Kongo (mto)

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Mto wa Kongo
Beseni ya mto Kongo
Chanzo Katika milima ya Mitumba takr. 100 km magharibi ya Lumbumbashi (Jamhuri ya Kidemokrasia ya Kongo)
Mdomo Atlantiki
Nchi Jamhuri ya Kidemokrasia ya Kongo, Jamhuri ya Kongo
Urefu 4,700 km
Kimo cha chanzo 1,400 m
Tawimito Lufira, Kasai, Ubangi
Mkondo 42,000 m³/s
Eneo la beseni 3,730,000 km²
Idadi ya watu wanaokalia beseni milioni 56
Miji mikubwa kando lake Kisangani, Mbandaka, Kinshasa, Brazzaville, Matadi

Mto wa Kongo (kati ya miaka 1971 na 1997 uliitwa zaidi "Zaire") ni mto mkubwa wa Afrika ya kati. Ni mto mrefu wa pili katika Afrika baada ya Nile.

Beseni ya Kongo pamoja na tawimito yake ni eneo kubwa la pili duniani la msitu wa mvua. Kwa kiasi cha mshuko wa maji mdomoni ni mto mkubwa wa pili duniani baada ya Amazonas Amerika ya Kusini.[1] Pia ni mto wenye kina kirefu zaidi duniani.

Urefu wake ni kilomita 4,700 ukipimwa kuanzia chanzo cha tawimto wa mbali zaidi ambayo ni mto Chambeshi wenye chanzo nchini Zambia. Mara nyingi urefu hutajwa kuanzia chanzo cha Lualaba halafu ni kilomita 4,374.

Jina[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Jina la mto limetokana na Ufalme wa Kongo uliokuwa dola kubwa katika Angola ya Kaskazini na Kongo ya Magharibi wakati wa karne ya 14-17 BK. Jamhuri zote mbili za Kongo zimepata majina yao kutoka kwa mto.

Kuna taarifa wa mwaka 1535 ufalme mdogo wa pili ulioitwa Kakongo kingdom. Ramani ya dunia iliyochorwa na Abraham Ortelius mnamo 1564 inaonyesha mji wa "Manicongo" kwenye mdomo wa mto kando ya bahari.

Jina la Bakongo kwa ajili ya jumla ya wasemaji wa lugha ya Kikongo ni jina la kisasa lililotumiwa tangu karne ya 20 tu.

Jina la pili linalotumiwa wakati mwingine ni "Zaire"; dikteta Mobutu Sese Seko alilifanya kuwa jina rasmi la mto pamoja na la taifa kati ya miaka 1971 - 1997. Jina hili linatokana na neno la Kikongo "nzere" ("mto")[2].

Katika karne za 16 na 17 mto ulijulikana kwa majina yote mawili jinsi inavyoonekana katika maandishi ya siku zile, kwa mfano Mwingereza James Barbot aliandika mwaka 1746 juu ya safari kwenda mto "Kongo au Zaire" ("Voyage to Congo River, Or the Zair") [3]

Beseni na mwendo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Beseni ya Kongo inayokusanya utiririshaji wa maji ina eneo la kilomita za mraba 4,014,500 [4]. Kongo inashusha (kutegemeana na majira na kiasi cha mvua) kila sekunde kati ya 23,000 hadi 75,000 m³ za maji kwenye Atlantiki (wastani imekadiria kuwa mita za ujazo 41,000 kwa sekunde)[5].

Kongo na tawimito yake inapita katika eno kubwa la misitu ya mvua duniani (Amazonas pekee inapita katika msitu wa mvua mskubwa zaidi). Ikipita pande zote za ikweta, upande wa kaskazini na pia kusini, sehemu fulani ya beseni yake huwa na majira ya mvua muda wowote.

Vyanzo vya Kongo viko katika nyanda za juu na kwenye milima inayopakana Bonde la Ufa la Afrika ya Mashariki, pamoja na Ziwa Tanganyika na Ziwa Mweru ambayo yanamwaga maji yao kwenda mto Lualaba ulio tawimto mkubwa wa Kongo. Kwa kawaida chanzo cha mto Chambeshi huko Zambia ambao unaishia katika Lualaba hutazamiwa kama chanzo cha Kongo.

