Mlipuko wa virusi vya corona 2019-20

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Mlipuko wa Virusi vya Korona duniani
Komesha Kuenea kwa Viini

Mlipuko wa Virusi vya Korona (kwa Kiingereza: Coronavirus) ulibainika rasmi tarehe za katikati za mwezi Desemba mwaka 2019 katika mji wa Wuhan huko China ya kati. Ulikuwa kikundi cha watu wenye nimonia bila chanzo kinachoeleweka. Ulibanika baadaye kama aina mpya ya virusi vya korona.[1][2][3][4]

Tarehe 20 Januari 2020 Waziri Mkuu wa Uchina Li Keqiang alitoa wito wa kutia juhudi katika kukomesha na kudhibiti janga la nimonia lililosababishwa na virusi vya korona.[5] Kufikia tarehe 23 Machi, 2020, kesi 337,000 zimethibitishwa,[6]

Kufikia tarehe 5 Februari 2020, vifo 493 vilitokana na virusi hivyo tangu kifo cha kwanza kilichothibitishwa Januari 9, na watu 990 waliopona. [7] Kifo cha kwanza nje ya Uchina kiliripotiwa tarehe 1 Februari nchini Ufilipino, kilikuwa ni kifo cha mwanamume wa Kichina mwenye umri wa miaka 44.

Kumekuwa na majaribio ambayo yameonyesha kesi zaidi ya 6000 zilizothibitishwa nchini Uchina, ambazo baadhi zao ni za wafanyakazi wa huduma ya afya.[8]

Katikati ya Februari 2020 maswali mengi kuhusu virusi hivi vilibaki bila jibu, lakini Shirika la Afya Duniani lilitoa tathmini kuwa[9]

  • zaidi ya asilimia 80 za wagonjwa huonekana kuwa na ugonjwa mwepesi, wanapona
  • kati ya asilimia za wagonjwa kuna maambukizi mazito yanayosababisha matatizo ya kupumua, hata nimonia, na asilimia 15 kudai walazwe hospitalini
  • takriban asilimia 5 huwa na magonjwa hatari
  • mnamo asilimia 2 hufa; hatari ya kifo inapatikana hasa kwa wazee, kuna mfano michache ya watoto. Baadaye imeonekana kwamba kiwango cha vifo si kubwa vile, labda kati ya % 0.5 hadi 1 lakini si rahisi kutaja kiwango kwa uhakika kwa sababu wengi walioambukizwa hawajulikani.
  • utafiti wa ziada bado unahitajika
  • kuna dalili kwamba virusi vya Covid-19 vinaweza kudumu hadi siku 8 kwenye uso wa kitu kilichoguswa na mgonjwa na bado kusababisha maambukizi

Kufikia tarehe 11 Julai 2020, zaidi ya watu milioni 12.5 walithibitishwa kupatwa na COVID‑19 katika nchi na maeneo 188 duniani kote. Kati yao waliokufa ni zaidi ya 560,000 na waliopona ni zaidi ya milioni 6.89.

Historia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kuna nadharia kadhaa kuhusu kesi ya kwanza ilitoka lini. Kwa mujibu ya ripoti ya serikali ya Uchina isiyochapishwa, kesi ya kwanza inaweza kufuatiliwa mnamo 17 Novemba 2019; mtu huyo alikuwa raia wa jimbo la Hubei wenye miaka 55. Kulikuwa na wanaume wanne na wanawake watano walioripotiwa kuambukizwa mwezi Novemba, lakini wao wote si kesi ya kwanza. Kuanzia mwezi Desemba, idadi ya kesi huko Hubei iliongezeka pole pole, kufikia 60 mnamo 20 Desemba na angalau 266 mnamo 31 Desemba. Kwa mujibu ya vyanzo rasmi vya Kichina, nyingi za kesi hazikuunganishwa na soko la samaki, lililouza wanyama hai. Mwezi Mei 2020, George Gao, Mkurugenzi wa kituo cha Kichina kwa ajili ya kudhibiti na kuzuia magonjwa (CDC), alisema sampuli za wanyama zilizokusanyika sokoni humo zilipima hasi kwa virusi hivyo, kuonyesha kwamba ingawa soko lilikuwa chanzo cha kesi nyingi, halikuwa chanzo cha mlipuko wa kwanza. [10] [11] [12]

Mnamo 24 Desemba, hospitali kuu ya Wuhan ilitumia maabara ya Vision sampuli. Tarehe 27 na 28 Desemba, Vision ilitoa taarifa hospitali hiyo na CDC ya kichina, ikionyesha virusi vipya. Kundi la nimonia yenye sababu isiyojulikana liliangaliwa tarehe 26 Desemba na kutibiwa na daktari Zhang Jixian katika hospitali Hubei Provincial, na aliambia Wuhan CDC tarehe 27 Desemba juu ya kundi hilo. Tarehe 30 Desemba, ripoti ya kupima iliyotumia hospitali ya Wuhan kutoka maabara CapitalBio Medlab iliripoti matokeo ya chanya kwa SARS, lakini hayo hayakuwa sahihi, iligunduliwa baadaye.[13] [14]

Ripoti hiyo ilisababisha kundi la madaktari katika hospitali ya Wuhan Central kutoa tahadhari kwa wenzao na mamlaka ya hospitali juu ya matokeo. Jioni hiyo, Tume ya afya ya Wuhan ilitoa taarifa taasisi mbalimbali za afya juu ya "matibabu ya nimonia yenye sababu isiyojulikana". Manane wa madaktari hao, wakiwemo Li Wenliang, baadaye walionywa na polisi kwa kueneza “uvumi wa uongo,” na mwengine, Ai Fen, alikemewa na wakuu wake kwa kupiga king’ora .Serikali ya Uchina iliwaadhibu Ai Fen, Li Wengliang, na madaktari wengine ambao walijaribu kuonya umma mwezi Desemba kuhusu virusi hivyo. Li Wengliang alikufa kutokana na COVID-19 tarehe 7 Februari. Hospitali zote nchini ziliweka chini ya utawala wa chama cha kikomunist mwaka 2018 [15] [16]

Tume ya afya ya Wuhan ilitangaza habari za ugonjwa wa mapafu wenye sababu isiyojulikana tarehe 31 Desemba, na kuthibitisha kesi 27 — kutosha ili kuanzisha uchunguzi. [17] Wakati wa awamu za mapema za mlipuko, idadi ya kesi iliongezeka mara mbili kila siku saba na nusu. [18]Mnamo mwanzo na katikati ya Januari 2020, virusi vilienea hadi mikoa mingine ya Kichina, kusaidiwa na uhamiaji kuhusu siku kuu ya mwaka mpya ya kichina kwa sababu Wuhan ni kitovu kikubwa cha usafiri. [19]Tarehe 20 Januari, Uchina iliripoti kesi mpya karibu na 140 kwa siku moja, zikiwemo watu wawili mjini Beijing na mmoja huko Shenzhen.[20] Baadaye takwimu rasmi zilionyesha watu 6,174 tayari wameshakuwa na dalili, na watu zaidi huenda waliambukizwa.[21] Ripoti ya Lancet tarehe 24 Januari iliashiria maambukizo miongoni mwa binadamu, ilipendekeza sana vifaa vya kinga binafsi kwa wafanyakazi wa afya, na kusema kupima kwa virusi kulikuwa muhimu kutokana na "uwezekano wa janga".[22] Tarehe 30 Januari, shirika la WHO lilitangaza Coronavirus vilikuwa dharura ya afya ya kimataifa. [23]

Tarehe 31 Januari 2020, Italia ilikuwa na kesi zake za kwanza zilizothibitishwa, watalii wawili waliotoka Uchina. Kuanzia tarehe 13 Machi 2020, shirika la WHO lilizingatia Ulaya kama katikati ya janga.[24] Tarehe 19 Machi 2020, Italia ilipitisha Uchina kama nchi yenye vifo vingi zaidi. Tarehe 26 Machi, Marekani ilipitisha Uchina na Italia kama nchi yenye idadi kubwa zaidi ya kesi zilizothibitishwa duniani.[25] Utafiti unaonyesha kesi nyingi zaidi mjini New York zilitoka wasafiri wanaotoka Ulaya, badala ya kutoka Uchina au nchi nyingine za Asia.[26] Upimaji upya wa sampuli zilizokusanyika mapema uligundua mtu mmoja nchini Ufaransa ambaye alikuwa na virusi tarehe 27 Desemba 2019 na mtu mmoja huko Marekani ambaye alikufa kutokana na COVID-19 tarehe 6 Februari 2020. [27] [28]

Zaidi ya nchi 120 zimeunga mkono uchunguzi wa asili ya mlipuko wa COVID-19. Mwanzoni Uchina ilipambana na juhudi zao na ilitisha kulipiza kisasi cha kiuchumi kwa nchi zilizotoa mwito huu. Lakini mnamo Mei Uchina hatimaye ilikubali kushirikiana na uchunguzi huo. [29]

Mnamo 11 Septemba 2020, zaidi ya kesi milioni 28.2 zimeripotiwa kote duniani; zaidi ya watu 910,000 wamekufa na zaidi ya watu milioni 19 wamepona.[30]

Uenezi wa Covid-19 nje ya China[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Uenezi wa virusi vya SARS-Covid-19 duniani (ramani inasahihishwa kila siku)
Idadi ya watu waliothibitishwa kuwa na maambukizi
      zaidi ya 10,000       1,000–9,999       100–999       10–99       1–9 (Tarehe 16 Machi mtu wa kwanza alipatikana nchini Tanzania)
Mlipuko wa Virusi vya Corona duniani hadi 2 Machi 2020.

Hadi mwisho wa Januari 2020 takriban watu 10,000 waliambukizwa, idadi ya vifo ilikuwa mnamo 200. Virusi vilienea hadi nchi nyingine kwa njia ya abiria wa ndege za kimataifa. Wakazi wa Wuhan na miji mingine ya China yenye wagonjwa wamekataliwa kuondoka kwao baada ya hali ya karantini kutangazwa.[31].

Maambukizi ya kwanza ya ndani ya virusi hivi nje ya Uchina yalitokea Vietnam kati ya wanafamilia,[32] wakati maambukizi ya kwanza ya ndani ambayo hayakuhusisha familia yalitokea Ujerumani, tarehe 22 Januari, wakati mwanamume mmoja wa Kijerumani alipata ugonjwa huo kutoka kwa mgeni wa China kwenye kikao cha biashara.[33]

Kesi nyingine zilizothibitishwa mapema ziliripotiwa huko Thailand, Korea Kusini, Japani, Taiwani, Makau, Hong Kong, Marekani (Everett, Washington na Chicago),[8] Singapore, [34] Vietnam, Ufaransa[35], Italia na Nepali.

Katika Februari 2019 virusi viliendelea kuenea nje ya China, kupitia watu waliosafiri baina ya China na nchi nyingine. Tabia ya virusi kutosababisha ugonjwa mkali kwa wengi ilikuwa msingi kwa uenezaji usiotambuliwa mwanzoni hadi kufikia watu waliogonjeka vibaya. Milipuko ya kwanza ilionekana katika Iran[36], Korea Kusini[37] na Italia[38] ambako serikali zilitangaza hali ya karantini kwa maeneo kadhaa. Kufikia mwisho wa mwezi huo, wagonjwa wa nchi nyingine kwa pamoja walikuwa wamezidi wale wa China.

Katika Machi 2020 idadi ya maambukizi mapya ilipungua nchini China na Korea Kusini lakini iliongezeka Ulaya na kuanza kusambaa Marekani. Katika Ulaya Italia ilikuwa nchi iliyoathiriwa vibaya zaidi; serikali ilifunga shule zote pamoja na maduka yasiyo ya chakulas na dawa na kupiga marufuku mikusanyiko yote, ikiwemo ile ya ibada. Hatua kama hizo zilichukuliwa pia katika nchi nyingine. Katika Asia ya Magharibi nchi iliyoathiriwa vibaya zaidi ni Iran.

Kwa jumla si rahisi kupata picha kamili ya uenezi halisi wa virusi hivi. Ilhali dalili za ugonjwa zinafanana na mafua ya kawaida na kifua kikuu, inawezekana mara nyingi maambukizi hayakutambuliwa. Kwa sababu hiyo makadirio ya asilimia ya watu wanaokufa yanatofautiana kati ya nchi na nchi.

Tarehe 11 Machi 2020 Shirika la Afya Duniani ilitamka uenezi wa virusi umefikia ngazi ya pandemia, yaani epidemia (mlipuko) katika nchi nyingi za dunia[39].

Katikati ya mwezi Machi 2020 idadi ya wagonjwa iliongezeka sana katika nchi za Ulaya. Marekani ilizuia wasafiri kutoka Ulaya kuingia. Nchi mbalimbali, pamoja na Ujerumani, zilianza kufunga shule na kukataza mikutano yote yaliyolenga zaidi ya watu 100-500, kwa hiyo kufunga mechi za mpira wa miguu au michezo mingine, pamoja na hoteli na sinema. Kampuni mbalimbali ziliamuru wafanyakazi kukaa nyumbani na kutekeleza shughuli kupitia kompyuta pekee. Tarehe 14 Machi Denmark na Poland zilifunga mipaka kwa wote wasio raia wao, kwa kuamuru raia waliorudi wapaswe kukaa karantini wiki 2.

