinsia mbili. Uonevu na unyanyasaji, kuwakatalia watu walio wasagaji, mashoga, na wapenda jinsia mbili fursa na heshima sawa au kuwatuhumu kwa vile walivyo au wanavyotenda si uchaji wa Mungu wala ufuataji tamaduni bali ni ubaya tu. Kuchukia maovu ni tofauti na kuchukia mwovu. Hata hivyo suala la maadili linabaki: je, ni halali kufuata mwelekeo wowote ambao tunajisikia au tumejizoesha kwa kurudiarudia matendo maovu? Tukikubali watu wafanye lolote wanalojisikia, jamii itakuwaje?

Uyahudi[3], Ukristo[4], na Uislamu[5] kimapokeo huchukulia tabia za mapenzi ya jinsia moja kuwa ni dhambi. Mafundisho ya Uhindu, Ubudha, Ujain, na Usikh hayako wazi kabisa juu ya mwelekeo wa mapenzi ya jinsia moja, na viongozi wa dini wanatoa maoni tofauti. Leo, watu kutoka dini zote wanazidi kukubali mapenzi ya jinsia moja, na hata ndoa ya jinsia moja. Idadi inayokua ya madhehebu ya Uprotestanti hufanya baraka za ndoa za jinsia moja. Watu wengi walio mashoga, wasagaji na wapenda jinsia mbili wanaripoti kwamba hawaoni mgongano kati ya mwelekeo wao wa kimapenzi na imani yao. Hayo yote hayamaanishi kwamba ndio ukweli; pengine ni kupotewa na hekima[6] au ni kujilegeza na kufuata tu mkondo. Ni lazima kufikiria uumbaji wa mtu katika jinsia mbili ili kuelewa Muumba alitaka nini, hasa alipounganisha kilele cha tendo la ndoa na uwezekano wa mimba kupatikana.

Papa Fransisko, mkuu wa Kanisa Katoliki, ameongea mara kwa mara juu ya hitaji la kukaribisha na kupenda watu wote, bila kujali mwelekeo wao wa kimapenzi, kwa kuwa wote ni sura na mfano wa Mungu. Hata hivyo mafundisho ya Kikatoliki[7] yanasema wazi kwamba matendo ya ushoga ni dhambi, tena dhambi ya mauti kama matendo mengine ya uasherati na hata zaidi. Mwelekeo tu si dhambi, lakini ni hatari, kwa kuwa unafanya mtu avutiwe na jambo ambalo ni dhambi, tofauti na mwelekeo wa kawaida unaomfanya mtu avutiwe na ndoa na uzazi kama inavyohitajiwa na jamii ili kujiendeleza. Hivyo mashoga na wengineo wanahitaji msaada wa pekee kuelewa mpango wa Mungu kuhusu jinsia na hatimaye kuishi namna ya kumpendeza. Msimamo wa Waorthodoksi na Waorthodoksi wa Mashariki ni wa namna hiyohiyo: kwamba ngono inakubalika tu katika ndoa.

Tazama pia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Bagemihl, Bruce (1999). Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-25377-6. 
  2. Harrold, Max (1999-02-16). Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity. The Advocate, reprinted in Highbeam Encyclopedia. Iliwekwa mnamo 2007-09-10.
  3. The Torah (first five books of the Hebrew Bible) is the primary source for Jewish views on homosexuality. It states that: "[A man] shall not lie with another man as [he would] with a woman, it is a תועבה toeba ("abomination")" (Leviticus 18:22). Like many similar commandments, the stated punishment for willful violation is the death penalty, although in practice rabbinic Judaism no longer believes it has the authority to implement death penalties.
  4. Rom 13:13-14: 13 Let us behave decently, as in the daytime, not in carousing and drunkenness, not in sexual immorality and debauchery, not in dissension and jealousy. 14 Rather, clothe yourselves with the Lord Jesus Christ, and do not think about how to gratify the desires of the flesh. Galatians 5:19–5:21: 19 Now the works of the flesh are obvious: fornication, impurity, licentiousness, 20 idolatry, sorcery, enmities, strife, jealousy, anger, quarrels, dissensions, factions, 21 envy, drunkenness, carousing, and things like these. I am warning you, as I warned you before: those who do such things will not inherit the kingdom of God. Colossians 3:5–3:7: 5 Put to death, therefore, whatever in you is earthly: fornication, impurity, passion, evil desire, and greed (which is idolatry). 6 On account of these the wrath of God is coming on those who are disobedient. 7 These are the ways you also once followed, when you were living that life. Ephesians 5:3–5:3: 3 But fornication and impurity of any kind, or greed, must not even be mentioned among you, as is proper among saints.
  5. Islam views same-sex desires as an unnatural temptation; and sexual relations are seen as a transgression of the natural role and aim of sexual activity. "Do you approach males among the worlds And leave what your Lord has created for you as mates? But you are a people transgressing". — Quran , Surah 26 (165-166)
  6. Romans 1:19–1:27: 19 For what can be known about God is plain to them, because God has shown it to them. 20 Ever since the creation of the world his eternal power and divine nature, invisible though they are, have been understood and seen through the things he has made. So they are without excuse; 21 for though they knew God, they did not honor him as God or give thanks to him, but they became futile in their thinking, and their senseless minds were darkened. 22 Claiming to be wise, they became fools; 23 and they exchanged the glory of the immortal God for images resembling a mortal human being or birds or four-footed animals or reptiles. 24 Therefore God gave them up in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, to the degrading of their bodies among themselves, 25 because they exchanged the truth about God for a lie and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever! Amen. 26 For this reason God gave them up to degrading passions. Their women exchanged natural intercourse for unnatural, 27 and in the same way also the men, giving up natural intercourse with women, were consumed with passion for one another. Men committed shameless acts with men and received in their own persons the due penalty for their error.
  7. The teachings of the Catholic Church on same-sex attraction are summarized in the Catechism of the Catholic Church: 2357 Homosexuality refers to relations between men or between women who experience an exclusive or predominant sexual attraction toward persons of the same sex. It has taken a great variety of forms through the centuries and in different cultures. Its psychological genesis remains largely unexplained. Basing itself on Sacred Scripture, which presents homosexual acts as acts of grave depravity, tradition has always declared that 'homosexual acts are intrinsically disordered.' They are contrary to the natural law. They close the sexual act to the gift of life. They do not proceed from a genuine affective and sexual complementarity. Under no circumstances can they be approved. 2358 The number of men and women who have deep-seated homosexual tendencies is not negligible. This inclination, which is objectively disordered, constitutes for most of them a trial. They must be accepted with respect, compassion, and sensitivity. Every sign of unjust discrimination in their regard should be avoided. These persons are called to fulfill God's will in their lives and, if they are Christians, to unite to the sacrifice of the Lord's Cross the difficulties they may encounter from their condition. 2359 Homosexual persons are called to chastity. By the virtues of self-mastery that teach them inner freedom, at times by the support of disinterested friendship, by prayer and sacramental grace, they can and should gradually and resolutely approach Christian perfection.
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