Lualaba inabadilisha jina lake mjini Kisangani ambako mto umepita maporomoko ya Bayoma na baada ya hapo huitwa Kongo. Mto unaelekea kwenda kaskazini halafu mwendo wake unapinda kuelekea kusini magharibi, unapita mji wa Mbandaka unapopokea mto Ubangi halafu unaingia katika Bwawa la Malebo (ing. Stanley Pool). Miji ya Kinshasa na Brazzaville inatazamana ikiwa pande mbili za bwawa hili. Baada ya bwawa mto unakuwa mwembamba ukipita katika mabonde ya korongo kwenye idadi ya maporomoko inayojulikana kama maporomoko ya Livingstone Falls). Unapita miji ya Matadi na Boma (Kongo) na kuufikia baharini kwenye mji mdogo wa Muanda.

Tawimito[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Tawimito inaorodheshwa kuanzia mdomo kulekea chanzo. Kma namba zinatajwa zinaeleza urefu wa mwendo kwa kilomita (=km), eneo la beseni ya tawimto kwa kilomita za mraba (=km²) na mshuko wa maji yaani kiasi cha maji kinachotoka mdomoni kwa mita za ujazo kwa sekunde (=m3/s)

Kongo ya Juu

Juu ya Miporomoko ya Boyoma karibu na Kisangani mto kongo hujulikana kwa jina la mto Lualaba.

Kongo kama njia ya usafiri[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mto wa Kongo ni njia muhimu ya mawasiliano na biashara kwa meli zinazoweza kusafiri mle kwa kushirikiana na njia za reli penye maporomoko mahali patatu.

Maporomoko ya Livingstone yanazuia meli kupita kutoka baharini. Kuanzia Kisangani hadi Kinshasa mto ni njia ya maji inayopitiwa na meli za mtoni. Upande wa Lualaba kuna sehemu kadhaa zinazofaa kwa meli lakini njia ya maji inakatwa mara kadhaa na maporomoko.

Sehemu kubwa ya bidhaa kwenda Afrika ya kati zinasafirishwa mtoni.

Umememaji[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mto Kongo ni mto mwenye maji mengi katika Afrika yote. Hivyo kuna nafasi kubwa ya kuzalisha umememaji. Kama nafasi zote zingetumia ingewezekana kutosheleza mahitaji yote ya umeme kwa Afrika upande wa kusini ya Sahara. [6]

Hadi sasa kuna takriban vituo 49 vinayvozalisha umememaji katika beseni ya Kongo. Kituo kikubwa iko kwenye Lambo la Inga takriban kilomita 200 upande wa kusini magharibi ya Kinshasa. Mradi ulianzishwa katika miaka ya 1970. Wakati ule mfululizo ya malambo 5 ulipangwa. Hadi sasa 2 yamejengwa, lambo la kwanza Inga I ilikuwa tayari mwaka 1972, Inga II ikafuata 1982 na yote miwili ina rafadha 14[6] zinazoweza kuzalisha megawati 1,775 kwa jumla lakini kutokana uhaba wa matengenezo na usimamzi yanafikia si zaidi ya nusu. [7]

Shirika la Eskom kutoka Afrika Kusini imepndekeza kuongeza lambo la tatu na -pamoja na matengenezo kwenye malambo mengine- kuongeza uwezo wa majiumeme hadi kiwango cha gigawati 40. [8]

Lakini kuna wataalamu walionyesha mashaka kuwa malambo mapya yatakuwa hatari kwa ekolojia ya mto na hasa maisha ya spishi nyingi za mtoni.[9]