Kwa jumla serikali zilitangaza kwamba asilimia kubwa ya wananchi wataambukizwa zikiona changamoto kuchelewesha mchakato wa maambukizi ili wale wataokuwa wagonjwa sana wasijitokeze mara moja lakini polepole ili waweze kuhudumiwa hospitalini.

Kufikia tarehe 19 Machi nchi 170 zilikuwa na mgonjwa walau mmoja.

Tarehe 21 Machi Italia ilikuwa imezidi China kwa wingi wa vifo, kwa kuwa siku hiyo walifariki huko watu 793, kuliko siku yoyote ya China.

Kufikia tarehe 23 Machi jumla ya waliothibitishwa kupatwa na virusi ilifikia 339,645 na vifo 14,717 kati nchi zaidi ya 40.

Takwimu za tarehe 27 Machi zinaonyesha waliopatwa kwa hakika ni walau 536,000 na kati yao walau 24,100 wamekufa kwa ugonjwa huo. Idadi kubwa ya walioambukizwa nchi kwa nchi imekuwa ile ya Marekani.

Kufikia tarehe 13 Aprili walioambukizwa walifikia 1,850,000 na waliofariki dunia 114,000.

Kufikia tarehe 2 Juni walioambukizwa walifikia 6,325,303 na waliofariki dunia 377,469.

Hadi tarehe 11 Juni walioambukizwa walifikia kuwa zaidi ya 7,360,000 na waliofariki dunia 416,000.

Afrika[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mwanzoni mwa Machi 2020 hakukuwa na taarifa ya maambukizi mengi ndani ya Afrika. Wataalamu walijadiliana kama hilo ni jambo linalotokana na kukosa vifaa vya kupima na kutambua ugonjwa, au kama kuna sababu ya ugonjwa kutoenea katika Afrika. Wagonjwa wengi waliotambuliwa kusini kwa Sahara ni wasafiri waliofika kutoka nchi za nje.

Hadi 12 Machi wagonjwa walithibitishwa hasa katika Afrika Kaskazini: Misri wagonjwa 67 (1 alifariki), Algeria 20 (0), Moroko 6 (1) na Tunisia 7 (0). Upande wa kusini wa Sahara taarifa zilipatikana hasa kutoka Afrika Kusini walipotambulia wagonjwa 17 (0), wengi wao watu waliorudi kutoka safari za Italia. Togo ilikuwa na mgonjwa 1 (0) aliyethibitishwa, Senegal 4 (0), Nigeria 2 (0), Jamhuri ya Kidemokrasia ya Kongo 1 (0), Kamerun 2 (0), Burkina Faso 2 (0)[40]

Tarehe 15 Machi jioni mtu wa kwanza alithibitishwa Tanzania ameambukizwa; msafiri aliyeleta virusi vya ugonjwa huo ni mwananchi aliyefika Arusha kutoka Ubelgiji na ambaye baadaye alipona. Hadi tarehe 30 idadi rasmi ilifikia waambukizwa 19.[41] Wengi waliambukizwa nje ya nchi wakagundulika baada ya kufika Tanzania. Tarehe 31 Machi 2020 Mtanzania wa kwanza alifariki huko Dar es Salaam. Waliobaki na virusi ni watu 17 kwa mujibu wa Waziri wa Afya[42].

Kenya kulikuwa na maambukizi 31 na kifo cha kwanza.

Hadi tarehe 13 Aprili katika Afrika Bara nchi pekee isiyothibitisha maambukizi ilikuwa Lesotho, mbali ya Sahara Magharibi na visiwa mbalimbali, kama Komoro.

Kufikia tarehe 2 Juni walioambukizwa walifikia 152,442 na waliofariki dunia 4,344 katika nchi 54.

Majibu ya kitaifa[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Jumla ya nchi na maeneo 188 yamekuwa na angalau kesi moja ya COVID-19 hadi sasa. Kutokana na janga la Ulaya, nchi nyingi katika eneo la Schengen zimezuia harakati huru na kuweka udhibiti wa mipaka. Majibu ya kitaifa yamejumuisha maagizo ya kukaa nyumbani au ufungaji. [43] [30]

Hadi 26 Machi, watu 1,700,000,000 duniani kote walikuwa chini ya aina ya ufungaji, idadi ambayo iliongezeka hadi watu 3,900,000,000 mnamo wiki ya kwanza ya mwezi Aprili-zaidi ya nusu ya idadi ya watu duniani. [44]

Kufikia mwisho wa mwezi Aprili, watu takriban 300,000,000 walikuwa chini ya maagizo hayo katika mataifa ya Ulaya, zikiwemo Italia, Uhispania, Ufaransa, na Uingereza, wakati watu wapatao 200,000,000 walikuwa chini ya ufungaji katika Amerika Kusini. Watu takriban 300,000,000, au asilimia 90 ya idadi ya watu, walikuwa chini ya aina fulani ya ufungaji katika Marekani, watu 100,000,000 huko Ufilipino, watu 59,000,000 nchini Afrika Kusini, na watu 1,300,000,000 wamekuwa chini ya ufungaji nchini India. Mnamo 21 Mei maambukizo 100,000 mapya yalitokea duniani kote, na tangu mwanzo wa janga hilo. Mnamo Augosti kumekuwa na zaidi ya kesi 26,000,000 duniani. [45][46]

Asia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Tarehe 19 Mei 2020, kesi zimeripotiwa nchini kote kwa Asia isipokuwa Turkmenistan na Korea Kaskazini, ingawa pengine nchi hizi zina kesi pia. [47] [48]Licha kuwa eneo la kwanza duniani lililoathiriwa na mlipuko huo, itikio ya mapema ya baadhi ya mataifa ya Asia, hasa Korea Kusini, Taiwan, na Vietnam, imeziruhusu kufanya vizuri kuliko nchi nyingine. [49][50][51][52]

Uchina[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Inawezekana kupata asili ya kesi ya kwanza iliyothibitishwa ya COVID19 mnamo 1 Desemba 2019 mjini Wuhan; Ripoti moja isiyothibitishwa inaonyesha kesi ya mapema ilionekana tarehe 17 Novemba.[53] Daktari Zhang Jixian aliona kundi la ugonjwa wa mapafu wenye sababu isiyojulikana tarehe 26 Desemba, ambapo hospitali yake ilitoa taarifa Jianghan CDC tarehe 27 Desemba. Upimaji wa awali wa kijenetiki wa sampuli za wagonjwa tarehe 27 Desemba 2019 walionyesha uwepo wa Coronavirus kama SARS. Ilani ya umma ilitolewa na Tume ya afya ya Wuhan, tarehe 31 Desemba, kuthibitisha kesi 27 na kupendekeza kuvaa barakoa. Shirika la WHO liliambiwa siku hiyo hiyo. Kama taarifa hizi zilitokea, madaktari katika Wuhan walionywa na polisi juu ya "kueneza uvumi" kuhusu mlipuko. Tume ya afya ya Taifa ya Uchina ilisema hakukuwa na "ushahidi wazi" wa usambazaji wa binadamu ingawa madaktari mengi wamaangalia usambazaji huo ulikuwa ukifanyika. Katika mkutano siri tarehe 14 Januari, maafisa wa Uchina walisema kwa faragha kwamba maambukizo ya binadamu kwa binadamu yaliwezekana, na maandalizi ya janga yalihitajika. Katika taarifa iliyotolewa mnamo 14 – 15 Januari, Kamisheni ya afya ya Wuhan ilisema uwezekano wa maambukizo ya binadamu kwa binadamu haukuweza kupuuza. [54] [55]

Tarehe 20 Januari, Tume ya afya ya Taifa ya Uchina ilithibitisha maambukizo ya binadamu kwa binadamu. [56]Siku hiyo hiyo, Katibu Mkuu wa chama cha kikomunisti Xi Jinping na Mkuu wa Baraza la serikali, Li Keqiang, walitoa taarifa zao za kwanza kuhusu virusi, wakisema kwamba wale walioishi maeneo hayo wajitenge, kudumisha ubali wa kijamii, na kuepuka kusafiri.[57] Wakati wa kipindi cha kusafiri kuhusu mwaka mpya wa kichina, mamlaka za nchi ziliagiza ufungaji wa mji wa Wuhan. [58]Tarehe 10 Februari serikali ya Uchina ilizindua kampeni kali sana iliyoelezwa na kiongozi mkuu na Katibu Mkuu wa chama cha kikomunisti Xi kama "vita vya watu" ili nchi hiyo idhibiti virusi.[59] Katika "karantini kubwa zaidi katika historia ya binadamu", tarehe 23 Januari usafiri wote kuingia na kuondoka mjini Wuhan ulisimamishwa na baadaye marufuku hizo zilipanuliwa kwa miji kumi na mitano jimboni Hubei kuathiri watu 57,000,000. [60]Matumizi ya gari binafsi yalipigiwa marufuku jijini. Sherehe za mwaka mpya (tarehe 25 Januari) pia zilifutwa. Mamlaka ilitangaza ujenzi wa hospitali ya muda, Huoshenshan, iliyokamilika katika siku kumi. Baadaye Hospitali ya Leishenshan[61] ilijengwa kuwalaza wagonjwa wengine. Uchina pia iligeuka vituo vingine katika Wuhan, kama vile vituo vya maktaba na viwanja, katika hospitali za muda. [62][63]

Tarehe 26 Januari, serikali ilianzisha hatua zaidi za kudhibiti coronavirus, zikiwemo kutoa maazimio ya afya kwa wasafiri na kupanua sikukuu ya tamasha la spring.[64] Vyuo vikuu na shule nchini kote pia zilifungwa. Mikoa ya Hong Kong na Macau ilianzisha hatua kadhaa, hasa kuhusu shule na vyuo vikuu.[65] [66]Hatua za kazi za mbali ziliwekwa katika mikoa kadhaa. Vizuizi vya usafiri vilitekelezwa kuingia na kuondoka jimboni Hubei. Usafiri wa umma ulibadilishwa, na makumbusho kote nchini yalifungwa kwa muda. Udhibiti wa harakati za umma ulifanyika katika miji mingi, na inakadiriwa kuwa watu 760,000,000 (zaidi ya nusu ya watu nchini) walikabiliwa na aina fulani ya kizuizi cha kwenda nje.[67] Mnamo Januari na Februari 2020, wakati wa kilele cha mlipuko katika Wuhan, watu karibu na 5,000,000 walipoteza kazi zao.[68] Wengi wa wafanyakazi wahamiaji takriban 300,000,000 wamekuwa walikwama nyumbani mikoani mbalimbali au jimboni Hubei.

Baada ya mlipuko huo kufikia awamu yake ya kimataifa mwezi Machi, viongozi wa Uchina walichukua hatua kali za kuzuia virusi visingie tena nchini Uchina kutoka nchi nyingine. Kwa mfano, mji wa Beijing iliweka karantini ya siku 14 kwa wasafiri wote wa kimataifa wanaoingia mjini.[69] Wakati huo huo, chuki dhidi ya wageni, hasa waAfrika, iliibuka, na wageni walitendwa vibaya na wananchi na walilazimishwa kuondoka nyumba na hoteli. [70]

Tarehe 24 Machi, Mkuu wa Baraza Li Keqiang aliripoti kwamba kuenea kwa kesi za ndani kumezuiliwa na mlipuko huo umedhibitiwa nchini Uchina. Siku hiyo hiyo vizuizi vya kusafiri vilipunguzwa huko Hubei, isipokuwa mjini Wuhan, miezi miwili baada ya ufungaji ulianza. Wizara ya mambo ya nje ya Uchina ilitangaza tarehe 26 Machi kwamba viza za kuingia au kuishi zilisimimishwa kuanzia tarehe 28 Machi na kuendelea, bila maelezo maalum kuhusu sera hii itakapomalizika. Wale wanaotaka kuingia Uchina lazima waombe viza katika ubalozi wa Uchina au konsulat. Serikali ya Uchina ilitia moyo biashara na viwanda kufunguliwa tena tarehe 30 Machi, na kutoa msaada ya kiuchumi kwa makampuni. [71][72][73]

Baraza la Taifa lilitangaza siku ya maombolezo ya kitaifa kuanza na dakika tatu za kimya tarehe 4 Aprili, ikiunganishwa na tamasha la Qingming, ingawa serikali kuu iliziomba familia kuonyesha heshima mtandaoni ili kuzuia mlipuko mwingine. Tarehe 25 Aprili wagonjwa wa mwisho waliruhusiwa kuondoka hospitalini mjini Wuhan. Mnamo 13 Mei mji wa Jilin uliwekwa kwenye ufungaji, jambo lililochochea hofu ya wimbi la pili la maambukizo.[74]

Wachambuzi wengi wakiwemo wale wanaotoka shirika la Bill Gates wamekosoa Uchina kwa sababu majibu yake yalichelewa. Shirika la Gates limekadiria kwamba kama Uchina imetenda wiki moja mapema zaidi, idadi ya kesi ingepunguka asilimia 66; wiki mbili mapema zaidi, asilimia 86, na wiki tatu mapema zaidi—ambapo mamlaka nchini China iligundua kwamba virusi hivyo vinaweza kuenea binadamu kwa binadamu—idadi ya kesi ingepunguka asilimia 95. [75]

