Rais wa Marekani

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Rais wa Marekani ni mkuu wa nchi na kiongozi wa serikali ya Marekani na ni rasmi juu ya kisiasa katika Umoja wa Mataifa kwa kuathiriwa na kutambuliwa. Rais analiongoza tawi la serikali ya shirikisho na ni mmoja wa wanaochaguliwa katika uchaguzi wa kitaifa (mwingine akiwa makamu wa rais wa Marekani). [1]

Kati ya mamlaka na majukumu mengine, Ibara ya II ya Katiba ya Marekani inampa jukumu rais kutumikia "uaminifu nitafanya" shirikisho sheria, humfanya rais kamanda mkuu wa majeshi, inaruhusu rais kuteua watendaji na maafisa wa mahakama na ushauri na ridhaa ya kamati na inaruhusu rais ruzuku anawasamehe na reprieves. Kutokana na Marekani 'sasa kama superpower kukaa tu, rais wa Marekani ni jumla kuonekana kama mtu mwenye nguvu zaidi katika dunia. [2]


Rais ni moja na watu waliochaguliwa kupitia Electoral College kwa muda wa miaka minne. Tangia mwaka 1951, utawala wa marais umemekuwa ni mihula miwili kutokana na Marekebisho ya katiba ya ishirini-na mbili . watu Arobaini na tatu wamekuwa rais kwa kuchaguliwa na kuhudumia jumla ya mihula hamsini na sita ya muda wa miaka isio zidi minne [3] Tarehe 20 Januari 2009, Barack Obama alichaguliwa kuwa rais wa arobaini na nne, na sasa.

Asili[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Ya Bendera ya Rais wa Marekani

Mwaka 1783, Mkataba ya Paris iliwacha Marekani huru kujitegemea na yenye amani, lakini ilikuwa na muundo wa kiserikali duni. kongamano la Pili la Congress lilikuwa limeanda artiklarna wa Shirikisho mwakani 1777, kuelezea shirikisho la kudumu, lakini kwa kuipa Congress-uwezo mdogo ki fedha wa kuhakikisha kuwa maazimio yake yangetekelezwa. hii inaonyesha mtazamo wa kipindi cha Mapinduzi, na mfumo mpya wa Marekani uliundwa ili kuzuia kupanda kwa jeuri Marekani.

Hata hivyo, wakati wa unyogovu wa kiuchumi kutokana na kuanguka kwa dola ya bara kufuatia Mapinduzi American , uwezekano wa serikali ya Marekani ulitishiwa na machafuko ya kisiasa katika majimbo kadhaa, juhudi za wadeni kutumia serikali maarufu kufuta madeni yao, na kutoweza dhahiri Congress ya kukomboa wakastahiki majukumu ya umma wakati wa vita. Bunge pia haikuweza kuonekana kuwa jukwaa la uzalishaji ushirikiano kati ya Marekani kuhimiza biashara na maendeleo ya kiuchumi. Katika kukabiliana na hayo Mkataba ya Katiba yalikutana, na nia ya kurekebisha makala ya ushirikisho, lakini hatimaye ilianza rasimu ya mfumo mpya wa serikali kwamba itakuwa ni pamoja na mtendaji mkuu mwenye nguvu wakati ukiendeleza kontroller na cheki walizodhani kuwa muhimu vizuizi Imperial yeyote tabia katika ofisi ya Rais.

Watu ambao rais juu ya Continental Congress wakati wa kipindi cha Mapinduzi chini ya Shirikisho Articles alikuwa na cheo cha "Rais wa Marekani katika Congress Alipowakusanya," mara nyingi walioteuliwa na "Rais wa Marekani". Ofisi alikuwa mtendaji tofauti kidogo nguvu. 1788 na kuridhiwa ya Katiba, tawi mtendaji tofauti mara umba, wakiongozwa na rais wa Marekani.

A rais mtendaji wa mamlaka chini ya Katiba, hasira na kontroller na mizani ya mahakama na sheria ya shirikisho ya matawi ya serikali, mara kadhaa iliyoundwa kwa kutatua matatizo ya kisiasa kwa taifa ya vijana na baadaye wanatarajia changamoto, bado wakati kuzuia kuinuka ya autocrat.

Mamlaka na wajibu[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kifungu mimi jukumu ubunge[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Nguvu ya kwanza tilldelas rais na Marekani Katiba ni sheria nguvu ya rais veto. The Presentment Klausul inahitaji kupitishwa kwa muswada yoyote Congress kuwakilishwa mbele ya rais inaweza kuwa sheria. Mara baada ya sheria imekuwa yaliyowasilishwa, rais ana chaguzi tatu:

  1. Ishara lagstiftningen; muswada kisha inakuwa sheria.
  2. Veto ya sheria na kurudi kwa Congress, akielezea umuhimu wowote; muswada doesn't kuwa sheria, isipokuwa kila House wa Congress kwa kura ya veto override na theluthi mbili ya kura.
  3. Kuchukua hatua yoyote. Katika mfano huu, rais wala dalili wala vetoes sheria. Baada ya siku 10, bila kuhesabu Dominika, wawili iwezekanavyo matokeo ya kuibuka:
    • Kama bado ni ulioitishwa Congress, muswada inakuwa sheria.
    • Kama Congress has iliahirishwa, hivyo kuzuia kurudi kwa sheria, muswada kuwa haina sheria. Hii ni matokeo ya mwisho inayojulikana kama pocket veto.


Mwaka 1996, Congress alijaribu kubadilisha rais wa kura ya turufu na Veto Line Item Act. Inayofulizwa lagstiftning rais kutia saini muswada wa matumizi yoyote katika sheria wakati samtidigt bevarar kutumia vitu fulani ndani ya muswada huo, hasa matumizi yoyote mpya, kiasi cha omfattande krisåtgärder yoyote kutumia, au yeyote mwezi mdogo wa kodi ya faida. Mara rais alikuwa stricken ya item, Congress ingeweza kupitisha kwamba kipengele fulani tena. Kama rais kisha vetoed sheria mpya, Congress ingeweza override ya kura ya turufu kwa maana yake ya kawaida, theluthi mbili ya kura zote za nyumba. Clinton v. katika Jiji la New York, 524 U.S. 417 (1998) Marekani ilitawala Mahakama Kuu kama ni alteration kura ya turufu ya kuwa na katiba.

