Vita Kuu ya Kwanza ya Dunia

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Rukia: urambazaji, tafuta
Shirikiano za kijeshi katika Ulaya mwaka 1915. Nyekundu: Mataifa ya Kati; kijani: Mataifa ya Ushirikiano; njano: mataifa yasiyoshiriki vita
Vita Kuu ya Kwanza ya Dunia:
1.Mifereji huko Verdun (Ufaransa) baada ya kulimwa kwa mizinga mikubwa;
2. Ndege za kijeshi na faru za kwanza;
3. bunduki ya mtombo na manowari
Ramani ya dunia ikionyesha nchi na maeneo yaliyoshiriki katika Vita Kuu ya Kwanza ya Dunia. Kijani: Mataifa ya Ushirikiano; njano: Mataifa ya Kati; nchi zisizoshiriki kwa rangi ya kijivu

Vita Kuu ya Kwanza ya Dunia ilikuwa vita iliyopigwa kuanzia mwaka 1914 hadi 1918. Mataifa wapiganaji yalikuwa Ujerumani, Austria-Hungaria, Bulgaria na Uturuki (ziliitwa "Mataifa ya Kati") kwa upande mmoja dhidi ya Ufaransa, Urusi, Uingereza, Italia, Marekani na nchi mbalimbali zilizoshirikiana nazo (zilitwa "Mataifa ya Ushirikiano").

Vita hii ilianza katika Ulaya ikapanuka haraka hadi Mashariki ya Kati, Afrika na Asia ya Mashariki ikasababisha kifo cha takriban watu milioni tisa.

Sababu na matokeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Sababu yake ilikuwa mashindano makali kati ya mataifa ya Ulaya kuhusu kushika nafasi ya kipaumbele barani Ulaya na duniani kote.

Matokeo yake yalikuwa mwisho wa kipaumbele cha Ulaya duniani na kupanda ngazi kwa Marekani, mapinduzi katika nchi mbalimbali, mwisho wa falme za Ujerumani, Austria na Urusi pamoja na mwanzo wa utawala wa kikomunisti katika Urusi, mwisho wa Dola la Austria-Hungaria na wa Dola la Uturuki la Kiosmani pamoja na mwisho wa ukoloni wa Kijerumani duniani.

Katika Ulaya nchi mpya zilijitokeza kama vile Chekoslovakia, Finland, Latvia, Estonia na Yugoslavia pamoja na nchi za zamani zilizotokea tena katika uwanja wa kimataifa ndizo Austria, Hungaria, Lithuania na Poland.

Hali kabla ya vita[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Sehemu kubwa ya Ulaya iliwahi kuwa na kipindi kirefu cha amani tangu vita kati ya Ufaransa na Ujerumani mnamo 1870-1871. Mataifa ya Ulaya yalikuwa na mfumo wa mikataba na mapatano kati yao yaliyolenga kuhakikisha uwiano wa mataifa. Mataifa makubwa ya Ulaya yalikuwa Uingereza, Ufaransa, Ujerumani, Urusi na Italia.

Hali ilikuwa tofauti katika Kusini-Mashariki mwa bara hilo. Hadi nusu ya pili ya karne ya 19 sehemu kubwa ya Balkani ilitawaliwa na Milki ya Osmani iliyokuwa milki ya Kiislamu ya kutawala Wakristo wengi. Milki hii iliendelea kudhoofika wakati wa karne ya 19. Nchi mbalimbali zilijitenga na kupata uhuru, kama vile Ugiriki, Serbia, Bulgaria na Romania. Nchi hizi mpya zilipigana kivita kati yao na Milki ya Osmani hadi mwaka 1912.

Mwanzo wa vita[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Vita Kuu ilianza kutokana na ugomvi kati ya Austria-Hungaria na Serbia. Kutokana na muundo wa mikataba ya kusaidiana kati ya nchi za Ulaya mwanzo huo ulisababisha mfululizo wa hali ya vita kati ya mataifa, na mengine ya Balkani yalitafuta uhuru wao.

Tarehe 28 Juni 1914 katika mji wa Sarayevo, Bosnia, mwana wa Kaisari wa Austria aliyekuwa mfalme mteule aliuawa pamoja na mke wake na mgaidi Mserbia mwanachama wa kundi la "Mkono Mweusi" lililopinga utawala wa Austria-Hungaria katika Bosnia. Austria ilidai Serbia ifuate masharti makali katika uchunguzi wa tendo lile. Serbia ilipokataa sehemu ya masharti, Austria ilitangaza hali ya vita dhidi ya Serbia tarehe 28 Julai 1914.

Agosti ya 1914 iliona kupanuka kwa vita hii: Warusi walikuwa na mkataba wa usaidizi na Serbia wakatangaza hali ya vita dhidi ya Austria-Hungaria. Hapo wakaingia Wajerumani waliokuwa na mapatano ya usaidizi na Austria-Hungaria wakitangaza hali ya vita dhidi ya Urusi. Urusi kwa upande wake ulikuwa na mkataba wa kusaidiana na Ufaransa, hivyo hali ya vita ikajitokeza pia kati ya Ufaransa na Ujerumani. Uingereza ulijiunga na vita baada ya Wajerumani kuanza kuingia eneo la Ubelgiji kwa shabaha ya kuvuka haraka ili wavamie Ufaransa Kaskazini.

Kuanzia Oktoba 1914 Milki ya Osmani (Uturuki) ilijiunga na vita kufuatana na mkataba wake wa siri na Ujerumani.