Irani[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Iran iliripoti kesi zake za kwanza zilizothibitishwa za COVID-19 tarehe 19 Februari mjini Qom, ambapo, kwa mujibu ya Wizara ya afya na elimu ya matibabu, watu wawili wamekuwa walifariki siku hiyo. [76]Hatua za mapema zilizotangazwa na serikali zikiwemo kufutwa kwa matamasha na matukio mengine ya kitamaduni, matukio ya michezo, maombi ya Ijumaa, na kufungwa kwa vyuo vikuu, taasisi za elimu ya juu, na shule.[77][78] Iran zilitenga pesa 5,000,000,000,000 (sawa na US $120000000) kupambana na virusi.[79] Rais Hassan Rouhani alisema tarehe 26 Februari hakukuwa na mipango kutumia karantini katika maeneo yaliyoathiriwa na mlipuko huo, na watu tu wangejitenga.[80] Mipango ya kupunguza usafiri kati ya miji ilitangazwa mwezi Machi, ingawa trafiki kubwa kati ya miji kuhusu mwaka mpya wa Kiajemi iliendelea.[81] Makaburi wa Shia huko Qom yalibaki kufungua hadi tarehe 16 Machi. [82]

Irani ilikuwa kituo cha usambazaji wa virusi baada ya Uchina mwezi wa Februari.[83] Zaidi ya nchi kumi zilikuwa zimepata asili ya kesi zao huko Iran mnamo 28 Februari, ikionyesha mlipuko huo ulikuwa mkali zaidi kuliko kesi 388 zilizorepotiwa na serikali ya Irani hadi siku hiyo.[84] Bunge la Iran lilifungwa, na wajumbe 23 wa 290 walipima chanya tarehe 3 Machi.[85] Tarehe 15 Machi, serikali ya Irani iliripoti vifo mia katika siku moja, ambayo ilikuwa kesi nyingi zaidi iliyorekodiwa nchini tangu mlipuko ulipoanza.[86] Angalau wanasiasa na maofisa wa serikali kumi na wawili wa sasa au wa zamani walifariki kutokana na ugonjwa huo mnamo 17 Machi. [87]Kufikia 23 Machi, Iran ilikuwa na kesi 50 mpya kila saa na kifo kimoja kipya kila dakika kumi. [88]Kwa mujibu ya ofisa wa WHO, inawezekana kuwa Iran ina kesi mara tano zaidi ya zile zilizoripotiwa. Pia imependekezwa kwamba vikwazo vya Marekani katika Irani viliathiri uwezo wa kifedha wa nchi kukabili mlipuko wa virusi. Shirika la Umoja wa Mataifa la haki za binadamu limeitisha vikwazo vya kiuchumi vipunguze kwa mataifa yanayoathiriwa zaidi na janga hilo, yakiwemo Irani.[89] Tarehe 20 Aprili iliripotiwa kwamba Irani imefunguliwa maduka makubwa na maeneo mengine ya ununuzi nchini kote, ingawa kuna hofu ya wimbi la pili la maambukizo kutokana na hatua hizi. Mwezi Machi, na tena mwezi Aprili, kulikuwa na taarifa kwamba Irani haikuripoti kesi zote zilizothibitishwa nchini.[90]

Korea Kusini[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kunenea kwa coronavirus hadi Korea Kusini kutoka Uchina kulithibitishwa tarehe 20 Januari 2020. Shirika la afya la Taifa liliripoti ongezeko kubwa la kesi zilizothibitishwa tarehe 20 Februari,[91] kwa kiasi kikubwa kuhusisha mkutano wa Kanisa la Shincheonji wa Yesu mjini Daegu. [92]Wale waliotembelea Shincheonji kutoka Wuhan walituhumiwa kuwa chanzo cha mlipuko. Mnamo 22 Februari, kati ya wafuasi 9,336 wa Kanisa, watu 1,261 au asilimia 13 waliripoti dalili. Korea Kusini ilitangaza kiwango cha juu zaidi cha tahadhari tarehe 23 Februari 2020. Tarehe 28 Februari, zaidi ya kesi 2,000 zilizothibitishwa ziliripotiwa, kuongeza hadi 3,150 tarehe 29 Februari. Vituo vyote vya kijeshi vya Korea Kusini viliwekwa karantini baada ya vipimo vilagundua wanajeshi watatu wenye virusi. Ratiba za ndege pia zilibadilishwa. [93][94]

Korea Kusini ilianzisha ile iliyofikiriwa kuwa programu kubwa zaidi na kupangwa bora duniani ili ipime idadi kwa virusi, kujitenga watu walioambukizwa, na kuwaweka katika karantini wale wanaowasiliana nao.[95] [96]Mbinu za uchunguzi zilijumuisha kujitoa taarifa za lazima za dalili na wasafiri wa kimataifa kutumia simu, kupima kwenye gari na matokeo yanayopatikana siku ijayo, na kuongeza uwezo wa kupima ili watu 20,000 wapimwe kila siku. Mpango wa Korea Kusini unafikiriwa kuwa mafanikio kudhibiti mlipuko bila ufungaji wa miji yote. [97]

Mwanzoni wananchi wa Korea Kusini waligawanyika kuhusu maoni ya majibu ya Rais Moon Jae-in kukabili mgogoro huo, na watu wengi walitia saini ama kusifa serikali hiyo au kutoa wito wa kuiondoa. [98]Tarehe 23 Machi, iliripotiwa kwamba Korea Kusini ilikuwa na idadi ya kesi ndogo zaidi kwa siku moja mnamo wiki nne.[99] Tarehe 29 Machi iliripotiwa kwamba kuanzia tarehe 1 Aprili wale wote waliofika kutoka nchi nyingine wangelazimishwa kukaa karatini kwa wiki mbili. [100]Kwa mujibu ya ripoti za vyombo vya habari tarehe 1 Aprili, Korea Kusini imepokea maombi ya msaada ya kupima virusi kutoka nchi 121 tofauti. [101]Tarehe 15 Mei iliripotiwa kwamba biashara 2000 ziliambiwa kufunga tena ambapo kundi la watu mia moja walioambukizwa liligunduliwa; uchunguzi wa mawasiliano unafanywa kwa watu 11,000. [102]

Ulaya[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kufikia tarehe 13 Machi 2020, idadi ya kesi mpya ilipokuwa kubwa kuliko zile huko Uchina, Shirika la (WHO) walianza kuzingatia Ulaya kama kituo hai cha janga hilo. Kesi kwa nchi kote Ulaya zimeongeza mara mbili kila siku tatu au nne, na baadhi ya nchi zilionyesha ongezeko hilo kila siku mbili. [103][104]

Mnamo 17 Machi, nchi zote za Ulaya zimethibitisha kesi ya COVID-19, na Montenegro kuwa nchi ya mwisho ya Ulaya kutoa taarifa ya angalau kesi moja. Angalau kifo kimoja kimeripotiwa katika nchi zote za Ulaya, isipokuwa mjini Vatican. [105]

Kuanzia tarehe 18 Machi, zaidi ya watu 250,000,000 walikuwepo ufungaji huko Ulaya. [106]

Mnamo 24 Mei, siku 68 tangu kesi yake ya kwanza iliripotiwa, Montenegro ilikuwa nchi ya kwanza bila COVID-19 katika Ulaya. [107]

Tarehe 21 Augosti iliripotiwa kwamba idadi ya kesi za COVID-19 iliongezeka miongoni mwa vijana huko Ulaya.[108]

Italia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Ilithibitishwa kwamba mlipuko huo umeenea hadi Italia tarehe 31 Januari, watalii wawili wa Kichina walipopima chanya kwa SARS-CoV-2 mjini Roma.[109] Kesi zilianza kuongezeka kwa kasi, na serikali ya Italia ilisimamisha safari zote kwenda na kutoka nchini Uchina na kutangaza hali ya dharura.[75] Kundi lingine liligunduliwa baadaye, kuanzia na kesi 16 zilizothibitishwa huko Lombardia tarehe 21 Februari. [110]

Tarehe 22 Februari, Baraza la mawaziri lilitangaza amri mpya ya sheria ili idhibiti mlipuko huo, ikiwemo karantini zaidi ya watu 50,000 kutoka mijini kaskazini ya Italia. [111]Waziri Mkuu Giuseppe Conte alisema, "Katika maeneo ya mlipuko huo, kuingia na kuondoka hakutaruhusiwa. Kusimamishwa kwa shughuli za kazi na matukio ya michezo tayari kumeshaagizwa katika maeneo hayo." [112]

Tarehe 4 Machi, serikali ya Italia iliagiza kufungwa kikamilifu shule zote na vyuo vikuu nchini kote Italia ilipofikia vifo mia moja.[113] Matukio yote makubwa ya michezo yalifanyika bila watazamaji hadi mwezi Aprili, lakini tarehe 9 Machi yote yalisitishwa kabisa kwa angalau mwezi mmoja.[114] Tarehe 11 Machi, Waziri Mkuu wa serikali, aliagiza shughuli za biashara zisimamishwe isipokuwa maduka ya chakula na dawa. [115]

Tarehe 6 Machi, Chuo kikuu cha Italia cha matibabu maalum ilichapisha mapendekezo ya maadili ya matibabu kuhusu jinsi ya kuamua wagonjwa wapi wapate kipaumbele. [116][117]Tarehe 19 Machi, Italia ilipitisha Uchina kama nchi yenye vifo zaidi kutokana na COVID-19 duniani baada ya kutoa taarifa ya vifo 3,405.[118] Tarehe 22 Machi, iliripotiwa kwamba Urusi iliitumia Italia ndege za kijeshi tisa zenye vifaa vya matibabu. [119]Mnamo 9 Mei, kulikuwa na kesi 217,185 zilizothibitishwa, vifo 30,201, na watu 99,023 waliopona nchini Italia, na nyingi za kesi hizo zilitokea mkoani Lombardia. Ripoti ya CNN ilionyesha kwamba mchanganyiko wa idadi kubwa ya wazee na ukosefu wa kupima vilichangia kiwango cha juu cha kifo.[120] Tarehe 19 Aprili, iliripotiwa kwamba nchi hiyo ilikuwa na vifo vichache zaidi vya 433 kwa wiki moja na baadhi ya biashara ziliomba vizuizi vipunguzwe baada ya wiki sita za ufungaji. [121]

Uhispania[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Usambazaji wa janga hilo uilithibitishwa hadi Uhispania tarehe 31 Januari 2020, mtalii wa Kijerumani alipopima chanya kwa SARS-CoV-2 huko La Gomera, Visiwa vya Canary. [122]Uchunguzi baada ya muda umeonyesha kwamba angalau aina 15 za virusi zilikuwa zimetambuliwa, na maambukizo ya jamii yalianza mnamo katikati ya mwezi Februari. Mnamo 13 Machi, kesi zilikuwa zimethibitishwa katika majimbo yote 50 nchini. [123]

Ufungaji uliagizwa tarehe 14 Machi 2020. Tarehe 29 Machi ilitangazwa kwamba, kuanzia siku iliyofuata, wafanyakazi wote wasio muhimu waliamriwa wabaki nyumbani kwa siku 14 zijazo. [124]Mwishoni mwezi Machi, Jumuiya ya Madrid imerekodi kesi na vifo vingi zaidi nchini. Wataalamu wa matibabu na wale wanaoishi nyumbani kwa kustaafu wamekuwa walikuwa na viwango vya juu sana vya maambukizo.[125] Mnamo 25 Machi, idadi ya vifo nchini Hispania ilipitisha vifo nchini Uchina, na Italia tu ilikuwa na vifo zaidi. [126]Tarehe 2 Aprili, watu 950 walifariki kutokana na virusi katika kipindi cha masaa 24—wakati huo kulikuwa na zaidi ya vifo katika siku moja kuliko duniani.[127] Mnamo 25 Mei 2020 idadi ya vifo kwa siku iliyotangazwa na serikali ya Kihispania imekuwa chini ya 100 kwa mara ya kwanza katika miezi miwili. [128]

Idadi halisi ya kesi ilifikiriwa kuwa juu zaidi, kwa sababu watu wengi wenye dalili sio kali au wasio na dalili pengine hawakupimwa.[129] Tarehe 13 Mei, matokeo ya wimbi la kwanza la utafiti wa serikali ya Kihispania yalionyesha kuwa asilimia tano ya watu pengine waliambukizwa, au watu takriban 2,000,000, takwimu mara kumi ya idadi ya kesi zilizothibitishwa muda huo. Kulingana na utafiti huu uliohusisha sampuli za zaidi ya watu 63,000, Madrid na Castilla – La Mancha ilikuwa mikoa iliyoathirika zaidi duniani yenye asilimia ya zaidi ya kumi ya maambukizo. Idadi ya vifo halisi pia inaaminika kuwa juu zaidi kutokana na ukosefu wa kupima na kuripoti, labda kwa kesi 12,000 kulingana na Wizara ya Afya ya Kihispania.[130][131]