Ibara ya II mtendaji wa mamlaka[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Vita na mamlaka masuala ya kigeni[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Abraham Lincoln, Rais wa 16 wa Marekani ambao mafanikio kulinda Muungano wakati wa American Civil War.

Labda muhimu zaidi ya yote ni amri ya mamlaka wa rais wa Marekani kama amiri jeshi mkuu. Wakati uwezo wa kutangaza vita ni matamanio constitutionally katika Congress, rais amri na anaongoza jeshi na ni wajibu kwa ajili ya kupanga mkakati wa kijeshi. Ya framers ya Katiba alichukua kikomo huduma kwa rais wa mamlaka kuhusu kijeshi; Alexander Hamilton anaelezea hili katika Federalist No 69:

The President is to be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the United States. ... It would amount to nothing more than the supreme command and direction of the military and naval forces ... while that [the power] of the British king extends to the DECLARING of war and to the RAISING and REGULATING of fleets and armies, all [of] which ... would appertain to the legislature.[4]

Congress, kwa mujibu wa Mamlaka ya Vita resolution, lazima troop deployments idhini yoyote zaidi ya siku 60 katika urefu. Kuongeza, Congress hutoa rais kuangalia kwa nguvu za kijeshi kupitia udhibiti wake wa matumizi ya kijeshi na reglering.


Pamoja na silaha, ni sera ya kigeni pia iliyoongozwa na rais. Kupitia Idara ya Jimbo na Idara ya Ulinzi, rais ni kuwajibika kwa ajili ya ulinzi wa Wamarekani nje ya nchi na raia wa kigeni katika Umoja wa Marekani. Rais anaamua kutambua mpya kama mataifa na serikali mpya, na negotiates mikataba na mataifa mengine, ambao wanakuwa bindande juu ya Marekani wakati kuidhinishwa na theluthi mbili ya Seneti. Rais inaweza pia kujadili "mtendaji mikataba" na mamlaka ya kigeni ambayo si chini ya Seneti Kipaimara.

Administrative mamlaka[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Rais ni mtendaji mkuu wa Marekani, kuweka naye katika mtendaji mkuu wa tawi la serikali, wajibu ambao ni "take care kuwa sheria kuwa uaminifu aliuawa." Kutimiza wajibu huu, yeye ni aliyopewa udhibiti wa wafanyakazi milioni nne mtendaji wa shirikisho tawi.

Mbalimbali tawi mtendaji uteuzi ni yaliyotolewa na marais. Hadi 6000 mihadi inaweza kufanywa na rais wa inkommande kabla yeye anachukua ofisi na 8000 zaidi zinaweza kufanywa wakati katika ofisi. Balozi s, wajumbe wa Baraza la Mawaziri, na maafisa wa shirikisho nyingine, zote kuteuliwa na rais na "ushauri na ridhaa" ya wengi wa Seneti. Appointments alifanya wakati Seneti ni recess ni muda na inaisha mwishoni mwa kikao kijacho wa Sena.

Nguvu ya rais moto maafisa mtendaji kwa muda mrefu imekuwa wagomvi kumweka ya mjadala. Ujumla, rais anaweza kuondoa mtendaji rena maafisa saa yake ya busara. [5] Hata hivyo, Congress unaweza inverka curtail na rais wa mamlaka ya moto makamishina wa kujitegemea tillsynsmyndigheter na baadhi ya maafisa watendaji dhaifu kwa amri. [6]

Juridical mamlaka[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Rais pia ina uwezo wa kuteua majaji shirikisho, pamoja na wajumbe wa Marekani mahakama ya rufaa na Mahakama Kuu ya Marekani. Hata hivyo, hizi zinahitaji Seneti Kuchaguliwa kufanya uthibitisho na hii inaweza kutoa kuu kikwazo kwa marais ambao wanataka sura zao katika mahakama ya shirikisho fulani msimamo kiitikadi. Lazima rais kuteua majaji kwa mahakama ya wilaya ya Marekani s, lakini yeye mara nyingi defer to Senatorial fadhila katika kufanya maamuzi haya. Yeye pia ruzuku na msamaha s reprieves, kama ni mara nyingi kufanyika kabla ya mwisho wa muda wa urais.

Mtendaji anatoa upendeleo rais uwezo zuia habari kutoka kwa umma, Congress, na mahakama katika masuala ya usalama wa taifa. George Washington kwanza alidai upendeleo wakati Congress aliomba kuona Chief Justice John Jay 's maelezo kutoka mkataba unpopular maafikiano na Mkuu wa Uingereza. Wakati si ilivyowekwa katika Katiba, au sheria nyingine yoyote, Washington's action umba watangulizi kwa upendeleo. Wakati Richard Nixon walijaribu kutumia fursa mtendaji kama sababu si kugeuka juu ushahidi subpoenaed Congress wakati kashfa ya Watergate, Mahakama Kuu ya Marekani ilitawala katika v. Nixon, 418 U.S. 683 (1974) kwamba hawakuwa mtendaji kuomba upendeleo katika kesi ambapo rais mara kujaribu kuzuia mashitaka ya jinai. Wakati Rais Bill Clinton alijaribu kutumia fursa mtendaji kuhusu kashfa Lewinsky, Mahakama Kuu ilitawala katika Clinton v. Jones, 520 U.S. 681 (1997) kwamba upendeleo pia hakuweza kutumiwa katika suti ya kiraia. Hizi kesi imara ya kisheria mtendaji watangulizi kwamba upendeleo ni halali, the exact kiwango cha upendeleo bado ifafanuliwe waziwazi.

Legislative Msimamizi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Rais George W. Bush kutoa 2007 State of the Union Address, pamoja na Makamu wa Rais Dick Cheney na Spika wa Baraza Nancy Pelosi nyuma yake.

Wakati rais moja kwa moja hawezi kuanzisha sheria, anaweza kucheza nafasi muhimu sana katika kuchagiza hilo, hasa kama rais wa chama cha siasa ina wengi katika nyumba moja au wote wa Congress. Wakati wanachama wa tawi mtendaji ni marufuku kuanzia samtidigt kuikopesha viti katika bunge, mara nyingi kuandika sheria na kuruhusu Seneta au Mwakilishi kuanzisha ni kwa ajili yao. Rais anaweza kuathiriwa zaidi ya ubunge tawi kupitia ripoti ya mwaka constitutionally mamlaka ya Congress, ambayo inaweza kuwa aidha written au ya mdomo, lakini katika nyakati za kisasa ni Jimbo la anwani ya Muungano, ambayo mara nyingi rais skisseras ubunge mapendekezo kwa mwaka ujao.

