Ndoa

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Pete, alama ya ndoa.

Ndoa ni muungano kati ya watu wawili au zaidi unaokubaliwa na kuheshimiwa na jamii. Tukio la kuanzisha ndoa linaitwa harusi. Kama watu wanaohusika wakikomesha ndoa yao kisheria, hali hii inaitwa talaka.

Katika utamaduni wa nchi nyingi uhusiano huo ni kati ya mwanamume mmoja na mwanamke mmoja tu na unalenga ustawi wao na uzazi wa watoto katika familia.

Katika nchi nyingine, hasa za Kiislamu na za Afrika, inakubalika ndoa kati ya watu wawili ambao mmojawapo ana au anaweza kuwa na mwenzi au wenzi wengine pia (mitara au upali), hususan ndoa ya mwanamume mmoja na wanawake zaidi ya mmoja. Kumbe kwingine, hasa Ulaya, hilo ni kosa la jinai.

Mara nyingi harusi inafanyika kwa ibada maalumu kadiri ya dini ya wahusika.

Baadhi ya madhehebu ya Kikristo yanatazama ndoa kati ya wabatizwa wawili kuwa sakramenti: rejea Ndoa (sakramenti). Hasa Kanisa Katoliki linaamini ndoa haiwezi kuvunjwa kwa talaka kutokana na kauli ya Yesu: "Mungu alichokiunganisha, binadamu asikitenganishe" (Mk 10:9).

Suala la ndoa ya jinsia moja[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Tangu mwaka 2000 idadi inayozidi kuongezeka ya nchi zimeanza kuruhusu ndoa kati ya watu wawili wa jinsia moja. Kumbe nchi nyingine zinapinga vikali jaribio hilo kama kinyume cha dini na desturi au hata maumbile yenyewe. Tabia za kingono kati ya wanyama wa jinsia moja zimeonekana katika spishi 500 hivi duniani kote,[1][2] lakini wanaosema kuwa ushoga ni kinyume cha maumbile wanamaanisha maumbile ya binadamu yanayotakiwa kuongozwa na akili na utashi, si silika tu kama ilivyo kwa viumbehai wengine wote. Kwa mfano, ubakaji unafanywa na wanyama mbalimbali, lakini kwa binadamu haufai kabisa.

Takwimu zinaonyesha kwamba katika ndoa za jinsia moja uaminifu wa moyoni na wa mwilini ni mdogo kuliko katika ndoa za jinsia mbili.[3]

Uchunguzi mwingi umeonyesha kwamba wanaume waliofunga ndoa za jinsia moja wana kiwango cha talaka cha chini kidogo kikilinganishwa na kile cha watu waliofunga ndoa za jinsia mbili.[4][5] Ndoa za wanaume wawili zinasedeka kushinda zile za jinsia mbili na zile za wanawake wawili.[6]

Kiwango cha juu cha talaka kati ya wanawake kinapatana na takwimu zinazoonyesha kwamba kwa ujumla wanawake ndio wanaoanzisha talaka zilizo nyingi.[7][8]

Vilevile utafiti fulani umehusianisha kuhalalishwa kwa ndoa za jinsia moja na upungufu mkubwa wa kiwango cha kujaribu kujiua kwa watoto.[9][10][11]

Hata hivyo, nchi nyingi, hasa za Afrika, hazikubali ndoa za jinsia moja. Sheria za nchi nyingine zinawapa watu wawili wa jinsia moja wanaoishi pamoja haki karibu zilezile za watu wa ndoa, lakini zinakwepa kuita miungano hiyo "ndoa".

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Bagemihl, Bruce (1999). Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-25377-6. 
  2. Harrold, Max (1999-02-16). Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity. The Advocate, reprinted in Highbeam Encyclopedia. Iliwekwa mnamo 2007-09-10.
  3. Symons suggests that all men are innately disposed to want sexual variation and that the difference between heterosexual and homosexual men is that homosexual men can find willing partners more often for casual sex, and thus satisfy this innate desire for sexual variety. Harris, C. R. (2002). "Sexual and romantic jealousy in heterosexual and homosexual adults". Psychological Science. 13 (1): 7–12. doi:10.1111/1467-9280.00402. PMID 11892782.
  4. Marian Jones (1 May 1997). Lessons from a Gay Marriage: Despite stereotypes of gay relationships as short-lived, gay unions highlight the keys to success. Psychology Today. Iliwekwa mnamo 20 April 2011.
  5. Andersson, Gunnar (February 2006). "The Demographics of Same-Sex 'Marriages' in Norway and Sweden" (PDF). Demography 43 (1): 79–98. doi:10.1353/dem.2006.0001 . http://www-same-sex.ined.fr/WWW/04Doc124Gunnar.pdf.
  6. Marital Bliss? Gender Gaps.... Iliwekwa mnamo 26 December 2015.
  7. In the Netherlands of the 580 lesbian couples who were married in 2005, 30% were divorced ten years later compared to 18% for heterosexual couples and 15% for gay male couples. Janene Pieters (1 March 2016). Marriages Between Women Most Likely To End In Divorce. NL Times. Iliwekwa mnamo 17 May 2018.
  8. Marian Jones (1 May 1997). Lessons from a Gay Marriage: Despite stereotypes of gay relationships as short-lived, gay unions highlight the keys to success. Psychology Today. Iliwekwa mnamo 20 April 2011.
  9. Difference-in-Differences Analysis of the Association Between State Same-Sex Marriage Policies and Adolescent Suicide Attempts.
  10. Study: Teen suicide attempts fell as same-sex marriage was legalized (February 20, 2017).
  11. Same-sex marriage laws linked to fewer youth suicide attempts, new study says (February 20, 2017).
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