Uingereza[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kabla ya tarehe 18 Machi 2020, serikali ya Uingereza haikuagiza aina yoyote ya kujitenga kwa kijamii au karantini kwa raia wake. Kwa sababu hiyo serikali ilipokea ukosoaji kwa majibu yake pole pole. [132][133]

Tarehe Machi 16, Waziri Mkuu Boris Johnson alitangaza kushauri dhidi ya usafiri usio muhimu na mawasiliano ya kijamii, na alipendekeza watu wafanye kazi nyumbani inapowezekana na kuepuka mahali kama vile baa, migahawa, na sinema. [134][135]Tarehe 20 Machi, serikali ilitangaza kwamba vituo vyote vya burudani kama vile baa na gym vifungwe karibu iwezekanavyo, na serikali aliahidi kulipa hadi asilimia 80 ya mishahara ya wafanyakazi au hadi £2,500 kwa mwezi kuzuia ukosefu wa ajira wakati wa mgogoro. [136][137]

Tarehe 23 Machi, Waziri Mkuu alitangaza hatua kali zaidi za kujitenga kwa kijamii, kupiga marufuku za mikusanyiko ya zaidi ya watu wawili na kuzuia kusafiri nje nyumbani kwa sababu sio muhimu sana. Tofauti na hatua zilizopita, polisi waliruhusiwa kutoa faini na kueneza mikusanyiko ili watekeleze vizuizi hivyo. Biashara nyingi ziliagizwa kufunga, isipokuwa biashara muhimu sana, kama vile maduka ya chakula na dawa, benki, maduka ya vifaa, vituo vya mafuta, na gereji. [138]

Tarehe 24 Aprili iliripotiwa kwamba majaribio ya chanjo yaliyotia chumvi yameanza nchini Uingereza; Serikali imeahidi zaidi ya paundi 50,000,000 kuunga mkono utafiti huo. [139]

Ili kuhakikisha huduma za afya za Uingereza zilikuwa na uwezo wa kutosha wa kuwatiba watu wenye COVID-19, hospitali za huduma muhimu za muda zilijengwa. [140]Hospitali ya kwanza iliyofunguliwa ilikuwa hospitali ya Nightingale mjini London yenye kitanda 4,000, iliyojengwa ndani ya kituo cha mikutano mikubwa ExCel katika siku tisa.[141] Mnamo 4 Mei, ilitangazwa kuwa hospitali hiyo ingefungwa kwa muda kwa sababu wagonjwa 51 tu walitibwa pale wakati wa wiki tatu za kwanza. [142] [143]Mnamo 5 Mei, takwimu rasmi zilionyesha kwamba Uingereza ilikuwa na kiwango cha kifo kibaya zaidi huko Ulaya, ikianzisha wito wa uchunguzi wa jinsi serikali ilivyosimamia janga hilo. Idadi ya vifo nchini Uingereza ilikuwa karibu 29,427 kwa wale waliopima chanya kwa virusi. Baadaye, ilihesabu kama 32,313, baada ya kujumuisha takwimu rasmi kutoka Scotland na Ireland Kaskazini. Tarehe 16 Aprili iliripotiwa kwamba Uingereza ingekuwa nchi ya kwanza kupata chanjo ya Oxford, kutokana na mkataba wa awali; kama majaribio yangefanikiwa, chanjo 30,000,000 ingepatikana nchini. [144]

Ufaransa[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Ingawa ilifikiriwa mwanzo wa janga hilo lilifikia Ufaransa tarehe 24 Januari 2020, wakati huo kesi ya kwanza ya Ulaya ilithibitishwa mjini Bordeaux, baadaye iligunduliwa kwamba mtu karibu na Paris alipima chanya kwa virusi tarehe 27 Desemba 2019 baada ya sampuli za zamani zilipimwa tena.[145][146] Tukio muhimu katika kuenea kwa ugonjwa huo nchini lilikuwa mkutano wa kila mwaka wa Kanisa la Chrisitan Open Door kati ya 17 na 24 Februari mjini Mulhouse, ambao ulihudhuriwa na watu 2,500, angalau nusu ya wale wanaaminika kuambukizwa na virusi hivyo. [147]

Tarehe 13 Machi, Waziri Mkuu Édouard Philippe aliagiza mahali pa umma pasio muhimu pafungwe, na tarehe 16 Machi, Rais wa Ufaransa Emmanuel Macron alitangaza watu wote wakae nyumbani, sera ambayo ilipanuliwa angalau hadi 11 Mei.[148] Mnamo 23 Aprili, Ufaransa imeripoti zaidi ya kesi 120,804 zilizothibitishwa, vifo 21,856, na watu 42,088 waliopona, cheo cha nne katika idadi ya kesi zilizothibitishwa. [149]Mwezi Aprili, kulikuwa na ghasia katika sehemu nyingine za Paris.[150] Tarehe 18 Mei iliripotiwa kwamba shule nchini Ufaransa zilibidi zifunge tena baada ya kufunguliwa upya, kutokana na mlipuko mwingine. [151]

Swideni[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Swideni ni tofauti kuliko nchi nyingine za Ulaya kwa sababu ilibaki wazi kwa jumla.[152] Kwa mujibu ya katiba ya Kiswidi, Shirika la afya ya umma la Uswidi lina uhuru na hali hiyo inazuia uingiliaji wa kisiasa, na sera ya shirika hilo halikupendelea ufungaji ili nchi ifikie kinga ya umma. Gazeti la New York Times lilisema kwamba, mnamo Mei 2020, mlipuko nchini Swideni umesababisha vifo vingi zaidi lakini haukuathiri uchumi sana kuliko nchi nyingine kwa sababu waSwideni wameendelea kufanya kazi na shughuli. Mnamo 19 Mei, iliripotiwa kwamba nchi hiyo ilikuwa na vifo vingi zaidi kwa idadi ya nchi wakati wa wiki ya tarehe 12 – 19 kuliko Ulaya, vifo 6.25 kwa watu wamilioni moja kwa siku. [153][154][155]

Amerika Kaskazini[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kesi ya kwanza katika Amerika Kaskazini iliripotiwa huko Marekani mwezi Januari 2020. Kesi ziliripotiwa katika nchi zote za Amerika Kaskazini baada ya Saint Kitts na Nevis ilithibitisha kesi tarehe 25 Machi, na katika maeneo yote ya Amerika Kaskazini baada ya Bonai ilithibitisha kesi tarehe 16 Aprili. [156]

Tarehe 26 Machi 2020, Marekani ilikuwa nchi iliyo na idadi kubwa zaidi ya maambukizo, yenye zaidi ya kesi 82,000. Tarehe 11 Aprili 2020, Marekani ilikuwa nchi yenye idadi kubwa ya vifo kutokana na virusi hivyo, vifo 20,000. Mnamo 15 Mei 2020 kulikuwa na kesi 1,571,908 na vifo 95,764 kwa jumla. [157][158]

Kanada iliripoti kesi 60,616 na vifo 3,842 tarehe 4 Mei, wakati Mexico iliripoti kesi 23,471 na vifo 2,154. Jamhuri ya Dominika, Haiti na Cuba ni nchi pekee za nchi za Caribbean ambazo zimeripoti zaidi ya kesi 1,000 (16,908, 2,124 na 2,025, kwa mtiririko huo), wakati Panama na Honduras ziliongoza Amerika ya kati na kesi 7,197 na 1,055, kwa mtiririko huo. [159]

Marekani[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Tarehe 20 Januari 2020, kesi ya kwanza inayojulikana ya coronavirus ilithibitishwa jimbo la Washington kuhusu mtu aliyerudi kutoka mjini Wuhan tarehe 15 Januari. Tarehe 31 Januari, utawala wa Rais Trump ulitangaza dharura ya afya ya umma, na kuzuia wasafiri kutoka Uchina wasiingie nchi kama hawakuwa raia. [160][161]

Tarehe 28 Januari, shirika la Vituo Vya Kudhibiti na Kuzuia Magonjwa (CDC) lilitangaza kuwa walitengeneza vifaa vyao vya kupima wenyewe.[162] Lakini Marekani ilianza kupima pole pole, na hali hiyo ilificha kiwango cha mlipuko.[163] Upimaji uliharibiwa na vifaa vya kupima kasoro vilivyozalishwa na serikali mwezi Februari, ukosefu wa kibali cha serikali kutumia vipimo havikuzalishwi na serikali, na vigezo vikali mno vilivyowazuia watu wengi wasipimwe.[164]

Mnamo 2 Machi kulikuwa na kesi 80 zilithibitishwa, na nusu ya kesi ilikuwepo jimbo la California. Majimbo ya Florida na New York yalitangaza kesi mbili zao za kwanza na jimbo la Washington liliripoti kesi nyingi zilizotuhumiwa na kifo cha kwanza. Makamu wa Rais Pence alisisitiza kuwa tishio la virusi kusambaa kote nchini Marekani lilikuwa dogo. [165]

Tarehe 6 Machi, Rais Trump alisaini sheria ya maandalizi na mwitikio ya Coronavirus, ambayo ilitoa fedha za dharura $8,300,000,000 ili mashirika ya serikali yajibu mlipuko huo. Makampuni yaliwahamasisha wafanyakazi wao kufanya kazi kutoka nyumbani. Matukio ya michezo yalifutwa. [166][167]

Tarehe 13 Machi, Trump alitangaza hali ya dharura ya kitaifa, ambayo ilifanya fedha za serikali ziliozopatikana kukabili mgogoro huo. [168]Kuanzia tarehe 15 Machi, biashara na shule nyingi zilifungwa. Mnamo 17 Machi, janga hilo lilikuwa limethibitishwa katika majimbo yote 50 na katika wilaya ya Columbia.[169] [170][171]Mnamo 26 Machi, Marekani ilikuwa na kesi zilizothibitishwa zaidi kuliko nchi nyingine yoyote. [172]Wakaguzi wa afya wa serikali walichunguza hospitali 323 mwishoni mwezi Machi; walitoa taarifa za "upungufu mkubwa sana" wa vifaa vya kupima, "upungufu mkubwa" wa vifaa vya kinga (PPE), na rasilimali nyingine mbaya kutokana na wagonjwa wakikaa hospitali kwa muda mrefu wakati wa kusubiri matokeo ya vipimo. [173]

Tarehe 22 Aprili iliripotiwa kwamba waCalifornia wawili walifariki kutokana na virusi vya COVID-19 tarehe 6 na 17 Februari, wiki tatu kabla ya kifo rasmi cha kwanza nchini kilikiriwa. [174]Mnamo 24 Aprili, kesi 889,309 zilikuwa zimethibitishwa na watu 50,256 walikuwa wamefariki.[175] Mnamo 17 Mei, kwa mujibu ya takwimu za New York Times, zaidi ya watu 1,474,600 walikuwa wameambukizwa na angalau 88,600 walikufa nchini Marekani. Gazeti hilo lilieleza kwamba, kabla ya tarehe 29 Aprili, vifo vilivyothibitishwa kupitia upimaji tu viliripotiwa, lakini vigezo vipya vilijumuisha kesi na vifo vilivyowezekana. Mnamo 17 Mei, Marekani, ambaye ina asilimia 4.25 ya idadi ya watu duniani, ilikuwa na asilimia ya 29 ya vifo kutokana na Coronavirus. [176]

Ikulu imekuwa ilikosolewa kwa kupunguza tisho na kudhibiti habari kwa kuagiza maafisa wa afya na wanasayansi kuratibu taarifa za umma na machapisho yanayohusu virusi pamoja na ofisi ya Makamu wa Rais Mike Pence. Mnamo 14 Aprili, Rais Trump alifuta fedha kwa shirika la afya duniani (WHO), akisema wamekuwa walisimamia vibaya janga hilo. Pia alisema Marekani haingeshiriki katika jitihada za kimataifa pamoja na WHO kuendeleza chanjo na madawa kupambana na virusi. [177][178]

Mnamo katikati ya mwezi Mei ripoti za kesi mpya zilianza kukaa sawa na majimbo mengi yalianza kufungua migahawa na mahali pengine pa biashara, kuweka mipaka ya idadi ya watu walioruhusiwa ndani wakati huo huo. Mkuu wa shirika la magonjwa ya maambukizo (NIAID), Dk Anthony Fauci, alionya kwamba kama tahadhari haikutumika kiwango cha maambukizo kingeongezeka tena na alikuwa na wasiwasi hasa kuhusu kufungua shule kwa mwaka mpya wa shule. Mnam kati kati ya mwezi Juni, idadi ya kesi ilianza kuongezeka tena hasa majimbo ya Texas, California, Florida, na Arizona. [179][180] Tarehe 16 Julai Marekani ilikuwa na kesi zaidi kwa siku moja (kesi 75,000) tangu mwanzo wa mlipuko. [181]

Amerika Kusini[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Janga hilo lilithibitishwa kuwa kufika Amerika Kusini tarehe 26 Februari Brazil ilipothibitisha kesi mjini São Paulo. Mnamo 3 Aprili, nchi zote za maeneo ya Amerika Kusini zilikuwa zimeandikisha angalau kesi moja. [182][183]

Mnamo Aprili 17, idadi kubwa zaidi ya wagonjwa na vifo viliandikishwa nchini Brazili, ikifuatiliwa na Peru na Chile katika idadi ya kesi zilizothibitishwa. [184]