Kulingana na Ibara ya II, kifungu 3, Klausul 2 ya Katiba, rais anaweza kuitisha aidha au wote nyumba za Congress. Kinyume, kama nyumba zote mbili kushindwa kukubaliana juu ya tarehe ya maahirisho, rais anaweza kuteua tarehe ya Congress adjourn.

Uteuzi mchakato[hariri | hariri chanzo]

George Washington, Rais wa kwanza wa Umoja wa Mataifa ya Amerika

Kustahiki[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kifungu II, Section 1, Klausul 5 ya Katiba anger sifa kuu lazima mmoja kustahili ofisi ya rais. En rais lazima:

Mtu ambaye hukutana sifa hapo juu bado ni kuikopesha awe hana halali kutoka ofisi ya rais chini yoyote ya masharti yafuatayo:

  • Chini ya Ishirini Marekebisho ya pili, hakuna mtu anaweza kustahili kuchaguliwa rais zaidi ya mara mbili. Wa Twenty-pili Marekebisho anges pia kwamba kama mtu yeyote wanaotafuta mtumishi kama rais au kaimu rais kwa zaidi ya miaka miwili ya muda ambayo mtu wengine wanaotafuta alichaguliwa rais, basi zamani anaweza tu kuchaguliwa rais mara moja. Scholars hawakubaliani kama mtu yeyote tena kustahili kuchaguliwa rais angeweza kuchaguliwa makamu wa rais, enligt yaliyowekwa ya sifa chini ya Marekebisho Twelfth. [8]
  • Section 3 chini ya Marekebisho ya kumi na nne, Katiba inakataza mtu an vinginevyo wanaotafuta kutoka kuwa rais iwapo mtu akaapa kiapo kuunga mkono Katiba, na baadaye waliasi dhidi ya Marekani. Hata hivyo, Congress, na theluthi mbili ya kura za kila nyumba, inaweza kuondoa Kutokuwa na sifa.

Kampeni na kuteuliwa[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Ya kisasa, inaanza kampeni ya urais kabla ya uchaguzi ya msingi, ambayo kuu mbili vyama vya siasa kutumia uwanja wa wazi mapema ya wagombea wao UTEUZI mikusanyiko ya kitaifa, ambapo mafanikio zaidi ni mgombea wa chama alifanya kachaguliwa kwa rais. Vanligtvis, wa chama anachagua mgombea urais wa makamu wa rais kachaguliwa, na hii ni chaguo mpira-iliweka muhuri kwa mkataba.

Nominees kushiriki katika mijadala televisheni za kitaifa, na wakati wa mijadala ya kawaida ni pungufu ya Kidemokrasia na Republican nominees, tatu wagombea wa chama inaweza kuwa waalikwa, kama Ross Perot katika mijadala ya mwaka 1992. Nominees kampeni nchi nzima kueleza maoni yao, kuwashawishi wapiga kura na kukusanya michango. Kubwa ya kisasa mchakato wa uchaguzi ni kushinda na wasiwasi na hali gång ziara s kupitia mara kwa mara na vyombo vya habari reklam driver.

Uchaguzi na kiapo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Ramani ya Marekani kuonyesha idadi ya kura za uchaguzi zilizotengwa kwa kila hali; 270 uchaguzi kura zinazohitajika wengi nje ya 538 jumla.

Marais waliochaguliwa ni moja katika Marekani. Idadi ya electors, pamoja inayojulikana kama Electoral College, teua rasmi rais. Siku ya tarehe ya Uchaguzi, wapiga kura katika kila moja ya majimbo na wilaya ya Columbia kura electors haya. Kila jimbo ni zilizotengwa idadi ya electors, sawa na ukubwa wa ujumbe wake katika Nyumba wawili wa Congress combined. Ujumla, tiketi kwamba wins kura wengi katika hali wins wote kwamba kura ya uchaguzi wa serikali na hivyo ana wake waliochaguliwa electors Slate ya kupiga kura katika Uchaguzi College.

Slate ya kushinda ya kukutana saa electors mji mkuu hali yake ya kwanza baada ya Jumatatu ya pili ya Jumatano katika Desemba, kuhusu wiki sita baada ya uchaguzi, kura. Wao kisha kutuma kumbukumbu ya kwamba kura ya Congress. Kura ya electors ni kufunguliwa kwa ameketi makamu wa rais, kaimu katika uwezo wake kama Rais wa Seneti na kusoma kwa sauti ya pamoja inkommande kikao cha bunge, ambayo ilikuwa waliochaguliwa wakati huo huo kama rais.

Enligt ishirini Marekebisho, Rais mandatperiod huanza adhuhuri 20 Januari mwaka uchaguzi yafuatayo. Tidpunkten inayojulikana kama INVIGNING Siku markerar mwanzo mwaka wa nne upande wa wawili rais na makamu wa rais. Kabla ya utekelezaji wa mamlaka ya ofisi ya rais ni constitutionally required rais kuchukua kiapo:

I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.[10]

Ingawa si required, marais kijadi walitumia Biblia kuchukua kiapo ya ofisi na suffixed "So help me Mungu!" hadi mwisho wa kiapo. Zaidi, ingawa hakuna sheria inahitaji kuwa ofisi kiapo cha kuwa unasimamiwa na mtu yeyote maalumu, marais ni kijadi katika ameapa kwa Jaji Mkuu wa Marekani.

Umiliki na mipaka ya muda[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Franklin D. Roosevelt alichaguliwa kwa masharti manne kabla ya kupitishwa kwa Twenty-pili Marekebisho.

Muda wa ofisi ya rais na makamu wa rais ni miaka minne. George Washington, rais wa kwanza, kuweka an unofficial watangulizi wa kuwahudumia maneno mawili tu, ambayo baadae marais walimfuata hadi 1940. Kabla Franklin D. Roosevelt, majaribio katika mrefu wa tatu walikuwa moyo na wafuasi wa Ulysses S. Grant na Theodore Roosevelt, wala jitihada hizo wamefanikiwa, hata hivyo. Mwaka 1940, Franklin Roosevelt ulipungua kutafuta tatu mrefu, lakini waliruhusiwa chama wake wa kisiasa na "rasimu" yeye kama mgombea urais wao na hatimaye kuchaguliwa mara tatu mrefu. Mwaka 1941 Marekani akawa kushiriki Vita II ambayo baadaye wapiga kura lett wateule Roosevelt hadi muhula nne 1944.

