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Msalaba wa Kigiriki juu ya Msalaba wa Mt. Andrea.

Msalaba ni ishara inayotokana na mistari miwili kukutana katikati yake.

Hiyo ni mojawapo kati ya ishara ya zamani zaidi katika sanaa, utamaduni na dini, hasa Ukristo unaoheshimu kama ukumbusho wa kifodini cha mwanzilishi wake, Yesu Kristo, aliyekufa kwa njia ya usulubisho.

Lakini alama ya msalaba au za kufanana na msalaba zinapatikana pia katika tamaduni mbalimbali tangu kale bila uhusiano wowote na Ukristo.

Misalaba iliyotumiwa kwa adhabu ya mauti iliweza kuwa na maumbo mbalimbali, hata kuwa ubao mmoja tu bila mikono ya kando.

Misalaba mbalimbali[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Picha Jina la Msalaba Maelezo
Ankh.jpg Msalaba wa Misri wa Kale

Ankh au msalaba wa Misri; ni ishara kutoka utamaduni wa Misri ya Kale na ya kale zaidi kuliko malaba wa kikristo. Kwa Wamisri ilikuwa ishara ya uhai na uzao. Baadaye ilitumiwa pia katika sanaa ya Wakristo. Hapa inajulikana pia kwa jina la Kilatini la crux ansata ("msalaba mwenye mikono").

Christian cross.svg Msalaba wa Kikristo

Umbo hili lajulikana pia kama msalaba wa Kilatini. Ni ishara itumiayo na Wakristo wengi kama kumbukumbu ya Yesu Kristo na kifo chake kwa njia ya usulubisho na pia ufufuo wake.

Simple crossed circle.svg Msalaba wa Jua ,Msalaba wa Kibulgaria

Hii ni ishara ya kale kabisa inayopatikana tangu zamani za zama za mawe. Inaaminiwa kumaanisha jua. Katika sanaa ya kikristo ilipatikana hasa Bulgaria kama ishara ya kanisa la Kibulgaria. Siku za nyuma imetumiwa pia na wapagani wa kisasa.

Ccross.svg Msalaba wa Kikelti

Inapatikana katika sanaa ya Wakristo Wakelti hasa Eire na pia katika sehemu za kisiwa cha Britania kama msalaba juu ya makaburi na katika makanisa.

Cantercross.svg Msalaba wa Canterbury

Inapatikana hasa katika makanisa ya Kianglikana.[1]

Small crucifix.jpg Msulubiwa

Ni msalaba pamoja na mwili wa Yesu juu yake.

Serbian Cross1.svg Msalaba wa Kiserbia (Tetragrammatic cross)

The motif of a cross between four objects is derived from Constantine's labarum and has figured on Byzantine coins, since the 6th c. Later, the 4 symbols of the cross have been interpreted as flints or firestones, but also as the initials (letters β) of the imperial motto of the Palaiologos dynasty: King of Kings, Ruling Over Kings (Greek: βασιλεύς βασιλέων, βασιλεύων βασιλευόντων - Basileus Basileōn, Basileuōn Basileuontōn). The cross has been used by Serbian states and the Serbian Orthodox Church since the Middle Ages after Dušan the Mighty was crowned Emperor (Tsar) of the Serbs and Greeks (16 Aprili 1345). Today it is the national, religious and ethnic symbol of Serbs and Serbia.

Msalaba wa Florian

Adopted as an emblem by the fire service, this cross is named for Saint Florian, the patron saint of Poland, Austria and firefighters. Although similar to the Maltese Cross and Cross pattée, it differs in having arms rounded outwards at the ends. Two different versions are included here; the one above is commonly found on fire service badges, patches, and emblems; the one below is typical of the St. Florian medallion or medal.

85px Msalaba wa Mashariki

Used in the Eastern Orthodox Church. The top line is said to represent the headboard, and the bottom, slanted line represents the footrest, wrenched loose by Jesus' writhing in intense agony. It is raised to the left side, because that was the side of the righteous criminal who said to Jesus: "remember me when you come into your kingdom". This symbolises the victory of good over evil. The letters IC XC found at the end of the main arm of most Eastern Orthodox Crosses are a Christogram, representing the name of Jesus Christ (Greek: Ιησούς Χριστός). See also the Cross of Salem.