Tarehe 13 Mei, iliripotiwa kwamba Amerika Kusini na eneo la Caribbean ziliripoti zaidi ya kesi 400,000 na vifo 23,091. Tarehe 22 Mei, likitaja hasa ongezeko la maambukizo la haraka nchini Brazil, shirika la WHO lilitangaza kwamba Amerika Kusini sasa ni kati ya janga la Coronavirus. Mnamo 25 Mei, eneo hilo lilikuwa na zaidi ya kesi 636,000 na zaidi ya vifo 31,000. Hata hivyo, kutokana na ukosefu wa kupima na vifaa vya matibabu inaaminika kwamba mlipuko huo ni mkubwa zaidi kuliko takwimu rasmi zinaonyesha. [185]

Brazili[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Tarehe 20 Aprili iliripotiwa kwamba Brazil ilikuwa na rekodi ya vifo 1,179 kwa siku moja, kwa jumla ya karibu 18,000. Kukiwa na idadi ya kesi takriban 272,000, Brazil ikawa nchi yenye idadi kubwa ya tatu ya kesi, kufuata Urusi na Marekani. Mnamo 25 Mei, Brazil ilizidi idadi ya kesi nchini Urusi iliporipoti kwamba kesi mpya 11,687 zilikuwa zimethibitishwa katika masaa 24 yaliyopita, na kufikia zaidi ya kesi 374,800, na zaidi ya vifo 23,400. Rais Jair Bolsonaro amechochea utata mkubwa akitaja virusi hivyo kama "homa ndogo" na mara nyingi kukosoa hatua za ufungaji na karantini. [186][187]

Afrika[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kwa mujibu ya Michael Yao, ambaye ni mkuu wa operesheni za dharura barani Afrika kwa WHO, kugundua mapema ni muhimu kwa sababu mifumo ya afya ya bara "tayari imeshindwa na milipuko mingi ya ugonjwa unaoendelea". [188] Washauri wanasema kwamba mkakati wenye msingi wa kupima ungeruhusu nchi za Afrika kupunguza ufungaji ambao unaosababisha ugumu mkubwa kwa wale wanaotegemea mapato siku kwa siku ili waweze kuwalisha wenyewe na familia zao. Hata katika hali bora zaidi, shirika la Umoja wa Mataifa linasema kuwa vifaa 74,000,000 vya kupima na vifaa 30,000 vinavyosaadia kupumua vitahitajika na wananchi 1,300,000,000 wa bara mwaka 2020.[189] Kesi nyingi zilizoripotiwa zinatoka nchi sita: Afrika Kusini, Nigeria, Ghana, Morocco, Misri na Algeria, lakini inaaminika kwamba kuna uwezekano mkubwa kuna kesi nyingi zaidi ambazo hazijaripotiwa huko nchi nyingine za Afrika zenye mifumo maskini ya huduma za afya.[190] Kesi zimethibitishwa katika nchi zote za Afrika, na Lesotho ilikuwa nchi ya mwisho kuripoti kesi yake ya kwanza tarehe 13 Mei 2020. Hajakuwa na kesi zilizoripotiwa katika maeneo ya nje ya Uingereza ya Saint Helena, Ascension, na Tristan da Cunha.[191][192]

Oceania[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Janga hilo lilithibitishwa kufikia Oceania tarehe 25 Januari 2020 kesi ya kwanza iliyothibitishwa iliporipotiwa mjini Melbourne, Australia. Tangu wakati huo, virusi hivyo vimeenea mahali pengine katika eneo hilo, ingawa mataifa mengi madogo ya Pasifiki hadi sasa yameepuka mlipuko huo kwa kufunga mipaka yao ya kimataifa. Mnamo 13 Agosti 2020, Mataifa ya Oceania rasmi bado hayajaripoti kesi. [193][194]

Tarehe 19 Mei 2020, Australia ilifungua hoja katika Umoja wa Mataifa kudai uchunguzi wa asili ya virusi na miitikio wa Umoja wa Mataifa na serikali mbalimbali. Zaidi ya nchi 100 ziliunga mkono hoja hii, na ilipitishwa mara moja. [195][196]

Miitikio ya kimataifa[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Vizuizi vya usafiri[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kutokana na janga hilo, nchi nyingi na maeneo mengi yaliweka karantini, marufuku za kuingia, au vikwazo vingine, ama kwa raia, wasafiri waliosafiri hivi karibuni maeneo yaliyoathirika, au wasafiri wote. Pamoja na upungufu wa hamu la kusafiri, sekta ya usafiri imeathirika vibaya. Kuna wasiwasi kuhusu ufanisi wa vikwazo vya kusafiri ili kuzuia virusi visisambae. Utafiti katika gazeti la Sayansi uligundua kwamba vizuizi vya usafiri vilikuwa na athari ndogo tu kuchelewa usambaji wa awali, isipokuwa vilipojumuisha na hatua nyingine za kuzuia na kudhibiti maambukizo. Watafiti walihitimisha kuwa "vikwazo vya kusafiri ni muhimu zaidi katika awamu za mapema na mwisho za janga" na "vikwazo vya kusafiri kutoka Wuhan kwa bahati mbaya vilifanywa kuchelewa sana". [197][198][199]

Umoja wa Ulaya ilikataa wazo la kusitisha eneo la usafiri la bure la Schengen na kuanzisha udhibiti wa mpaka na Italia, uamuzi ambao umekosolewa na wanasiasa wengine wa Ulaya.[200]

Uhamishaji wa raia wa kigeni[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kutokana na karantini ufanisi wa usafiri wa umma huko Wuhan na Hubei, nchi kadhaa ziliwahamisha raia wao na wafanyakazi wa kidiplomasia kutoka eneo hilo, hasa kwa ndege maalum, na mamlaka ya Uchina kutoa kibali. Kanada, Marekani, Japani, India, Sri Lanka, Australia, Ufaransa, Argentina, Ujerumani, na Thailand zilikuwa miongoni mwa kwanza kupanga uhamishaji wa raia wao. Brazil na New Zealand pia zilihamisha raia wao wenyewe na baadhi ya watu wengine.[201] Tarehe 14 Machi, Afrika Kusini iliwahamisha Waafrika Kusini 112 ambao walipima hasi kwa virusi kutoka Wuhan, wakati watu wanne ambao walionyesha dalili waliachwa nyuma ili ipunguze hatari.[202] Pakistani ilisema isingewahamisha raia kutoka Uchina.[203]

Tarehe 15 Februari, Marekani ilitangaza ingewahamisha Wamarekani kutoka meli ya Diamond Princess,[204] na tarehe 21 Februari, Kanada iliwahamisha abiria wa kiKanada 129 kwenye meli hiyo. Mwanzo wa mwezi Machi, serikali ya India ilianza kuwazuia raia wake wasitoke Irani.[205] Tarehe 20 Machi, Marekani ilianza kuwaondoa wanajeshi wake kutoka Iraki kutokana na janga hilo.[206]

Misaada ya kimataifa[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Msaada kwa Uchina[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Baadhi ya wanafunzi wa Kichina huko vyuo vikuu Marekani walituma msaada, ukiwemo barakoa N95 50,000 tarehe 30 Januari.[207] Shirika la msaada wa kibinadamu moja kwa moja liliotumia hospitali ya Wuhan barakoa 200,000 na vifaa vingine vya kujilinda binafsi siku hiyo hiyo. [208]Tarehe 5 Februari, Wizara ya mambo ya nje ya Uchina ilisema nchi 21 (zikiwemo Belarus, Pakistan, Trinidad na Tobago, Misri, na Iran) zilikuwa zimetumia Uchina msaada, na Bill na Melinda Gates walitangaza mchango wa $100,000,000 kwa WHO kufadhili utafiti wa chanjo na matibabu na kulinda "watu wenye hatari katika Afrika na Asia Kusini.”[209][210] Interaksyon ilisema serikali ya Uchina ilichangia Ufilipino barakoa 200,000 tarehe 6 Februari baada ya Seneta wa Ufilipino Richard Gordon alitumia Wuhan barakoa 3,160,000. Tarehe 19 Februari, Shirika la Msalaba Mwekundu la Singapore lilitangaza lingetumia Uchina msaada wenye thamani $2,260,000.[211][212]

Nchi kadhaa walichangia Uchina barakoa, vifaa vya matibabu au fedha, zikiwemo Japan, Uturuki, Russia, Malaysia, Ujerumani, na Kanada. [213]Wizara ya Mambo ya Nje Marekani ilisema tarehe 7 Februari imekuwa iliwezesha usafirishaji wa tani karibu 17.8 za za vifaa vya matibabu kwa Uchina. [214]Siku hiyo hiyo, Waziri wa Mambo ya Nje Marekani Pompeo alitangaza ahadi ya $100,000,000 kwa Uchina na nchi nyingine kusaidia mapambano yao dhidi ya virusi. Makampuni kadhaa pia yamechangia Uchina fedha au vifaa vya matibabu.[215][216]

Msaada kwa dunia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Baada ya kesi nchini Uchina zimetulia, nchi hiyo ilianza kupelekea mataifa mengine msaada.[217] Mwezi Machi, Uchina ilitumia Italia vifaa vya matibabu na wataalamu kusaidia kukabiliana na mlipuko wake Coronavirus; Uchina zilitumia Italia timu tatu za matibabu na kuchangia zaidi ya tani 40 za vifaa vya matibabu. [218]Mfanyabiashara Jack Ma alitumia Ethiopia vifaa vya kupima 1,100,000, barakoa 6,000,000, na suti za kinga 60,000 kwa Umoja wa Afrika. Yeye baadaye alitumia Panama vifaa vya kupima 5,000, barakoa 100,000, na mashini za kupumua tano.[219]

Uholanzi, Uhispania, Uturuki, Georgia, na Jamhuri ya Czech zilitaja wasiwasi juu ya barakoa na vifaa vya kichina. Kwa mfano, Uhispania iliondoa vifaa vya kupima vya kichina 58,000 vyenye kiwango cha usahihi cha asilimia 30, na Uholanzi ilirudisha barakoa 600,000 zilizotuhumiwa kasoro, lakini Uchina ilisema hii ilitokana na matumizi mabaya. Ubelgiji iliondoa barakoa 100,000 ambazo hazikutumika zilizofikiriwa kutoka nchini Uchina lakini kwa kweli kutoka nchini Colombia. Ufilipino imesimamisha kutumia vifaa vya kupima vilivyotolewa na Uchina kutokana na usahihi wao wa asilimia 40. Serikali ya Uchina ilisema maagizo ya bidhaa pengine hayakufuatiliwa, na kwamba baadhi ya bidhaa hazikununuliwa moja kwa moja kutoka makampuni yanayothibitishwa. Msaada wa Kichina ulipokelewa vizuri katika sehemu za Amerika Kusini na Afrika. Tarehe 2 Aprili, Benki ya Dunia ilianzisha shughuli za msaada wa dharura kwa nchi zinazoendelea. Kwa mujibu ya taarifa ya Wizara ya mambo ya nje, Uturuki inatoa kiasi kikubwa cha msaada ya kibinadamu duniani huku ina cheo cha tatu duniani kutoa msaada ya matibabu.[220][221][222][223][224]

Hatua za majibu za WHO[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Taiwan ilijulisha WHO kuhusu virusi vipya tarehe 31 Desemba 2019. [225]WHO limeisifu mamlaka za Kichina kwa kutoa "habari mara kwa mara", kuliko mlipuko wa SARS mnamo 2002-2004 Uchina iliposhtakiwa ya usiri.[226] WHO lilieleza tarehe 5 Januari kwamba kesi za ugonjwa wa mapafu wenye sababu isiyojulikana zilikuwa zimeripotiwa, [227]na shirika hilo lilitoa taarifa za kiufundi tarehe 10 na 11 Januari pamoja na onyo ya hatari ya maambukizo ya binadamu na kushauri tahadhari kwa sababu hali hiyo ilifanana na mizuko ya awali ya SARS na MERS.[228] Ingawa katika matangazo ya umma lilisema "Hakuna ushahidi wazi wa maambukizo miongoni mwa binadamu" mnamo 14 January.[229] Tarehe 20 Januari, shirika la WHO lilisema kwamba ilikuwa "sasa ni wazi kabisa" maambukizo miongoni mwa binadamu ya Coronavirus yamekuwa yalitokea, kwa sababu wafanyakazi wa afya walikuwa wameambukizwa.[230] Tarehe 27 Januari, WHO lilisema hatari ya mlipuko ilikuwa "juu katika ngazi ya kimataifa".[231]

Tarehe 30 Januari, WHO lilitangaza mlipuko huo kama dharura ya afya ya umma ya wasiwasi wa kimataifa (PHEIC), likionya "nchi zote zinapaswa kujitayarisha kuchukua hatua za kudhibiti, zikiwemo uangalizi, kugundua mapema, kutenga na kusimamia kwa kesi, kuchunguza mawasiliano na kuzuia usambazaji zaidi,” kufuatia ongozeka la kesi nje ya Uchina.[232] Hiyo ilikuwa PHEIC ya sita daima tangu sera hiyo ilianzishwa mwaka 2009 wakati wa janga la mafua ya nguruwe. Mkurugenzi Mkuu Tedros Adhanom alisema PHEIC inatokana na "hatari ya kuenea kwa kimataifa, hasa kwa nchi zenye kipato cha chini au cha kati bila ya mifumo nguvu ya afya" lakini WHO halikupendekeza “kupunguza biashara na harakati".[233]