Baada ya vita, na katika mwitikio Roosevelt's shattering ya watangulizi, wa Twenty-pili Marekebisho mara ratificerat, barring yeyote kuchaguliwa rais zaidi ya mara mbili au mara moja kama mtu aliwahi kuwa zaidi ya nusu ya rais mwingine muda mrefu. Harry S. Truman, ambaye alikuwa rais wakati marekebisho antogs, na hivyo kwa marekebisho ya vifungu ruhusa kutoka juu yake, pia walitaka ufupi tatu (a pili kamili) avskaffandet kutoka mrefu kabla ya uchaguzi wa 1952.

Tangu marekebisho's ratificering, marais wanne kuwa aliwahi mbili Matokeo kamili: Dwight D. Eisenhower, Ronald Reagan, Bill Clinton na George W. Bush. Jimmy Carter na George HW Bush pili wakatafuta mrefu, lakini walikuwa na kushindwa. Richard Nixon alichaguliwa kwa muda ya pili, lakini alijiuzulu kabla ya kukamilisha hayo. Lyndon B. Johnson alikuwa rais tu chini ya marekebisho ukastahiki kumtumikia zaidi suala katika jumla mbili, baada ya kutumikia kwa miezi kumi tu zifuatazo John F. Kennedy 's kuuawa. Hata hivyo, Johnson kujiondoa kutoka 1968 Kidemokrasia ya Msingi, inashangaza Wamarekani wengi kwa kusema 'Mimi wala kutafuta, na mimi si kukubali, uteuzi wa chama wangu kwa muda mwingine kama rais wako'. Gerald Ford walitaka muda kamili, baada ya kutumikia nje miaka miwili iliyopita na miezi mitano ya pili ya Nixon mrefu, lakini hakuwa kuchaguliwa.

Nafasi au ulemavu[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Vacancies katika ofisi ya rais yanaweza kutokea chini kadhaa iwezekanavyo mazingira: kifo, kujiuzulu na kuondolewa kutoka ofisi.

Kifungu II, Section 4 ya Katiba inaruhusu Baraza la Wawakilishi na maafisa impeach high shirikisho, pamoja na rais, kwa "uhaini, hongo, au nyingine juu ya uhalifu na misdemeanors." Kifungu I, Section 3, Klausul Seneti 6 huwapa nguvu impeached kuondoa maofisa kutoka ofisi, kupewa theluthi mbili ya kura ya hatiani. Marais wawili kuwa hivi sasa imekuwa impeached by the House, Andrew Johnson mwaka 1868 na Bill Clinton mwaka 1998. Wala mara hatimaye kuhukumiwa na Seneti; hata hivyo, Johnson kuachiliwa huru kwa kura moja tu.

Chini Section 3 ya Ishirini femte Marekebisho, rais huweza kuhamisha rais befogenheter na wajibu till makamu rais ambaye kisha anakuwa kaimu rais, kwa transmitting taarifa ya Spika wa Nyumba na rais pro tempore inayosema ya Seneti ya sababu ya uhamisho. Rais ansvarsfrihet wasifu wa mamlaka na wajibu wa rais alipo transmits, kwa wale maafisa wawili, tamko iliyoandikwa na kusema kuwa kuanza. Uhamisho wa nguvu hii inaweza kutokea kwa sababu yoyote rais anser inafaa; mwaka 2002 na tena katika mwaka 2007, Rais George W. Bush kwa kifupi mamlaka rais alihamishwa Makamu wa Rais Dick Cheney. Katika kesi zote mbili, hii ilifanyika kwa ajili ya malazi ya matibabu ambayo required Bush utaratibu kuwa sedated; Bush ushuru alirudi baadaye siku hiyo. [11]

Section 4 chini ya Marekebisho ishirini na tano, makamu wa rais na wengi wa Inama huweza kuhamisha mamlaka na wajibu wa rais kutoka kwa rais na makamu wa rais wao mara moja vidarebefordra ya Spika wa Nyumba na rais pro tempore wa Sena taarifa deklarera kutojiweza rais befria rais befogenheter na wajibu. Kama hii hutokea, basi makamu wa rais wa mapenzi kudhani rais mamlaka na wajibu kama kaimu rais, hata hivyo, rais anaweza kutangaza kwamba hakuna kama lipo na kutoweza resume ansvarsfrihet wa rais, mamlaka na wajibu. Kama makamu wa rais na mawaziri kugombea dai hili, ni juu ya Congress, ambalo lazima kukutana ndani ya siku mbili kama si tayari katika kikao, kuamua kwa usahihi wa dai.

Umoja stater Katiba inataja ya kujiuzulu rais lakini inte reglera form av kama kujiuzulu au uhalali wake masharti. Kwa Sheria ya Bunge, halali tu ushahidi wa rais uamuzi wa kujiuzulu ni chombo written kutangaza kujiuzulu saini na rais na mikononi ofisi ya Katibu wa Jimbo. [12] Tarehe 9 Agosti 1974, inakabiliwa na uwezekano impeachment katika katikati ya kashfa ya Watergate, Richard Nixon akawa rais tu milele kujiuzulu kutoka ofisi. Tu kabla yake ya kujiuzulu, Kamati ya Mahakama ya Nyumba walivyoripoti favorably tarehe makala ya impeachment dhidi yake.

Katiba inasema kwamba makamu wa rais anakuwa rais juu ya kuondolewa kutoka ofisi, kifo au kujiuzulu rais wa lililotangulia. Kama ofisi ya rais na makamu wa rais wawili ni aidha vacant au wana walemavu wadogowadogo wa ofisi ya pili wa rais afisa katika mstari wa mfululizo, ya Spika wa Baraza, anakuwa kaimu rais. Mstari inavyopanuka rais pro tempore wa Sena baada ya msemaji, ikifuatiwa na kila mwanachama wa baraza la mawaziri katika kuweka utaratibu.