Tazama pia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. [Oberg, Kevin (July 2008). "Discharge and Other Hydraulic Measurements for Characterizing the Hydraulics of Lower Congo River, July 2008" (PDF). U.S. Geological Survey. 1 Discharge and Other Hydraulic Measurements for Characterizing the Hydraulics of Lower Congo River , July 2008, Oberg et alia]
  2. Forbath, Peter. The River Congo (1977), p. 19.
  3. James Barbot, An Abstract of a Voyage to Congo River, Or the Zair and to Cabinde in the Year 1700 (1746).
    Mifano mingine inayotaja majina yote mawili:
    James Hingston Tuckey, Narrative of an Expedition to Explore the River Zaire, Usually Called the Congo, in South Africa, in 1816 (1818), (via google books, imetazamiwa May 2016).
    "Congo River, called Zahir or Zaire by the natives" John Purdy, Memoir, Descriptive and Explanatory, to Accompany the New Chart of the Ethiopic Or Southern Atlantic Ocean, 1822, p. 112.
  4. Bossche, J.P. vanden; G. M. Bernacsek (1990). Source Book for the Inland Fishery Resources of Africa, Volume 1, imetolewa na FAO, pp. 338–339. ISBN 978-92-5-102983-1.
  5. Oberg, Kevin (July 2008), uk. 3
  6. 6.0 6.1 Alain Nubourgh, Belgian Technical Cooperation (BTC). Weetlogs.scilogs.be (2010-04-27). Retrieved on 2011-11-29.
  7. "Inga 1 and Inga 2 dams" kwenye tovuti ya www.internationalrivers.org, ilitazamiwa Mei 2016
  8. Vasagar, Jeevan. "Could a $50bn plan to tame this mighty river bring electricity to all of Africa?", World news, London: The Guardian, 2005-02-25. Retrieved on 2010-04-30. 
  9. Norlander, Britt (20 April 2009). "Rough waters: one of the world's most turbulent rivers is home to a wide array of fish species. Now, large dams are threatening their future". Science World. (hitimisho ilitazamiwa kwenye tovuti ya the Free Library, Mei 2016)

Kujisomea[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • 1837: Silence – A Fable is a short story by Edgar Allan Poe, written in 1837. "The region of which I speak is a dreary region in Libya, by the borders of the river Zaire."
  • 1878: Henry Morton Stanley documented his journey down the Congo River in Through the Dark Continent, first published in 1878.Through the Dark continent. Open Library. Retrieved on 2011-11-29.
  • 1899: Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness is a short novel about Charles Marlow's life as an ivory transporter down the Congo River in Central Africa. The river is "a mighty big river, that you could see on the map, resembling an immense snake uncoiled, with its head in the sea, its body at rest curving afar over a vast country, and its tail lost in the depths of the land".
  • 1914: American poet Vachel Lindsay portrays a dark and savage society around the Congo River in his 1914 poem The Congo: A Study of the Negro Race.
  • 1921: The Congo is mentioned in Langston Hughes's poem "The Negro Speaks of Rivers".
  • 1930: Both Congo River and basin form the setting of Hoity Toity, the Soviet science fiction novel by Alexander Belyayev.
  • 1980: The Congo River is featured in a chapter of Michael Crichton's novel Congo (published in 1980), as well as in the 1995 film based on the book.
  • 1995: The Congo River is featured in the action film Congo, by director Frank Marshall, although it is not mentioned by name in the film. The film is based on the 1980 novel of the same name by Michael Crichton.
  • 1996: British author Redmond O'Hanlon has a travelogue published by Penguin Books under the title of Congo Journey (1996).
  • 1998: The river's history is discussed in the 1998 book King Leopold's Ghost (by Adam Hochschild).
  • 2006: The river's history is discussed in the book Brazza, A Life for Africa (by Maria Petringa, Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2006).
  • 2007: The Congo River and the Democratic Republic of Congo are the scenario for the 2007 book Blood River by journalist Tim Butcher,Paul Theroux (27 May 2011). The places in between. Financial Times. Iliwekwa mnamo 26 June 2011. based on his intrepid travels up and down Africa's second longest river. Blood River was an attempt to retrace Henry Morton Stanley's trip down the Congo River, documented in Through the Dark Continent (first published, 1878), and was shortlisted for the 2008 British Book Awards.
  • 2010: The Congo River is a central element in the 2010 novel by Mario Vargas Llosa, El sueño del celta (The Dream of the Celt), a fictionalisation of episodes in the life of the Irishman Roger Casement. The book is to be published in English in 2012.
  • 2012: Phil Harwood's book "Canoeing the Congo" , Harwood, P. (2012). Canoeing the Congo: First Source to Sea Descent of the Congo River. Matador. ISBN 978-1780880075,
Africa satellite plane.jpg Makala hii kuhusu maeneo ya Afrika bado ni mbegu.
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