Tarehe 11 Februari, WHO lilianzisha jina la COVID-19, na Katibu Mkuu wa Umoja wa Mataifa Antonio Guterres alikubali kutoa "nguvu ya mfumo mzima wa Umoja wa Mataifa kwa majibu". Timu ya usimamizi wa migogoro ya Umoja wa Mataifa ilianzishwa, kuruhusu uratibu wa Umoja wa Mataifa, ambayo WHO lilisema ingewaruhusu "kuzingatia usaidizi wa afya wakati wa mashirika mengine kufanya kazi kuhusu athari za kiuchumi, kijamii, na manendeleo za mlipuko huo ". [234]Tarehe 25 Februari, WHO lilitangaza "ulimwengu unapaswa ufanye zaidi kujiandaa kwa uwezekano wa janga la COVID-19," na kusema kwamba ingawa ilikuwa mapema mno kuita janga, ilikuwa lazima nchi zifanye “awamu ya maandalizi".[235] Tarehe 28 Februari, maafisa wa WHO walisema madadirio ya tishio ya kimataifa la Coronavirus yangeongeza kutoka “juu” hadi “juu sana,” kiwango chake cha juu ya tahadhari. [236]Tarehe 11 Machi, WHO lilitangaza mlipuko wa Coronavirus ulikuwa janga. Mkurugenzi Mkuu alisema WHO "linajihusisha sana na viwango vya kutisha vya kuenea na ukali, na pia viwango vya kutisha vya kutotenda". [237]Wakosoaji wamesema WHO lilijibu janga hilo vibaya na tangazo la dharura la afya ya umma lilichelewa.[238]

Athari[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Uchumi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mlipuko huo ni tishio kubwa kwa uchumi wa dunia. Agathe Demarais kutoka Economist Intelligence Unit anatarajia kwamba masoko ya fedha yataendelea kutetemeka hadi kuna uwazi zaidi kuhusu matokea yanayowezekana. Makadirio moja ya mtaalamu huko Chuo Kikuu cha Washington mjini St. Louis yalitoa athari ya dola bilioni 300 + kwenye biashara ya kimataifa ambayo ingedumu miaka miwili.[239] Masoko ya hisa duniani yalianguka tarehe 24 Februari kutokana na ongezeko kubwa la idadi ya kesi nje ya Uchina. [240]Tarehe 27 Februari, kutokana na wasiwasi kuhusu mlipuko wa Coronavirus, soko la hisa la Marekani lilianguka zaidi tangu mwaka 2008, na DOW lilianguka pointi 1,191 (thamani kubwa zaidi katika siku moja tangu mgogoro wa fedha mnamo 2007 – 08) na masoko yote matatu yalimaliza wiki hiyo chini ya asilimia 10. [241][242] Masoko ya hisa yalishuka tena kutokana na hofu ya Coronavirus, kuanguka kubwa zaidi tarehe 16 Machi. Wengi wanadhani kushuka kubwa kwa uchumi kutafanyika.[243]

Benki ya Lloyd ya London inakadiria kuwa sekta ya bima ya kimataifa itakuwa na hasara ya US $204 bilioni, hasara zaidi kuliko majira ya kimbunga cha Atlantiki mwaka 2017 na mashambulio ya kigaidi ya 9/11 mwaka 2001, kuashiria uwezekano wa janga la COVID-19 litakuwa janga baya katika historia ya binadamu.[244]

Utalii ni sekta moja inayoathiriwa vibaya zaidi kutokana na marufuku za usafiri, ufungaji mahali pa umma kama vile vivutio vya kusafiri, na ushauri wa serikali dhidi ya kusafiri. Makampuni ya ndege mbalimbali yamefuta safari, na makampuni madogo ya ndege yameshindwa. Sekta ya meli iliathirika vibaya pia, na vituo vya meli vimefungwa. Posta ya kimataifa kati ya nchi nyingine imesimama au kuchelewa kutokana na kupungua kwa usafiri baina yao au kusimamishwa kwa huduma za ndani.[245][246][247][248]

Sekta ya rejareja imeathiriwa duniani kote, na maduka mengi yamefunga kwa muda au yamepunguza masaa ya biashara. Ziara za wateja katika Ulaya na Amerika Kusini zilianguka kwa asilimia 40. Huko Amerika Kaskazini na Mashariki ya kati wauzaji waliona kushuka kwa asilimia 50-60. Hii pia ilisababisha kushuka kwa trafiki ya miguu kwa asilimia 33-43 vituoni kwa ununuzi mwezi Machi ikilinganishwa na mwezi Februari. Wakurugenzi wa maduka ya biashara duniani kote waliweka hatua za ziada, kama vile kuongezeka kwa usafi, ufungaji wa scanners ili kuangalia joto la wanunuzi, na kufuta matukio.[249][250][251]

Mamia ya mamilioni ya kazi yamepotezwa duniani kote. Zaidi ya Wamarekani 40,000,000 walipoteza kazi zao na kufanya madai ya bima ya ukosefu wa ajira.[252][253]

Kwa mujibu ya makadirio ya Tume ya uchumi ya Umoja wa Mataifa ya Amerika Kusini, kushuka kwa uchumi kutokana na janga kungewalazimisha watu milioni 14-22 katika umaskini kuliko idadi bila janga hilo.[254][255]

Uchumi wa nchi zinazoendelea umeharibu sana hasa nchi za Afrika ambazo zimeshakuwa na deni kubwa sana. Zaidi ya deni ni kiChina na sasa kuna shinikizo kubwa juu ya Uchina kufuta deni hiyo. Shirika la IMF na Benki ya Duniani na nchi za G-20, zikiwemo Uchina, vimekubali kuchelewesha kulipa deni hiyo. Lakini kuna waswasi huko Afrika kwamba Uchina itauliza kulipwa hivi karibuni kwa sababu uchumi wa kiChina pia una matatizo. Wachambuzi wengi wanaamini kwamba pengine Uchina itajaribu kufaidika hali hiyo kwa kuchukua miundo mbinu kwa mfano bandari kama nchi za Afrika hazitaweza kulipa deni. [256][257][258]

Ukosefu wa bidhaa[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mlipuko huo umelaumuliwa kwa uhaba wa ugavi, kutokana na kuongezeka kwa matumizi ya vifaa vinavyohitajika kupambana na virusi hivyo, kununua bidhaa zaidi zinazohitajika kutokana na hofu, na kuvuruga operesheni za kiwanda na utaritibu wa ugavi. [259]Kuenea kwa kununua kutokana na hofu kumesababishwa na watu wanoamini kwamba kutakuwa na uhaba au tishio fulani, hofu ya mustakubali, au sababu kisaikolojia na kijamii (kwa mfano, ushawishi wa kijamii na uaminifu).[260] Sekta ya teknolojia, hasa, imeonya juu ya ucheleweshaji wa shehena ya bidhaa za elektroniki.[261] Kwa mujibu ya Mkurugenzi Mkuu wa WHO Tedros Adhanom, mahitaji ya vifaa vya kujilinda binafsi yamefufuka mara mia, na kusababisha bei mara ishirini kuliko bei za kawaida na pia kuchelewa kwa ugavi wa vitu vya matibabu kwa miezi minne hadi sita.[262] Pia imesababisha uhaba wa vifaa vya kinga binafsi duniani kote, na WHO limeonya kwamba hali hiyo itahatarisha wafanyakazi wa afya.[263]

Athari ya mlipuko Coronavirus ilikuwa duniani kote. Virusi vilisababisha uhaba wa kemikali zinazotumika katika kutengenza dawa za fentanyl na methamphetamine. Kundi la Yuancheng, liko Wuhan, Uchina, ni moja ya makampuni yanayosambaza kemikali hizo.[264] Kuongezeka kwa bei na upungufu wa dawa hizi haramu vimeangaliwa mitaani huko Uingereza. Polisi wa Marekani pia waliambia gazeti la New York Post kwamba makundi ya madawa ya kulevya ya kiMexico yanakuwa na changamoto kupata kemikali hizo.[265][266]

Janga hilo limevuruga ugavi wa chakula cha kimataifa na kutishia kusababisha matatizo lipya la chakula. David Beasley, mkuu wa Shirika la chakula duniani (WFP), alisema "Tungekabiliwa na njaa nyingi mnamo miezi michache ijayo."[267][268]

Maafisa wa Umoja wa Mataifa walikadiria mwezi Aprili 2020 kwamba watu wa ziada 130,000,000 wangekufa kutokana na njaa, kwa jumla ya watu 265,000,000 mwishoni 2020.[269]

Mafuta na masoko ya nishati[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mwanzo wa Februari 2020, Shirika la nchi za mafuta (OPEC) lilichochoea baada ya kupungua kwa bei ya mafuta kutokana na mahitaji ya chini kutoka Uchina. Tarehe 20 Aprili, bei ya hisa za West Texas Intermediate (WTI) alianguka chini ya sifuri hadi rekodi ya chini (- $37.63) kutokana na wanaomili hisa wakiziuza. Mwezi Juni bei zilikuweko chini lakini bora, na pipa la WTI liliuzwa $20.[270][271]

Utamaduni[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Sekta za sanaa na urithi wa utamaduni zimeathiriwa sana na janga hilo, ambalo limeathiri operesheni za mashirika pamoja na watu — wote walioajiriwa na waliojitegemea — duniani kote. Mashirika ya utamaduni yalijaribu kulinda malengo (mara nyingi inayofadhiliwa kwa umma) ya kutoa huduma za kitamaduni kwa jamii, kulinda usalama wa waajiriwa wao na pia umma, na kuwasaidia wasanii kama iwezekanavyo. Mnamo Machi 2020, kote ulimwenguni, makumbusho, maktaba, na taasisi nyingine za kitamaduni zilikuwa zimefungwa na maonyesho na matukio yao yalifutwa au kuahirishwa. Kulikuwa na juhudi kubwa kutoa huduma mbadala mtandaoni.[272][273][274]

Matukio ya wiki ya Pasaka mjini Roma yalifutwa. Viongozi wengi wamependekeza Wakristo wazee wakae nyumbani badala ya kuhudhuria mikutano ya kidini; mingi yalipatikana kupitia kwa redio, mtandaoni na televisheni, ingawa baadhi ya kanisa imefanya mikutano kwenye magari. Pamoja na Vatican na makanisa ya kikatoliki, makundi ya kidini mengine pia yalifuta mikutano ya umma katika makanisa, misikiti, masinagogi, mahekalu na gurdwaras. Wizara ya afya ya Irani ilitangaza kwamba sala za Ijumaa zilifutwa katika maeneo yaliyoathiriwa na mlipuko na baadaye makaburi yalifungwa pia, na Saudi Arabia ilipiga marufuku wasafiri wa kigeni pamoja na wakazi wake kuingia maeneo matakatifu ya Makka na Medina.[275][276][277]

Janga hilo limesababisha usumbufu mkubwa zaidi kwa kalenda ya michezo duniani kote tangu vita vya dunia ya pili. Matukio makubwa yamekatwa au kuahirishwa, yakiwemo Ligi ya Mabingwa ya UEFA 2019-20, Ligi Kuu 2019-20, UEFA Euro 2020, msimu wa NBA 2019-20, na msimu wa NHL 2019- 20. Mlipuko huo ulivurugu michezo ya Olimpiki ya 2020, ambayo ilikuwa imepangwa kuanza mwishoni mwezi Julai; Kamati ya Olimpiki ya kimataifa ilitangaza tarehe 24 Machi kwamba michezo hiyo "itafanyika tarehe mpya baada ya mwaka 2020 lakini si baada ya majira ya joto 2021".[278][279][280][281][282]

Sekta ya burudani pia imekuwa iliathiriwa, na makundi mengi ya muziki yamesitisha au kufuta ziara ya tamasha. Mashindano ya wimbo wa Eurovision, ambayo yalipangwa kufanyika nchini Uholanzi mwezi Mei, yaliahirishwa hadi mwaka 2021. Thamthilia kubwa kama vile Broadway pia zilisitisha maonyesho yote. Wasanii wengine wametafuta njia mabadala kuendelea kuzalisha na kushiriki kazi yao mtandaoni, kama vile matamasha na sherehe. Pia kuna mizaha mingi na ucheshi kuhusu virusi vya COVID-10 mtandaoni, kama watu wengi watafuta njia za kuvumilia ukosefu wa uhakika.[283][284][285][286][287]

Siasa[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Janga hilo limeathiriwa mifumo ya kisiasa ya nchi nyingi, kuvuruga shughuli za kisheria. Wanasiasa wengi wameambukizwa na kujitenga na wengine wamekufa. Ratiba ya uchaguzi kadhaa imebadilishwa kutokana na hofu ya virusi.[288][289][290]