Fidia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Presidential kulipa historia
Tarehe imara Mshahara Mshahara mwaka 2009 dola

dollars

24 Septemba 1789 $25,000 $566,000
3 Machi 1873 $50,000 $865,000
4 Machi 1909 $75,000 $1,714,000
19 Januari 1949 $100,000 $906,000
20 Januari 1969 $200,000 $1,175,000
20 Januari 2001 $400,000 $487,000
Sources:[13][14][15]

Rais chuma $ 400.000 mwaka mshahara, pamoja na gharama ya mwaka $ 50.000 akaunti, a $ 100.000 wasio na akaunti skattskyldiga kusafiri $ 19.000 kwa ajili ya burudani. [16] [17] Kuongeza karibuni zaidi katika mshahara mara Congress na kupitishwa na Rais Bill Clinton mwaka 1999 na akaenda athari mwaka 2001.

The White House in Washington, DC inavyotumika kama mahali pa kuishi rasmi kwa rais; yeye ni haki ya wafanyakazi wake na matumizi ya vifaa, ikiwemo matibabu, burudani, housekeeping, na usalama wa huduma. Till sjöss Support Facility Thurmont, Ikijulikana kama Camp David, ni mlima msingi katika kambi ya kijeshi Frederick County, Maryland kutumika kama nchi mafungo na kwa ajili high alert ulinzi wa rais na wageni wake. Nyumba Blair, ziko karibu na Old Mtendaji Office Building saa ya White House Complex na Lafayette Park, ni tata ya nne zimeunganishwa townhouses mraba 70,000 mno miguu ya sakafu nafasi ambayo mtumishi kama mgeni rasmi rais nyumba na kama makazi ya sekondari kwa rais iwapo imeelezwa. [18]

Kwa kusafiri ardhini, rais anatumia gari jimbo rais, ambayo ni Limousine Armored umejengwa juu ya uzito Cadillac iliyopita makao chassi. [19] Moja ya Boeing mbili identical VC-25 ndege, ambazo sana iliyopita matoleo ya Boeing 747-200B Airliners, kutumika kama kusafiri umbali mrefu kwa rais, na inajulikana kama Air Force One wakati rais ni juu ya ubao. [20] [21] Pia rais wa Marekani hutumia Marine Corps helikopta, mteule Marine One wakati rais ni ndani.

Umoja States Secret Service ni kulinda kushtakiwa kwa rais kukaa na familia yake. Kama sehemu yao ya ulinzi, marais, kwanza ladies, watoto wao na familia nyingine haraka, na watu wengine na maeneo maarufu wameitwa Secret Service Codename s. [22] Kutumia majina kama awali ilikuwa kwa madhumuni ya usalama na tarehe na wakati nyeti elektroniska mawasiliano hayakuwa encrypted mara kwa mara; leo, majina tu kutumika kwa madhumuni ya brevity, usahihi na utamaduni. [23] [24]

Post-urais[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Marais Gerald Ford, Richard Nixon, George HW Bush, Ronald Reagan na Jimmy Carter kujitolea wa Ronald Reagan Presidential Library mwaka 1991.

Mwanzo mwaka 1959 wote f.d. hai marais walikuwa beviljas pensheni en ofisi fimbo. Pensheni imeongezeka mara kadhaa na Congressional idhini. Marais wastaafu sasa kupokea pensheni misingi ya mshahara wa utawala wa sasa wa baraza la mawaziri makatibu, ambayo ni 191.300 $ kama wa 2008. [25] Baadhi ya marais wa zamani pia pensheni zilizokusanywa Congressional s. [26] Marais wa zamani wa Sheria, kama ilivyorekebishwa, pia hutoa marais wa zamani pamoja na kusafiri franking fedha na mapendeleo.

Mpaka 1997, wote marais wa zamani, na familia zao, walikuwa zinalindwa na Secret Service mpaka rais kifo. Rais wa mwisho kuwa na ulinzi wa Secret Service maisha ni Bill Clinton; George W. Bush na baadae marais wote watakuwa zinalindwa na Secret Service kwa upeo wa miaka kumi baada ya kuacha ofisi. [27]

Baadhi ya marais wamekuwa muhimu baada ya kuacha kazi ofisi. Maarufu mifano inajumuisha William Howard Taft 's umiliki kama Jaji Mkuu wa Marekani na Herbert Hoover' s kazi ya serikali reorganization baada World War II. Grover Cleveland, ambaye kugombea reelection alishindwa mwaka wa 1888, alichaguliwa rais tena miaka minne baadaye mwaka 1892 . Aliwahi marais wawili wa zamani baada ya kuondoka katika Congress ya White House; John Quincy Adams alichaguliwa na Baraza la Wawakilishi, kuwahudumia huko kwa miaka kumi na saba, na Andrew Johnson alirudi Seneti mwaka 1875. John Tyler kutumikia katika ugawaji Congress ya Marekani ya makundi wakati wa Civil Vita na alichaguliwa kwa makundi Baraza la Wawakilishi, lakini alikufa kabla ulioitishwa. Zaidi hivi karibuni, Richard Nixon alifanya safari nyingi za kigeni kwa nchi pamoja na China na Urusi, na alikuwa lauded kama mzee Scientist. [28] Imekuwa Jimmy Carter global kampeni za haki za binadamu, na uchaguzi arbiter kimataifa kufuatilia, na mpokeaji wa Tuzo ya Amani ya Nobel. Bill Clinton imechukua baadhi ya kazi kama 'mzee Scientist', wengi mashuhuri kwa ushiriki wake katika mazungumzo ambayo imesababisha ya kutolewa kwa Journalist s mbili Marekani, Laura Ling na Euna Lee kutoka Korea ya Kaskazini. Bill Clinton pia imekuwa aktiv kisiasa tangu kumalizika muda wake wa urais, kufanya kazi pamoja na mke wake, Hillary Clinton tarehe yake ya kugombea urais.

Hivi sasa kuna hai wanne wa zamani wa marais:

Rais maktaba[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kila rais tangu Herbert Hoover imeunda there inayojulikana kama rais maktaba ya kuhifadhi na kufanya inapatikana majarida yake, rekodi na nyaraka na vifaa vingine. Maktaba ni zilizokamilika deeded kwenda na iimarishwe na National Archives and Records Administration (nara); ya awali ya fedha kwa ajili ya kujenga na kununua vifaa vya kila maktaba lazima kuja kutoka binafsi, vyanzo yasiyo ya shirikisho.[onesha uthibitisho] Sasa kuna rais tretton nara maktaba katika mfumo. Pia kuna idadi ya rais maktaba iimarishwe na hali serikali na misingi ya kibinafsi, kama vile Rais Abraham Lincoln Maktaba na Makumbusho, ambayo inaendeshwa na Jimbo la Illinois.