St Brigid.png Msalaba wa Mt. Brigita

This cross is found throughout Ireland. It is told that the cross was made by Brigid, daughter of a pagan king from reeds to be used as an instrument of conversion. However, Brigid's name is derived from Brigit (also spelled Brigid, Brìghde, Brìde, and Bríde), a Celtic Goddess of fire, poetry, and smithcraft, and today the cross is used to protect houses from fire. This is an example of the integration of religious traditions.

Labarum.png Chi-Rho

Constantine I's emblem, the Chi-Rho (from the two Greek letters that make it up) is also known as the labarum or Christogram. Several variants exist.

Croix de Lorraine.png Msalaba wa Lorraine

Used in heraldry. It is similar to a patriarchal cross, but usually has one bar near the middle and one near the top, rather than having both near the top. Is part of the heraldic arms of Lorraine in eastern France. It was originally held to be a symbol of Joan of Arc, renowned for her perseverance against foreign invaders of France.

Marian Cross.jpg Msalaba wa Kimaria

Included on the coat of arms of Pope John Paul II, the Marian Cross is a Catholic adaptation of the traditional Latin cross to emphasize Catholic devotion to Mary.

Flag of Denmark.svg Msalaba wa Kaskazini

Used in flags descended from the Dannebrog.

Cathar cross.svg Msalaba wa Occitania

Based on the counts of Toulouse's traditional coat of arms, it soon became the symbol of Occitania as a whole.

PopesCross.svg Msalaba wa Kipapa

The three cross-bars represent the Pope's triple role as Bishop of Rome, Patriarch of the West, and successor of St. Peter, Chief of the Apostles.

Patriarchal cross.svg Msalaba wa Kipatriarki

Similar to a traditional Christian cross, but with an additional, smaller crossbar above the main one meant to represent all the Orthodox Christian Archbishops and Patriarchs. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, this cross is sometimes seen with an additional, slanted bar near the foot of the cross (see Byzantine Cross). This cross is similar to the Lorraine Cross, Caravaca Cross, and Salem Cross

USVA headstone emb-04.svg Msalaba wa Kipresbiteri Used by Presbyterian denominations.
Flag of the Red Cross.svg Red Cross

Used as a symbol for medical care in most of the world, the Red Crescent being used in Islamic countries and the Magen David Adom in Israel.

A Commonwealth Cross of Sacrifice or War Cross.jpg Msalaba wa Sadaka

A Latin cross with a superimposed sword, blade down. It is a symbol used by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission at the site of many war memorials.

CrossOfSalem.gif Msalaba wa Salem

Also known as a pontifical cross because it is carried before the Pope, it is similar to a patriarchal cross, but with an additional crossbar below the main crossbar, equal in length to the upper crossbar. It is also similar to the Eastern Cross.

Flag of Georgia.svg Msalaba wa Georgia

Used in Georgia as national flag, first used by Georgian King Vakhtang Gorgasali in the 5th century and later adopted by Queen Tamar of Georgia in the 13th century. The flag depicts a Jerusalem cross, adopted during the reign of George V of Georgia who drove out the Mongols from Georgia in 1334.

SaintNinoCross.jpg Msalaba wa Shada Msalaba wa Mt. Nino

Also known as a "Grapevine cross" and traditionally ascribed to Saint Nino, the 4th-century female baptizer of the Georgians, it is used as a symbol of the Georgian Orthodox Church.

