Konstantino Mkuu

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Konstantino Mkuu

Konstantino Mkuu (jina kamili: Flavius Valerius Constantinus; 27 Februari 27222 Mei 337) alikuwa Kaisari wa Dola la Roma tangu mwaka 306 akitawala peke yake tangu 324.

Anakumbukwa kama mtawala aliyefaulu kumaliza kipindi cha vita vya wenyewe kwa wenyewe na kukubali Ukristo kama dini huru katika dola.

Alihamisha mji mkuu kutoka Roma kwenda Bizanti iliyoitwa baadaye Konstantinopoli.

Alivyoingia utawala[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Baba yake Constantius alikuwa mmojawapo wa makaisari wanne walioshirikiana pamoja katika utawala wa dola. Baada ya kifo cha baba jeshi lake likamtangaza Konstantino kuwa Kaisari pia, lakini bila mawasiliano na wengine. Hata hivyo alikubaliwa kama Kaisari mdogo akihusika na majimbo ya Gallia na Britania.

Mwaka 311/312 fitina kati ya makaisari ilikuwa vita na Konstantino alilenga kupanua himaya yake. Mpinzani wake alikuwa hasa Maxentius aliyekaa Italia. Konstantino aliweza kumshinda kwenye mapigano kwenye daraja la Milvio mjini Roma.

Inasemekana kabla ya mapigano hayo alipatwa na ndoto alipoona msalaba wa Yesu Kristo katika jua akasikia sauti, "Utashinda chini ya alama hii!". Baadaye vikosi vya Konstatino vilikuwa na bendera iliyoonyesha herufi za chi-rho ambazo zilimaanisha jina la "Kristo".

Ushindi huu ulimfanya Konstantino awe mkuu wa nusu ya magharibi ya Dola la Roma.

Uhuru kwa Wakristo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Khi-Rho: Alama ya Kristo iliyowekwa kwenye bendera za vikosi vya jeshi la Konstantino.

Hadi mwaka 311 Wakristo waliteswa vikali kwa amri ya Kaisari Diokletiano. Konstatino alibadilisha siasa hii baada ya ushindi na kukubali Ukristo kwa mara ya kwanza kama dini iliyoruhusiwa rasmi, akafaulu pia kupata kibali cha Kaisari mwenzake.

Mwaka 313 alikutana na Licinius, Kaisari wa mashariki ya dola. Pamoja makaisari hao wawili walipatana kutoa tamko la Milano lililotangaza mwisho wa dhuluma dhidi ya Wakristo: "Baada ya kukutana hapa Milano sisi Kaisari Konstantino na Kaisari Licinius tumeamua kuwapa Wakristo pamoja na watu wote uhuru wa kuchagua dini yao ili Mungu wa mbinguni atupe fadhili zake."

Konstantino hakufanya Ukristo kuwa dini rasmi na yeye mwenyewe hakupokea ubatizo hadi muda mfupi kabla ya kifo chake.

Hakuna hakika kuhusu sababu zake: inajulikana ya kwamba mama yake Helena alikuwa Mkristo lakini hakuna hakika alikuwa na athira gani katika malezi ya mwanawe.

Mtawala wa pekee[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Tangu mwaka 316 Konstatino alianza kugongana na kaisari mwenzake wa mashariki Liceinius baada ya huyu kuonekana anasaidia mipango ya uasi dhidi ya Konstantino. Mwaka 324 alimshinda na kumkamata akawa mtawala wa pekee.

Hapa aliamua mara moja kuhamisha mji mkuu kutoka Roma kwenda Bizanti. Alitumia pesa nyingi kwa ujenzi wake na kuitangaza rasmi mwaka 330.

Aliratibu upya utawala wa dola akaweka misingi iliyoweza kudumu kwa miaka mingi baada yake.

Hata hivyo alipaswa kutetea mipaka ya dola dhidi ya Wagermanik na dhidi ya Waajemi.

Mozaiki ya Konstantino pamoja na bombwe la majengo ya Konstantinopoli.

Konstantino na Kanisa[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Konstantino alionekana mapema kama msaidizi wa Wakristo. Machoni pa Wakristo mageuzi yale yalikuwa kama miujiza ya Mungu, kwa kuwa tangu Kaisari Nero (mnamo mwaka 64) mateso ya Wakristo yalikuwa yamerudia tena na tena. Sasa yalikwisha, na Wakristo walipewa nafasi ya kusikilizwa na Kaisari mwenyewe.

Mwaka 321 Kaisari alitangaza Jumapili kama "siku ya jua" kuwa sikukuu na ofisi za serikali zilipumzika.

Mwaka 325 alialika maaskofu wa Kanisa lote kwa mtaguso wa kwanza wa Nisea. Mtaguso mkuu huu ulikuwa mkutano wa kwanza wa maaskofu wa Kikristo kutoka pande mbalimbali za dola la Roma na hata nje yake. Mkutano uliamua kuhusu masuala mablimbali ukakubali kanuni ya imani ya Nisea inayoendelea kutumika kanisani hadi leo.

Konstantino alivutwa kuitisha mtaguso huo ili kuingilia farakano kati ya Wakristo kuhusu Arius na mafundisho yake.

Kwa kukosa ujuzi wa mambo hayo, Kaisari alishawishwa mara kumkataa Arius asiendelee kufundisha, mara kumkataa mpinzani wake mkuu, askofu Atanasi na kuwaamuru waondoke katika mji wa Aleksandria.

Kanisa la Waorthodoksi lilimtangaza Konstantino kuwa mtakatifu.

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Vyanzo vya kale[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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Marejeo mengine[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Baynes, Norman H. (1930). Constantine the Great and the Christian Church. London: Milford. 
  • Burckhardt, Jacob (1949). The Age of Constantine the Great. London: Routledge. 
  • Cameron, Averil (1993). The later Roman empire : AD 284–430. London: Fontana Press. ISBN 0006861725. 
  • (1971) The conversion of Constantine. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. ISBN 003083645X. 
  • Pelikán, Jaroslav (1987). The excellent empire : the fall of Rome and the triumph of the church. San Francisco: Harper & Row. ISBN 0062546368. 

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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