Ukosoaji wa urais[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Katika historia ya Marekani, kumekuwa na upinzani fulani tu ya marais na sera zao, lakini wa urais yenyewe. Kila moja ya hizi kwa ujumla Ukosoaji kuanguka katika moja ya makundi yafuatayo:

  • Urais ni pia nguvu. Wengi wa taifa unatarajiwa Framers Congress, ambayo ilikuwa ilivyoelezwa katika Katiba ya kwanza, kuwa dominerande tawi la Serikali; hawakutaka au kutegemea nguvu mtendaji. [29] Hata hivyo, wakosoaji wengi kuelezea urais leo kama nguvu mno, [30] [31] unchecked na unbalanced [32] na "monarchist" katika maumbile. [33] Critic Dana D. Nelson anaamini marais kipindi cha miaka thelathini kazi mot "usiogawanyika udhibiti wa rais wa tawi mtendaji na wakala wake." [34] Hon criticizes proponents mtendaji wa unitary kwa kupanua "iliyopo wengi mtendaji uncheckable mamlaka - kama mtendaji maagizo, amri, memorandums, proclamations, usalama wa taifa na wabunge maelekezo kusainiwa kauli - kwamba tayari kuruhusu marais kutunga mpango mzuri wa kigeni na sera ya ndani bila ya misaada, kuingiliwa au ridhaa kutoka kwa Congress. [34] Kikatiba wasomi wana uwezo wa rais criticized utokaji [35] na ilivyoelezwa marais kama "kikatiba madikteta" na "motisha kutangaza dharura" ta "Quasi-kidikteta mamlaka." [36] Daudi Sirota kuona ruwaza "ambao unalenga kutoa jurisprudential rationale kwa jumla ya White House ukuu juu ya serikali yote." [37] [38] Critic mwingine aliandika kwamba wigo urais ilikuwa "tishio kubwa milele binafsi kwa uhuru na utawala wa kidemokrasia." [39]
  • Picha na mahusiano ya umma. Baadhi wanasema kuwa images wa urais na tabia kuwa manipulated na maafisa wa utawala mahusiano ya umma pamoja na marais wenyewe. Critic moja alielezea urais kama "propagandized uongozi" ambayo ina "nguvu surrounding mesmerizing ofisi"; [40] mwingine alielezea Aura surrounding urais kwa neno "ibada." [38] Mahusiano ya umma mameneja utawala stegvisa makini-crafted photo-Ops ya smiling marais pamoja na makutano kwa televisheni smiling kamera; katika moja mfano wa televisheni photo-op, watazamaji walikuwa kusukumwa na picha na sio kwa hadithi. [41] Critic mmoja aliandika sura ya John F. Kennedy alikuwa hufafanuliwa kama soma kwa makini "katika undani tajiri" ambayo "akauchomoa juu ya nguvu ya hadithi" kuhusu tukio la PT 109 [42] na alidai kuwa Kennedy walielewa jinsi ya kutumia picha yake ya kuendeleza rais ambitioner. [43] Hata mazishi urais ni pamoja na masuala stegvisa high uzalishaji maadili kutoa hisia ya "Regal grandeur". [44] Kama matokeo, Wamarekani wana matarajio ya marais unrealistic, ambao unatarajiwa "kuendesha uchumi, watawashinda maadui, kuongoza free dunia, faraja Tornado waathirika, kuponya roho ya kitaifa na kulinda siri wakopaji mikopo kutoka kadi ya ada." [45]
  • Upanuzi wa serikali ya shirikisho. Marais kutoka pande zote wamekuwa förstoring av criticized kwa serikali ya shirikisho kwa hasara ya hali ya serikali. [46] Marais wengi kupanua serikali ya shirikisho, ingawa kumekuwepo na baadhi undantag (se meza). Upanuzi mkubwa, arguably, kilichotokea wakati FDR's New Deal kama njia ya kukabiliana na Unyogovu, [47] lakini baada ya Unyogovu kumalizika, serikali didn't shrink nyuma kidogo kawaida. Leo, serikali ya shirikisho ina mashirika mbalimbali na mamlaka na inaajiri watu milioni mbili. [48]
Upanuzi wa serikali ya shirikisho tangu 1949
Miaka Rais Chama Ukuaji Vidokezo
1949-52 Truman Democrat &Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%"..Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".+8.7% align = "right"
1953-57 Eisenhower Republican &Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%"..Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".-1.3% align = "right"
1957-60 Eisenhower Republican &Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%"..Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".-0.2% align = "right"
1961-64 Kennedy-Johnson Democrat &Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%"..Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".+2.1% align = "right"
1965-68 Johnson Democrat &Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%"..Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".+4.3% align = "right"
1969-72 Nixon Republican &Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%"..Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".-2.8% align = "right"
1973-76 Nixon-Ford Republican &Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%"..Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".-0.7% align = "right"
1977-80 Carter Democrat &Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%"..Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".+1.0% align = "right"
1981-84 Reagan Republican &Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%"..Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".+1.1% align = "right"
1985-88 Reagan Republican &Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%"..Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".+1.7% align = "right"
1989-92 GHW Bush Republican &Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%"..Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".+0.7% align = "right"
1993-96 Clinton Democrat &Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%"..Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".-2.6% align = "right"
1997-00 Clinton Democrat &Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%"..Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".-0.1% align = "right"
2001-04 GW Bush Republican &Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%"..Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".+0.9% align = "right"
2005-08 GW Bush Republican &Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%"..Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "%".+0.9% align = "right"

Source: New York Times (2009) [46]