St. Thomas Cross.jpg Msalaba wa Nasrani Menorah Msalaba wa Mt. Thoma

Also known as a "Mar Thoma Cross" and traditionally ascribed to Saint Thomas, the Apostole of India, it is used as a symbol of the Syro Malabar Catholic Church and venerated by all Saint Thomas Christians denominations.[1]

Flag of Scotland.svg Msalaba wa Mt. Andrea

Used in Scotland's national flag, the naval ensign of the Russian Navy, and the former Confederate States of America; it is also called the Saltire, the Boundary Cross (because it was used by the Romans as a barrier) and the crux decussata. Saint Andrew is believed to have suffered a martyr's death on such a cross, hence its name. The cross does not have to be at this particular angle to qualify as a saltire; the symbol X can also be considered a St. Andrew's Cross.

Flag of England.svg Msalaba wa Mt. Joji

Used in England's national flag.

Cross of the Swedish Order of Freemasons Msalaba wa Mt. Joji wa Uswidi

The definition of a St George's cross is, in Scandinavia, extended to also include a centred cross, normally red but not necessarily, with triangular arms that do not fill the square. The example beside is the cross of the Swedish Order of Freemasons.

Peter's Cross.svg Msalaba wa Mt. Petro/Inverted Cross

An upside-down Latin cross, based on a tradition that holds that Saint Peter was martyred by being crucified upside-down. Today it is often associated with anti-Christian or Satanic groups.

Te cross.svg Msalaba wa Tau

Also known as Saint Anthony's Cross, the Egyptian Cross and the crux commissa. It is shaped like the letter T. Francis of Assisi used it as his signature.

Gaffelkors.svg Msalaba wa Wezi

Also known as the Furka Cross. The fork, shaped like the letter Y. [2]

Mariner's Cross.svg Msalaba wa Baharia

The Mariner's Cross is a stylized cross in the shape of an anchor. The Mariner's Cross is also referred to as St. Clement's Cross in reference to the way he was martyred.

OrderOfCristCross.svg Msalaba wa Shirika la Msalaba

Cross originally used by the Portuguese Order of Christ. Since then it has become a symbol of Portugal, used on the sails of the carracks during the Discoveries Era, and currently by the Madeira Autonomous Region of Portugal and the Portuguese Air Force.

HandsGod.svg Mikono ya Mungu

The Hands of God (Slavic: ręce boga) is a pre-Christian symbol in central Europe.

Celtic-style crossed circle.svg Extreme-right variant of the Celtic Cross

Some white nationalist and neo-fascist groups adopted this variation of the Celtic cross, made up of simple lines, without any of the ornamental complexity of traditional Celtic crosses. It is thought that this basic variation's minor resemblance to the swastika[onesha uthibitisho] is the reason it has become popular in such circles. This variation was also used by the Zodiac killer at the scenes of his crimes.

Swastika.png Swastika

The swastika is an equilateral cross with its arms bent at right angles, in either right-facing () form or its mirrored left-facing () form.

Archaeological evidence of swastika-shaped ornaments dates from the Neolithic period. It occurs mainly in the modern day culture of India, sometimes as a geometrical motif and sometimes as a religious symbol. It remains widely used in Eastern religions / Dharmic religion such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. Though once commonly used all over much of the world without stigma, because of its right-facing variant's iconic usage in Nazi Germany, the symbol has become stigmatized in the Western world.

Skull and crossbones.svg Fuvu la Kichwa na Mifupa

Not a cross as such, but a saltire made of bones, with an overlaid skull. While traditionally associated with pirates, it was actually relatively rarely used by them, each ship having its own design, often involving an hourglass.

Katika bendera[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Bendera nyingi zinabeba ishara ya msalaba.

Bendera za nchi huru zenye msalaba[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Bendera nyingine zenye msalaba[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Bendera ya Alabama Bendera ya Florida

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Chevalier, Jean (1997). "The Penguin Dictionary of Symbols". Penguin ISBN 0-14-051254-3
  • Koch, Rudolf (1955). The Book of Signs. Dover, NY. ISBN 0-486-20162-7.
  • Drury, Nevill (1985). Dictionary of Mysticism and the Occult. Harper & Row ISBN 0-06-062093-5
  • Webber, F. R. (1927, rev 1938). Church Symbolism: an explanation of the more important symbols of the Old and New Testament, the primitive, the mediaeval and the modern church. Cleveland, OH. OCLC 236708.

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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