Uchina[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Serikali ya Uchina imekosolewa na serikali ya Marekani, Waziri wa ofisi ya Baraza la mawaziri wa Uingereza Michael Gove, na wengine kutokana na utunzaji wao wa janga hilo.[291] [292]Baadhi ya wasimamizi wa ngazi za majimbo wa chama cha kikomunisti wa Uchina walifukuzwa kwa sababu jinsi walivyosimamia juhudi za karantini huko Uchina ya kati, ishara ya kutoridhika kwa majibu yao ya mlipuko. [293]Baadhi ya wachambuzi waliamini hatua hizi zilikusudiwa kumlinda Waziri Mkuu wa Kichina, Xi Jinping kutoka utata huo. Jumuiya ya upelelezi ya Marekani inasema kwamba serikali ya Uchina haikuripoti idadi sahihi ya kesi za coronavirus kwa maksudi.[294]

Marekani[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mlipuko huo ulisababisha wito kwa Marekani kuunga sera za kijamii sawa ya nchi nyingine tajiri, zikiwemo huduma za afya kwa kila raia, huduma za watoto wote, msaada wa wagonjwa, na viwango vya juu vya fedha za umma za afya.[295] [296]Wachambuzi wa kisiasa walitarajia kwamba hali hiyo pengine ingepunguza nafasi ya Donald Trump kushinda uchaguzi mpya mwezi Novemba.[297] Kuanzia kati ya Aprili 2020, kulikuwa na maandamano katika majimbo kadhaa ya Marekani dhidi ya ufungaji wa biashara ulioagizwa na serikali na vikwazo vya kusafiri na mawasailiano.[298]

Nchi nyingine[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mazoezi ya kijeshi ya NATO ya 2020 yanaohusisha Ujerumani, Poland, na nchi za Baltic, mazoezi makubwa zaidi tangu mwishoni kwa vita baridi, yatafanyika kwa kiwango kidogo zaidi.[299]

Serikali ya Irani imeathiriwa sana na virusi, na wabunge takriban ishirini na nne na wanasiasa wa sasa au zamani kumi na tano waliambukizwa.[300] Rais wa Irani Hassan Rouhani aliwaandikia viongozi wa dunia barua ya umma akiomba msaada tarehe 14 Machi 2020, akisema walikuwa na changamoto kupambana na mlipuko huo kutokana na vikwazo vya Marekani dhidi ya Irani.[301] Saudi Arabia, ambayo ilianza kuingilia kwa kijeshi nchini Yemeni mwezi Machi 2015, ilitangaza kukoma kwa vita.[302]

Mahusiano ya kidiplomasia baina ya Japan na Korea Kusini yaliharibika kutokana na janga.[303] Korea Kusini iliikosoa Japan kwa sababu "juhudi zao karantini mbaya" baada ya Japani ilitangaza wale wote waliofika kutoka Korea Kusini lazimia waende karantini kwa wiki mbili mahali panapochaguliwa na serikali.[304] Mwanzoni wananchi wa Korea Kusini waligawanyika kuhusu majibu ya Rais Moon Jae-in; wengi walipiga saini ama iliyomsifa na pia ama iliyosema aondolewe.[305]

Nchi nyingine zimepitisha sheria ya dharura kujibu janga hilo. Baadhi ya wachambuzi wameonyesha wasiwasi kwamba ingeruhusu serikali kuimarisha madaraka yao.[306] Nchini Ufilipino, wabunge walimpa Rais Rodrigo Duterte madaraka za dharura wakati wa janga hilo. Nchini Hungary, wabunge walipiga kura kumruhusu Waziri Mkuu, Viktor Orbán, kutawala kwa kutoa amri kwa muda usiojulikana, kusimamisha bunge pamoja na uchaguzi, na kuwaadhibu wale wanaotuhumiwa kusambaza taarifa za uongo kuhusu virusi na sera za serikali. [307]Katika baadhi ya nchi, kama vile Misri, Uturuki, na Thailand, wanaharakati wa upinzani na wakosoaji wa serikali wamekamatwa kwa kutuhumiwa kueneza habari ambazo serikali hizo zinadai ni bandia kuhusu janga hilo.[308] [309]

Elimu[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Janga la coronavirus limeathiri mifumo ya elimu duniani kote, kusababisha ufungaji wa shule, vyuo vikuu na taasisi nyingine za elimu.[310]

Serikali nyingi duniani kote zimefunga taasisi za elimu kwa muda kama jaribio kudhibiti usambazaji wa virusi hivyo. Mnamo 24 Mei 2020, wanafunzi takriban 1,725,000,000 waliathiriwa na kufungwa kwa shule. Kwa mujibu ya shirika la UNICEF, nchi 153 zimetekeleza ufungaji wa nchi nzima na 24 kutekeleza ufungaji wa wenyeji, kuathiri asilimia 98.6 ya idadi ya wanafunzi duniani. Shule za nchi 10 kwa sasa ziko wazi.[311][312]

Tarehe 23 Machi 2020, mitihani ya kimataifa ya Cambridge (CIE) ilitangaza kufutwa mitihani yake. Mitihani ya kimataifa ya Baccalaureate pia imefutwa. Pia mitihani ya AP, SAT, na ACT nchini Marekani imehamisha mtandaoni au kufutwa.[313]

Kufungwa kwa shule kunaathiri sio wanafunzi tu, lakini pia walimu, na familia. Kuna matokeo makubwa ya kiuchumi na kijamii. Hali hiyo imevutia macho masuala mengi, kwa mfano, madeni ya wanafunzi,[314] mafunzo ya dijitali,[315] ukosefu wa chakula,[316] na kukosa makazi,[317] pamoja na utunzaji wa watoto,[318] huduma za afya, nyumba, mtandao, na huduma za ulemavu. Athari hiyo ilikuwa kali zaidi kwa watoto wasio na mahitaji na familia zao, kuvuruga kujifunza, lishe ya watoto, matatizo ya kiuchumi kwa familia bila ajira.[319][320][321]

Kujibu kwa kufungwa kwa shule, shirika la UNESCO lilipendekeza matumizi ya mipango ya kujifunza mbali kama mtandaoni na kufungua majukwaa ya elimu ambayo shule na waalimu wanaweza kutumia ili wapunguze usumbufu wa elimu.

Masuala mengine ya afya[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Janga hilo limekuwa na athari nyingi za afya duniani zaidi ya zile zinazosababishwa na coronavirus. Limesababisha upungufu wa ziara hospitalini kwa sababu zingine. Kumekuwa na upungufu wa asilimia 38 wa ziara za hospitalini kwa ajili ya dalili za matatizo ya moyo nchini Marekani na asilimia 40 nchini Hispania.[322] Mtaalamu wa moyo huko Chuo Kikuu cha Arizona alisema, "Nina wasiwasi kwamba watu wengi wanakufa nyumbani kwa sababu wana ogopa sana kwenda hospitalini."[323] Pia kuna wasiwasi kwamba watu wenye matatizo ya afya mengine hawachelewi kwenda hospitalini. Upungufu wa vifaa vya matibabu umeathiri watu wenye magonjwa mbalimbali.[324]

Katika nchi kadhaa kumekuwa na upungufu wa magonjwa ya maambukizo ya zinaa, kama vile HIV, kutokana na sera za karantini na kujitenga na mapendekezo ya kutofanya ngono ya kawaida. [325]Vile vile, katika baadhi ya maeneo, viwango vya maambukizo ya mafua na virusi vingine vimeanguka kwa kiwango kikubwa wakati wa janga hilo. Janga pia limeathiri vibaya afya ya akili duniani kote.[326][327]

Ubaguzi wa rangi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Tangu mwanzo wa mlipuko huo, kuchochea chuki, ubaguzi, na ubaguzi wa rangi vimeripotiwa duniani kote dhidi ya watu wa Kichina na Asia Mashiriki.[328] [329]Taarifa mnamo Februari (kesi nyingi zaidi zilipokuweko Uchina) zilionyesha hisia za ubaguzi kuhusu watu wa Kichina, na ongezeko la wazo la wachina walistahili kupata virusi. [330] [331]Raia za nchi kadhaa zikiwemo Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, Japani, Vietnam, na Korea Kusini walishinikiza serikali zao kupiga marufuku watu wa kichina kuingia nchi zao. Watu wa Kichina na Waasia wengine nchini Uingereza na Marekani wameripoti ongezeko la viwango vya unyanyasaji wa rangi na mashambulizi.[332][333]

Kufuatia usambazaji hadi nchi nyingine, watu wanaotoka Italia (nchi ya kwanza huko Ulaya yenye mlipuko mkubwa) walikabiliwa na ubaguzi, na pia watu wanaotoka nchi nyingine zenye kesi nyingi.[334] Ubaguzi dhidi ya Waislamu nchini India uliongezeka baada ya mamlaka ya afya ya umma ilitambua mkusanyiko wa umisionari wa kiislamu mjini New Delhi mwezi Machi 2020 kama chanzo cha kuenea.[335] Paris imekuwa na ghasia kuhusu jinsi polisi walivyowatendea watu wenye rangi wakati wa ufungaji.[336] Ubaguzi wa rangi dhidi ya watu wanaotoka Asia Kusini na Asia Kusini Mashiriki uliongezeka katika mataifa ya Kiarabu. Jamii ya LGBTQ ya Korea Kusini iliwalaumuliwa na watu wengine kwa kuenea virusi hivyo mjini Seoul.[337][338]

Nchini Uchina, ubaguzi wa rangi dhidi ya wakazi wasio Kichina umechochewa na janga hilo, na wageni waliitwa "takataka za kigeni" na walilengwa kwa "utupaji". [339]Baadhi ya watu weusi walifukuzwa na polisi kutoka nyumbani kwao na kuambiwa kuondoka Uchina kabla ya masaa 24, kutokana na taarifa za uongo za wageni wakieneza virusi. Ubaguzi wa rangi huko ulikosolewa na serikali za kigeni na kundi la kidiplomasia, hasa serikali za nchi za Afrika, na Uchina iliomba samehe, lakini pia serikali ya Uchina imedai kwamba vyombo vya habari vya kigeni vimetia chumvi matukio hayo ili vionyeshe picha mbaya ya Uchina. Ubaguzi wa rangi dhidi ya watu waAfrika umeendelea. WaAfrika wameondolewa migahawani, madukani, na mahali pengine nchini Uchina.[340][341][342]

Usambazaji wa habari[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Magazeti mengi yameruhusu kusoma makala zote kuhusu virusi hivyo kwa bure mtandaoni, wakati wachapishaji wa kisayansi walifanya upatikanaji karatasi za kisayansi kuhusu mlipuko huo wazi. Baadhi ya wanasayansi walichagua kugawa matokeo yao haraka zaidi kwenye seva za kuchapisha kama vile bioRxiv.[343][344][345]

Taarifa potofu[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Janga hilo limesababisha taarifa potofu na taarifa na nadharia za janja kuhusu virusi kama vile asili, kuzuia, utambuzi, na matibabu ya ugonjwa huo.[346][347] Habari za uongo, zikiwemo taarifa kama hizo zilizosambazwa kwa makusudi, zimeenezwa kutumia mtandao ya kijamii, ujumbe, na vyombo vya habari vya serekali za nchi zikiwemo Uchina, Urusi, Irani, na Turkmenistan.[348] [349] [350] [351]Pia habari hizo zimekuwa kueneza kwa operesheni za siri za serikali ili zizalishe hofu nchini nyingine. Katika nchi nyingine, kama vile India, Bangladesh, na Ethiopia, waandishi wa habari wamekamatwa kwa tuhuma za kueneza habari bandia kuhusu janga hilo.[352]

Taarifa potofu zimeenezwa na watu maarufu na wanasiasa.[353] Wabiashara wa kudanganya wamedai kuuza vipimo vinavyoweza kutumiwa nyumbani, kinga, na matibabu ya "muujiza". [354]Makundi kadhaa ya kidini yamedai imani yao itawalinda dhidi ya virusi. [355]Baadhi ya watu wamedai virusi ni silaha ya kibiolojiki iliyoruhusu kutolewa maabarani kwa ajali au kwa makusudi, mpango wa udhibiti wa idadi ya watu, matokeo ya operesheni ya kijasusi, au matokeo ya jumla ya uboreshaji wa 5G kwenye mitandao ya simu.[356][357]

Shirika la afya duniani limetangaza "janga la habari potofu" kuhusu virusi, ambalo linasababisha hatari kwa afya ya kimataifa.[358]

Mfululizo wa matukio ya janga la COVID-19[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Makala hii inahusu mfululizo na historia ya SARS-CoV-2, virusi vinavyosababisha COVID-19 vyenye wajibu wa janga la sasa. Kesi za kwanza zilizohusisha binadamu zilitambuliwa mjini Wuhan, Uchina mwezi Desemba 2019.[359]

Historia ya Janga[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kuanzia mwezi Januari 2020 utafiti wa timu tofauti ulieleza hali ya matibabu na pia kuchambua maendeleo ya virusi hivyo.[360]

Kesi za mapema zilizotambuliwa na maabara ziligunduliwa baadaye. [361]