Mwaka 1915 Italia ilijiunga na Wafaransa na Waingereza kwa kushambulia Austria-Hungaria, ingawa awali ilikuwa na mkataba na dola hilo.

Vita katika nchi mbalimbali[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Vita ilipigwa kwa ukali miaka ya 1914-1918. Wajerumani waliingia ndani ya Ufaransa lakini walikwama kabla ya kufikia mji mkuu wa Paris. Kwa muda mrefu mstari wa mapambano ulibaki palepale.

Katika Mashariki Wajerumani walifaulu kurudisha mashambulio ya Kirusi na kuteka sehemu za Urusi.

Katika Kusini mwa Ulaya Waustria walifaulu kwa shida kubwa kuteka Serbia na Montenegro pamoja na Albania.

Waturuki walishindwa kwa ujumla katika mashambulio yao dhidi ya Warusi katika eneo la Kaukazi na dhidi ya Waingereza katika Misri. Lakini walifaulu kuzuia Waingereza wasifike Uturuki penyewe. Waingereza walipeleka jeshi katika Irak ya kusini wakafaulu kuwarudisha Waturuki hadi kaskazini ya nchi hii.

Vita katika makoloni[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Vita ilienea haraka baharini na katika makoloni ya Ujerumani yaliyovamiwa na Waingereza, Wafaransa, Afrika Kusini na Japani. Makoloni yalikuwepo Afrika na kwenye visiwa vya Pasifiki pamoja na China. Ujerumani ilikuwa na vikosi vya kijeshi katika makoloni ya Afrika na pia huko Qingdao nchini China.

Kwa ujumla makoloni yote yasiyokuwa na jeshi yalitekwa na mataifa ya ushirikiano bila mapigano.

Mwisho wa vita[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Wakati 1917 mataifa ya Ulaya yalionyesha dalili za uchovu. Katika hali hiyo mabadiliko mawili makubwa yalitokea: Marekani ilijiunga na vita dhidi ya Wajerumani na Urusi uliona mapinduzi yaliyolazimisha serikali mpya kutia sahihi mapatano ya kumaliza mapigano dhidi ya Wajerumani walioteka maeneo makubwa ya Urusi.

Nguvu ya Marekani ilionekana haraka na bahati ya Ujerumani ilipungua sana. Austria-Hungaria ilidhoofishwa vilevile.

Mwaka 1918 iliona mwisho wa vita. Milki za Austria na Uturuki zilikwisha zikagawiwa na sehemu zao zilikuwa nchi mpya au nchi zilizoundwa upya.

Mkutano wa Paris[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mwaka 1919 mataifa washindi walikutana Paris (Ufaransa) wakikubaliana masharti ya kumaliza hali ya vita dhidi ya Mataifa ya Kati. Mikataba mbalimbali iliandaliwa kati ya washindi na kuwekwa mbele ya nchi zilizoshindwa.

Mikataba hii ilikuwa:

Mkutano wa Paris ulitoa masharti makali dhidi ya Ujerumani katika Mkataba wa Versailles. Ujerumani uliondolowa makoloni yote yaliyokabidhiwa kwa niaba ya Shirikisho la Mataifa kama maeneo ya kukabidhiwa kwa Uingereza, Ufaransa, Ubelgiji, Japani, Afrika Kusini na Australia.

Mkutano wa Paris ulikuwa jaribio la kuunda utaratibu mpya duniani uliotakiwa kulindwa na Shirikisho la Mataifa. Lakini ukosefu wa nguvu kwa upande wa Shirikisho la Mataifa pamoja na kuanza na kupanuka kwa mwendo mpya wa Kifashisti iliyochukua utawala katika Italia na Ujerumani vilishinda nia hiyo.

Wataalamu wasio wachache wanasema mwisho wa vita kuu ya kwanza ulipanda tayari mbegu za Vita Kuu ya Pili ya Dunia.

Ni kwamba Wajerumani na wakazi wa nchi nyingine zilizoshindwa walijiona wamekosewa haki, lakini pia Waitalia walioshinda kwa gharama kubwa ya damu walijiona wamedanganywa kwa kutotimiziwa ahadi walizopewa ili wasaliti Ujerumani na Austria-Hungaria na kuingia vitani upande wa pili. Hivyo vyama vya mrengo wa kulia viliweza kupata nguvu na hatimaye kupanga kisasi.

Vita ya kwanza ya dunia?[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Vita hii ilitwa "Vita ya Dunia" kwa sababu mapigano yalisambaa kote duniani. Sehemu kubwa ya mapigano yalitokea Ulaya na Asia ya Magharibi lakini pia katika makoloni ya Afrika, Asia na Pasifiki. Nchi za Amerika hazikuona mapigano kwenye nchi kavu lakini manowari za Ujerumani zilipigana na mataifa ya ushirikiano mbele ya pwani za Marekani na Amerika Kusini.

Ilikuwa pia vita ya kwanza iliyopigwa kote duniani ilhali habari zake ziliweza kufika katika muda wa masaa au siku chache kwa mataifa yote kutokana na upatikanaji wa vyombo vya mawasiliano hasa simu za kimataifa na redio.

Lakini kwa kweli haikuwa vita ya kwanza ya "dunia" maana vita ya miaka saba (1756-1762) ilipigwa pia kwenye mabara yote ya dunia baina ya nchi zenye makoloni hasa Uingereza, Ufaransa na Hispania.

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Ramani hai[hariri | hariri chanzo]