  • Nakisi kutumia. Marais wachache katika kipindi cha miaka mia wamekuwa hawatambui jinsi ya kutunza matumizi ya ndani ya mipaka. Marais ambao aliahidi rein katika kudhibiti matumizi alikuwa na ugumu wa bajeti. [49] Katika muongo wa kwanza wa mwaka 2000, $ 632 bilioni ilikuwa aliongeza kwa bajeti. [50] Mwaka 2009, Umoja wa Mataifa ina nakisi kubwa ya shirikisho na inaweza kulazimishwa kukopa karibu dola 9.3 trillion zaidi ya miaka kumi ijayo. [51] A critic na senator alionya huu "uwazi inajenga mazingira ambapo nchi yataenda bankrupt." [51]
  • Ubunge na mamlaka ya bajeti. Baadhi ya wakosoaji wana madai kuwa marais usurped muhimu ubunge na mamlaka ambayo bajeti inapaswa kawaida ni kwa Congress. Marais kudhibiti safu kubwa ya mashirika ambayo inaweza kufanya kanuni na tillsyn kidogo kutoka Congress. Critic moja walidai kuwa marais anaweza kuteua "virtual jeshi la 'czars' - kila kabisa bado unaccountable kwa Congress waliotunukiwa na sera kuu spearheading juhudi kwa ajili ya White House". [52] Marais wamekuwa criticized kusainiwa kwa maamuzi kauli Congressional kusainiwa wakati sheria kuhusu jinsi ya kufahamu mpango muswada au nitafanya hivyo na wachambuzi kuwa vitendo kama ilivyoelezwa hii dhidi ya roho ya Katiba. [53] Kusainiwa kauli "tip urari wa madaraka kati ya Congress na ya White House kidogo zaidi katika neema ya mtendaji wa tawi" [54] na zimetumika kwa kipindi cha nne marais. [55] [56] Mazoezi hii imekuwa na criticized American Bar Association kama katiba. [57] Critic mmoja anaona ni "allt kuvimba tawi mtendaji" na "ya kupatwa wa Congress" na alisema kwamba mchakato huu umekuwa unaendelea "kwa miongo" [58] na criticized ya "kubaguliwa" ya Congress. [58]
  • Faida ya uchaguzi wa rais marais. Marais i ofisi na kutafuta sikt pili yana faida juu challengers na wakosoaji hulipisha illojal kuwa huu ni. Tangu 1936 katika tretton presidentvalet ambapo kulikuwa etablerade, viongozi alishinda mara kumi, mara tatu tu challengers (se meza). Etablerade marais re-uchaguzi kutafuta kufurahia faida kama vile "Aura na uzoefu wa ofisi," maagizo "mediebevakning," kuwa na uwezo wa "ushawishi matukio" na "wanatoa walicho ruzuku ya serikali." [76] Ripota mmoja alibainisha "karibu viongozi wote kuongeza mbali zaidi (pesa) kuliko kufanya sina challengers" ambayo huleta faida kubwa kwa viongozi. [77] PACs wengi kutoa pesa zao kwa viongozi kwa sababu wao ni zaidi uwezekano wa kushinda. [78]
Presidentvalet tangu mmoja 1936 etablerade
mwaka Mgombea Kura Mgombea Kura Mshindi Vidokezo
1936 Roosevelt 523 Landon (| [8] Mtawala [79]
1940 Roosevelt 449 Willkie 82 Mtawala [80]
1944 Roosevelt 432 Genre 99 Mtawala [80]
1948 Truman 303 Genre 189 Mtawala [80]
1956 Eisenhower 457 Stevenson [66] Mtawala [80]
1964 Johnson 486 Goldwater 52 Mtawala [80]
1972 Nixon 520 McGovern 17 Mtawala [80]
1976 Carter 297 Ford 240 Challenger [80]
1980 Reagan 489 Carter 49 Challenger [80]
1984 Reagan 525 Mondale 13 Mtawala [80]
1992 Clinton 370 GHW Bush 168 Challenger [80]
(1996). Clinton 379 Dole 159 Mtawala [80]
2004 GW Bush 286 Kerry 252 Mtawala [81]

Angalia: uchaguzi na hakuna chama etablerade na tatu wagombea walikuwa undantas. Hesabu ni uchaguzi kura chuoni. Kwa habari zaidi: tazama matokeo ya uchaguzi.

  • Misusing nguvu ya msamaha. Marais wamekuwa abusing hii criticized kwa nguvu. Kwa mfano, Ford yafuta mtu ambaye alikuwa naye mapema kuchaguliwa kuwa makamu wa rais, Nixon; Ford uamuzi mara criticized kama msamaha matumizi mabaya ya madaraka. [82] Marais wamekuwa msamaha criticized maamuzi mengine pia, ikiwa ni pamoja na watuhumiwa rasmi ya mafichoni inabainisha zinazohusiana na Iran-contra kashfa, [83] Viza 140 anawasamehe Siku ya mwisho katika ofisi, [84] kusamehe hama [84] na kampeni maarufu contributors. [84] En rais commuted hukumu ya staffer ambaye alikuwa kufunikwa up utawala kushiriki katika Valerie Plame Wilson jambo. [85] [86]
  • Usimamizi wa sera za kigeni. Tangu hakuna hitaji kuwa wagombea urais na sera za kigeni au kijeshi au utaalamu kidiplomasia, na marais wa kusimamia sera za kigeni, ubora wa maamuzi ina rais mbalimbali kutoka kwa rais. Tathmini na sera za kigeni orodha wataalam wote mafanikio na kushindwa katika kipindi cha nusu karne. Muhimu mafanikio katika nusu karne iliyopita pamoja na breakup ya Umoja wa Kisovyeti na kuepuka World War III [87] vile vile utunzaji wa mgogoro missile Cuba mwaka 1962. [88] Lakini rais maamuzi kadhaa wamekuwa criticized, pamoja Bay ya Nguruwe uvamizi wa Cuba, [89] maalum uchaguzi wa kijeshi, [90] biashara ya silaha kwa hostages na Iran, [91] na maamuzi juu ya kuanzisha vita. [91] [92] [93] Zifuatazo ya uvamizi wa Iraq War mara criticized kama "catastrophically unplanned" na mkakati kwa ujumla Irak ilikuwa inaitwa "self-defeating kutengwa ya washirika." [94] Critic moja alibainisha mwelekeo wa "militarization wa Marekani sera ya kigeni." [95] Marais wamekuwa watuhumiwa wa kuunga mkono madikteta kama vile Shah wa Iran, [96] Musharraf wa Pakistan, [97] na Marcos wa Ufilipino. [98] Mkakati wa jumla kuhusu Mashariki ya Kati imekuwa criticized [99] vile vile utunzaji wa Korea ya Kaskazini [99] na Iran. [100] Wakosoaji kuwa partisan siasa walidai kuwa wana interfered pamoja na sera za kigeni. [101]

