Falsafa

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Rukia: urambazaji, tafuta
Wanafalsafa Plato na Aristoteli; uchongaji wa karne ya 15 kwenye mnara wa kanisa huko Firenze, Italia.

Falsafa (kutoka Kigiriki φιλοσοφία filosofia = pendo la hekima) ni jaribio la kuelewa na kueleza ulimwengu kwa kutumia akili inayofuata hoja za mantiki.

Falsafa huchunguza mambo kama kuweko na kutokuweko, ukweli, ujuzi, uzuri, mema na mabaya, lugha, haki na mengine yoyote.

Tofauti na dini, imani au itikadi, njia ya falsafa ni mantiki inayoeleza hatua zake ikiwa tayari kuchungulia upya kila hatua iliyochukua. Kwa hiyo falsafa ni njia ya kuuliza maswali na kutafuta majibu.

Katika lugha ya kila siku neno "falsafa" mara nyingi linachukuliwa kutaja jumla ya mafundisho au imani ya mtu au kundi la watu, kwa mfano "falsafa ya chama fulani", "falsafa ya maisha yangu" na kadhalika. Lakini kwa jumla fikra hizo hazistahili kuitwa "falsafa". Ila tu kuna makundi ya wanafalsafa wanaopendelea mielekeo tofauti na kuhusu haya inawezekana kutumia neno "falsafa ya fulani" kwa kutaja matokeo ya kazi yao.

Matawi ya falsafa[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Falsafa jinsi inavyoendeshwa kwenye vyuo vikuu huwa na matawi kadhaa kama vile:

Aina za falsafa[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kuna mbinu nyingi za falsafa zilizoendelea kulingana na mazingira ya utamaduni ambako wanafalsafa waliishi. Mara nyingi falsafa imeendelea karibu na dini, ndani ya dini au kwa mchanganyiko na dini mbalimbali.

Lakini falsafa inachunguza pia matamko ya dini na kuuliza maswali juu ya maana ya matamko haya.

Wanafalsafa muhimu wa Asia walikuwa Konfutse na Lao Tze katika China na Buddha katika Uhindi.

Chanzo cha falsafa katika Ulaya kilitokea katika ustaarabu wa Ugiriki ya Kale. Wanafalsafa wa huko waliweka misingi mingi kwa dunia ya baadaye pamoja na misingi ya sayansi ya sasa. Kati ya majina mashuhuri ni Plato na Aristoteli.

Wanafalsafa[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Wanafalsafa wa Ugiriki ya Kale[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Wanafalsafa wa mapokeo ya magharibi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Wanafalsafa wa kisasa kutoka Ulaya na Marekani[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Wanafalsafa wa Afrika[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Wanafalsafa wa Asia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Tazama pia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • A. Mihanjo, Falsafa na Usanifu wa Hoja, Salvatorianum, Morogoro
  • A. Mihanjo, Falsafa na Ufunuo wa Maarifa, Salvatorianum, Morogoro

Marejeo mengine[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Vyanzo (google books)
  • (1967) [[[:Kigezo:Google books]] The Encyclopedia of Philosophy]. Macmillan & Free Press. 
  • Kant, Immanuel (1881). [[[:Kigezo:Google books]] Critique of Pure Reason]. Macmillan. 
  • Bowker, John (1999). [[[:Kigezo:Google books]] The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions]. Oxford University Press, Incorporated. ISBN 978-0-19-866242-6. 
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  • (16 August 2012) [[[:Kigezo:Google books]] A New History of Western Philosophy]. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-958988-3. 
  • (1995) [[[:Kigezo:Google books]] The Oxford Companion to Philosophy]. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-866132-0. 
  • (15 April 2008) [[[:Kigezo:Google books]] The Blackwell Companion to Philosophy]. John Wiley & Sons. 
Utangulizi
Kwa eneo
Mashariki
  • A Source Book in Indian Philosophy by Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Charles A. Moore
  • Hamilton, Sue. Indian Philosophy: a Very Short Introduction. Kigezo:ISBN
  • Kupperman, Joel J. Classic Asian Philosophy: A Guide to the Essential Texts. Kigezo:ISBN
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  • Copleston, Frederick. Philosophy in Russia: From Herzen to Lenin and Berdyaev. Kigezo:ISBN
Afrika
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Uislamu
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Historia
Ya kale
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Karne za kati
  • The Phenomenology Reader by Dermot Moran, Timothy Mooney
  • Kim, J. and Ernest Sosa, Ed. (1999). Metaphysics: An Anthology. Blackwell Philosophy Anthologies. Oxford, Blackwell Publishers Ltd.
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Karne za mwishomwisho
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  • Scruton, Roger. A Short History of Modern Philosophy. Kigezo:ISBN
Ya sasa
  • Contemporary Analytic Philosophy: Core Readings by James Baillie
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Makala muhimu
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  • The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy by Robert Audi
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  • The Concise Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy edited by Edward Craig (an abridgement)
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  • Directory of American Philosophers. Charlottesville, Philosophy Documentation Center.
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  • Indian Philosophy (2 vols.) by Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
  • A History of Indian Philosophy (5 vols.) by Surendranath Dasgupta
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