Kwa ajili ya utafiti mapema, chanzo cha virusi hivyo pengine kiliendeleza mnamo 22-24 Novemba 2019 . Mnamo May 2020 nadharia hiyo ilithibitishwa na takwimu zaidi na mwanzo wa virusi COVID-19 ilitambuliwa mnamo 6 Octoba 2019 hadi 11 Desemba 2019. Pia ushahidi nguvu unaashiria kwamba virusi vilianza katika popo lakini vilienea binadamu kupitisha aina nyingine ya mnyama kutoka popo hadi binadamu. Inawezekana uwezo wa kuenea miongoni kwa binadamu uliendeleza baadaye. [362][363][364]

17 Novemba 2019[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kwa ajili ya utafiti uliofanywa baadaye, mgonjwa wa kwanza aliambukizwa na COVID-19, ingawa ugonjwa huo umekuwa haujatambulishwa.  Aliishi jimbo la Hubei, Uchina.[360]

1 Desemba[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Utafiti unaonyesha kwamba dalili za “Mgonjwa Sifuri” au mgonjwa wa kwanza zilianza tarehe 1 Desemba. Yeye alikuwa mwanamume na hakuenda Soko la Samaki mjini Wuhan na familia yake haikuathiriwa na hakuwa na uhusiano baina yake na kesi nyingine. Baadaye ilithibitishwa kwamba alikuwa na miaka sabini, alikuwa na ugonjwa wa Alzheimer na aliishi mbali kutoka sokoni na kwa kawaida hakuondoka nyumbani.[365][366]

16 Desemba[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Watu wa kwanza wenye virusi hivyo walilazwa hospitalini tarehe 16 Desemba. Wazee wawili wenye homa na kohoa walienda hospitalini Hubei Provincial. Mkuu wa matibatu ya kupumua Dk Zhang Jixian aliyewatiba alitambua ugonjwa wao kama pengine mafua au nimonia.[367][368]

24 Desemba[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Sampuli ya mate ya kifua ilitumia maabara Vision Medicals kutoka Hospitali Wuhan Central kwa uchambuzi wa kijenetiki. [369]

27 Desemba[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Baada ya kuangalia picha za CT za wazee hazikuwa kwaida, Dk Jixian alimwuliza mvulana wa wazee hao kupata CT na matokeo yalikuwa sawa. Jixian alifanya kazi kuhusu janga la SARS na alituhuma kulikuwa na mlipuko mengine wa maambukizo hayo. Mgonjwa mwengine, mfanyabiashara katika soko la samaki mjini Wuhan, alifikia hospitalini siku hiyo hiyo mwenye dalili sawa. Damu za wagonjwa wote zilipimwa na matokeo yanaonyesha walikuwa na aina ya virusi lakini sio mafua. Dk Jixian aliwaripotia wakuu wake na aliweka sehemu ya karantini. [370][371]

Hospitali ya Wuhan Central alipata ujumbe kutoka maabara Vision Medicals ukisema kwamba sampuli tarehe 24 Desemba ilikuwa na aina mpya ya coronavirus.  Mgonjwa huyo aliwekwa karantini. Pia huko hospitali ya Wuhan Central, sampuli nyingine ilikusanyika kutoka mgonjwa mwengine mwenye ugonjwa usiojulikana na sampuli hiyo ilitumia maabara CapitalBio Medlab mjini Beijing. [372][373]

29 Desemba[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Siku hiyo na jana kesi tatu zilifikia hospitalini Hubei Provincial, zote zilizohusiana na soko la samaki. Mamlaka ya afya ilikuwa imejulishwa na wataalamu wa magonjwa ya maambukizo walikuja kutoka hospitali Wuhan Central ili wawahamishe wagonjwa sita wa saba. Dk Jixian aliamua kuwaruhusu wafanyakazi wa matibabu katika idara yake kuvaa barakoa na aliagiza makoti ya kinga. [374]

Wakuu wa hospitali ya Hubei Provincial walikutana na jupo la madaktari ambao walimaliza kwamba kesi hizo hazikuwa kawaida na kuhitajika mwangalizi maalum na pia, kwa sababu walikuwa wamejifunza juu ya kesi mbili nyingine mjini, waliamua kuripoti hitimisho zao mamlaka ya afya ya mji na jimbo. [375][376]

30 Desemba[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Hospitali ya Wuhan Central ilipokea ripoti kutoka maabara ya CapitalBio Medlab iliyodai kesi ya SARS. Kwa mujibu ya mtandao ya kijamii, matokeo hayo yaligunduliwa si kweli baadaye. Madaktari kadhaa wakiwemo Dk Ai Fen waliweka matokeo ya kipimo mtandaoni kwa kijamii kwa wenzao, wakiwemo Dk Li Wenliang. [377][378]

Ujumbe rasmi wa kwanza[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Tume ya afya ya mji wa Wuhan ilitumia taasisi zake ujumbe: [379]

Madaktari wanaosimamia watekeleze udhibiti na kuanzisha timu maalum.

Wafanyakazi wote wakae macho, hasa kuangalia wagonjwa wenye dalili kama zile za numonia inayoambukiza.

Ni lazima takwimu zikusanyike kwa kawaida na kutumia tume ya afya ya Wuhan na jimbo la Hubei.

Takwimu za wiki iliyopita, kuhusu wagonjwa wenye dalili za numonia inayoambukiza, zitumie tume ya afya ya Wuhan kabla ya saa kumi jioni siku hiyo hiyo.

Bila ruhusu kutoka mamlaka hakuna mtu ye yote anayeruhusiwa kueneza habari juu ya matibabu. 

31 Desemba[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Ujumbe wa umma wa kwanza[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Tume ya afya ya Wuhan ilijulisha jamii juu ya ishara mapema za mlipuko wa numonia. Ujumbe huo unatoa picha ya tahadhari; ulijumuisha maagizo ya siku iliyopita kwa hospitali za mji; ulitia mkazo utafiti ulioendelea na kutafuta matibabu ambapo kulikuwa na dalili za numonia; na ulishauri umma kuvaa barakoa na kuepuka mahali ndani pa umma penye watu wengi. [380]

Mnamo siku hiyo, kulikuwa na kesi 266 huko jimbo la Hubei. [381]

Qu Shiqan, mwuzaji sokoni kwa samaki, alisema kwamba maofisa ya serikali walisafisha mahali hapo terehe 31 Desemba na waliwaambia wauzaji wavae barakoa. Qu alisema kwamba alijifunza juu ya mlipuko wa numonia kutoka ripoti za vyombo vya habari tu. “Awali nilifikiri kwamba walikuwa na mafua,” alisema. “Si kali sana. Sisi tunauza samaki. Tunaweza kuambukizwa vipi?” Wachambuzi wengi walisema baadaye kwamba kusafisha sokoni kuliharibu ushahidi muhimu uliohitajika kugundua asili ya COVID-19.[382]

Dk Li Wenliang aliyesimamia idara ya dharura ya hospitali Wuhan Central alikabiliwa na maofisa ya usalama mjini Wuhan kwa sababu alichapisha habari za ugonjwa mtandaoni kwa kijamii. Walimwonya akome “kueneza uongo.” [383]

Kwa mujibu ya kituo cha afya cha serikali ya Hong Kong, hatua mbalimbali kuangalia na kudhibiti mipaka zilianza, zikiwemo uangalizi wa joto. [384]

Tume ya afya ya Wuhan ilitumia taasisi zake ujumbe kwenye karatasi wenye mwongozo wa kukabiliana na mlipuko wa numonia unaowezekana. Siku hiyo hiyo nakala mbili pia ziliwekwa mtandaoni kwa kijamii Weibo.  [385][386]

Ofisi ya shirika la WHO mjini Beijing ilijulishwa juu ya “aina ya numonia yenye sababu isiyojulikana” ambayo iligunduliwa mjini Wuhan. [387]

Vyombo vya habari vya kimataifa Reuters na Deutsche Welle vilipata habari hiyo na pia gazeti la South China Morning Post huko Hong Kong:

Hong Kong ichukua hatua za dharura kama numonia ya fumbo iwaambukiza watu 27 Wuhan [388]

Uchina ichunguza virusi kama SARS kama wagonjwa wengi waathiri [389]

Maofisa wa Uchina wachunguza mlipuko wa numonia Wuhan [390]

1 Januari 2020[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Dk Ai alionywa na wakuu wake kwa sababu aliwaambia wenzake juu ya virusi vipya.  [29]

3 Januari[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Uchina iliambia rasmi Marekani juu ya virusi hivyo na ilianza kulipa shirika la WHO habari kila siku. [391] [392]

Tume ya afya ya kitaifa ya Uchina iliagiza taasisi mjini Wuhan zisichapishe habari zo zote kuhusu virusi hivyo na ziangamize sampuli za ugonjwa huo.[29]

Dk Li alionywa na polisi kukoma kueneza habari kuhusu virusi hivyo.  [393]

6 Januari[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Serikali ya Marekani ilitolea Uchina timu ya wataalamu wazuri wa magonjwa ya maambukizo ili wasaidie.  Uchina ilikataa. [29]

9 Januari[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Uchina ilitangaza kwamba wanasayansi wa kiChina wamemaliza uchambuzi wa kijenetiki wa COVID-19. [394][395]

14 Januari[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Katika mkutano siri wa maofisa wa Uchina, mkuu wa tume ya afya kitaifa alisema kwamba hali hiyo ilikuwa “changamoto kali zaidi tangu SARS.”[396]

Shirika la WHO lilirudia habari kutoka Uchina kwamba virusi hivyo havienei miongoni mwa binadamu.  [359]

20 Januari[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mkuu wa Uchina Xi Jinping alijadili virusi hivyo kwa umma kwa mara ya kwanza.  [397]

Katika hoja na vyombo vya habari vya serikali, Dk Zhong Nanshan alithibitisha virusi hivyo vinaweza kuenea miongoni mwa binadamu. [398]

Korea Kusini na Marekani zilithibitisha kesi zao za kwanza. [399][400]

23 Januari[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mji yote ya Wuhan iliwekwa ufungaji au karantini kwa siku 72. Siku ijayo serikali ya Uchina ilipiga marufuku za usafiri kuingia na kuondoka jimbo la Hubei. [401]

24 Januari[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Ufaransa ilithibitisha kesi yake ya kwanza, lakini baadaye iligunduliwa kwamba kulikuwa na kesi nyingine tarehe 27 Desemba 2019 nchini Ufaransa. [402]

27 Januari[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Serikali ya Uchina ilipiga marufuku za usafiri wa makundi ya watu kwenda nchi nyingine. [401]

Meya wa Wuhan alisema kwamba hakuweza kutoa taarifa juu ya hali halisi mapema zaidi kutokana na mfumo wa kisiasa wa Uchina.  “Serikali ya kienyeji hairuhusiwi kufanya hivyo bila ruhusu kutoka serikali ya kitaifa,” alisema. [403]

30 Januari[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Shirika la WHO lilitangaza Coronavirus vilikuwa dharura ya afya ya kimataifa.[404]

31 Januari[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Rais Trump wa Marekani alipiga marufuku za usafiri kutoka Uchina isipokuwa Wamarekani.  [161]

Uingereza na Urusi zilithibitisha kesi zao za kwanza za COVID-19. [405]

6 February[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mtu wa kwanza nchini Marekani alikufa kutokana na COVID-19. [406]

7 Februari[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Dk Li alikufa kutokana na COVID-19. [29]

19 Februari[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Irani ilithibitisha vifo vyake ya kwanza kutokana na COVID-19.[407]

13 Machi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Rais Trump wa Marekani alitangaza hali ya dharura ya kitaifa. [161]

19 Machi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Italia ilikuwa nchi yenye vifo vingi zaidi duniani kutokana na COVID-19.

26 Machi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Marekani ilikuwa nchi yenye kesi zilisothibitishwa nyingi zaidi duniani. [408]

17 Aprili[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Serikali ya Uchina ilikiri kwamba kulikuwa na vifo vingi zaidi mjini Wuhan kuliko hivyo vilivyoripotiwa.  Serikali iliongeza idadi ya vifo kwa 50%. [29]

19 Aprili[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Serikali ya Australia ilidai uchunguzi huru wa asili ya janga hilo. Baadaye zaidi ya nchi 100 ziliunga mkono hatua hiyo.  [29]

17 Aprili[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Uchina iliita hatua hiyo ni “hatari” na ilitisha kulipiza kisasi cha kiuchumi kwa nchi zilizounga mkono. Lakini baadaye Uchina ilikubali kushirikiana na uchunguzi huo. [29]

Ufupisho[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Utafiti wa kihistoria unaamini kwamba SARS-CoV-2 viliendeleza mwezi Novemba. Ufahamu wa kisayansi wa aina mpya ya SARS coronavirus ulifanyika maabarani Vision Medicals jimbo la Guangzhou mnamo 24-27 Desemba 2019.  Ufahamu wa kikliniki wa janga linalokuja lilianza hospitalini Hubei Provincial karibu na wakati huo huo mnamo 27-29 Desemba. Tarehe 31 Desemba mamlaka ya afya ya Wuhan ilitoa takwimu ya kesi.  Wachambuzi wengi nchini nyingi wamedai Uchina kwa kuchelewa habari za virusi hivyo na kujaribu kuficha ukali wa virusi hivyo baada ya ilikuwa wazi kwamba kulikuwa na aina mpya ya virusi vilivyosambaa kwa rahisi.  [29][359]

Tazama pia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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