Angalia pia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. serikali yetu • Mtendaji wa Tawi, The White House
  2. Michael Noer and Nicole Perlroth. "The World's Most Powerful People", Forbes, 11 Novemba 2009. Retrieved on 2009-11-15. 
  3. The Executive Branch. Whitehouse.gov. Iliwekwa mnamo 2009-01-27. Grover Cleveland aliwahi mbili mfululizo yasiyo ya sheria na kuhesabiwa kama wote wawili ni ya 22 na 24 rais. Kwa sababu hii, baada ya marais wote 23 listing rasmi yao iliongezeka kwa moja.
  4. Hamilton, Alexander. The Federalist #69 (reposting). Retrieved 15 Juni 2007.
  5. Shurtleff v. Marekani, 189 U.S. 311 (1903) Myers v. Marekani, 272 U.S. 52 (1926)
  6. Humphrey's Executor v. Marekani, 295 U.S. 602 (1935) na Morrison v. Olson, 487 U.S. 654 (1988) kwa mtiririko huo.
  7. Nje-kuzaliwa Wamarekani ambao walikuwa raia wakati Katiba ilipitishwa pia walikuwa wanaotafuta kuwa rais, ilitoa alikutana na umri wao na mahitaji ya kuishi. Hata hivyo, hii posho tangu kuwa obsolete.
  8. Angalia: Peabody, Bruce G.; Gant, Scott E. (1999). "The Twice and Future President: Constitutional Interstices and the Twenty-Second Amendment". Minnesota Law Review (Minneapolis, MN: Minnesota Law Review) 83 (565).  mengine, tazama: Albert, Richard (2005). "The Evolving Vice Presidency". Temple Law Review (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University of the Commonwealth System of Higher Education) 78 (811, at 856–9). 
  9. Se GPO Annotated Katiba ya Marekani, 2002 Ed., Saa 611 & nn.772-73.
  10. U.S. Const. art. II, § 1, cl. 8.
  11. ITV, "Bush colonoscopy ushinzwe Cheney majani", 20 Julai 2007
  12. 3 U.S.C. § 20
  13. Presidential and Vice Presidential Salaries Presidential and Vice Presidential Salaries, 1789+. University of Michigan. Iliwekwa mnamo 2009-10-07.
  14. Uzito Thamani in US Dollars. Kupima Worth. Ilirudishwa 30 Mei 2006.
  15. [http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/cpicalc.pl# Mfumuko wa Calculator. ilirudishwa 13 Agosti 2008. Ilirudishwa 13 Agosti 2008.
  16. "kiasi rais wa Marekani gani kupata kulipwa?". Howstuffworks. Ilir
  17. Mishahara wa Shirikisho Maafisa: A Fact Sheet. Seneti ya Marekani tovuti. ilirudishwa 13 Agosti 2008.
  18. President's Guest House (includes Lee House and Blair House), Washington, DC. Retrieved on 2009-09-30.
  19. Mpya Presidential Limousine inaingia Secret Service Avril US Secret Service Press Release (14 Januari 2009) Rudishwa tarehe 2009/01/20
  20. Air Force One. White House Jeshi Ofisi. Ilipakuliwa tarehe 15 Juni 2006.
  21. Any US Air Force ndege waliobeba rais atatumia wito ishara "Air Force One." Vilevile, "Navy Mmoja", "Jeshi Mmoja", na "Coast Guard Mmoja" ni ishara wito kutumika kama rais ni mali ndani ya Craft kwa huduma hizi. "Mtendaji One" inakuwa ishara ya mwito raia yoyote ya ndege wakati rais wa bodi.
  22. Junior Secret Service Program: Assignment 7. Code Names. National Park Service. Iliwekwa mnamo 2007-08-18.
  23. Candidate Code Names Secret Service Monikers Used On The Campaign Trail. CBS (2008-09-16). Iliwekwa mnamo 2008-11-12.
  24. Obama's Secret Service Code Name revealed. Eurweb (2008-09-16).
  25. Former Presidents Act (FPA). U.S. Senate (1958). Iliwekwa mnamo 2007-01-05.
  26. Former presidents cost U.S. taxpayers big bucks. Toledo Blade (2007-01-07). Iliwekwa mnamo 2007-05-22.
  27. 18 U.S.C. § 3056
  28. Wasifu wa Richard M. Nixon, The White House
  29. MICHIKO KAKUTANI (book reviewer). "Unchecked and Unbalanced", New York Times, 6 Julai 2007. Retrieved on 2009-11-09. "the founding fathers had 'scant affection for strong executives' like England’s king, and ... Bush White House’s claims are rooted in ideas “about the ‘divine’ right of kings” ... and that certainly did not find their 'way into our founding documents, the 1776 Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of 1787.'" 
  30. "The Conquest of Presidentialism", The Huffington Post, 22 Agosti 2008. Retrieved on 2009-09-20. 
  31. interview by David Schimke. "Presidential Power to the People -- Author Dana D. Nelson on why democracy demands that the next president be taken down a notch", Utne Reader, Septemba-Oktoba 2008. Retrieved on 2009-09-20. 
  32. Ross Linker. "Critical of Presidency, Prof. Ginsberg and Crenson unite", The Johns-Hopkins Newsletter, 2007-09-27. Retrieved on 2009-11-09. "presidents slowly but surely gain more and more power with both the public at large and other political institutions doing nothing to prevent it." 
  33. MICHIKO KAKUTANI (book reviewer). "Unchecked and Unbalanced", New York Times, 6 Julai 2007. Retrieved on 2009-11-09. "UNCHECKED AND UNBALANCED: Presidential Power in a Time of Terror By Frederick A. O. Schwarz Jr. and Aziz Z. Huq (authors)" 
  34. 34.0 34.1 By Dana D. Nelson. "Opinion–The 'unitary executive' question -- What do McCain and Obama think of the concept?", Los Angeles Times, 11 Oktoba 2008. Retrieved on 2009-09-21. 
  35. Sanford Levinson. "“Wartime Presidents and the Constitution: From Lincoln to Obama” -- speech by Sanford Levinson at Wayne Morse Center", Wayne Morse Center for Law and Politics, 5 Februari 2009. Retrieved on 2009-10-10. 
  36. ANAND GIRIDHARADAS. "Edging Out Congress and the Public", New York Times, 25 Septemba 2009. Retrieved on 2009-10-10. 
  37. David Sirota. "U.S. moving toward czarism, away from democracy", San Francisco Chronicle, 18 Januari 2009. Retrieved on 2009-09-21. 
  38. 38.0 38.1 David Sirota. "Why cult of presidency is bad for democracy", San Francisco Chronicle, 22 Agosti 2008. Retrieved on 2009-09-20. 
  39. SCOTT SHANE. "A Critic Finds Obama Policies a Perfect Target", New York Times, 25 Septemba 2009. Retrieved on 2009-11-08. "There is the small, minority-owned firm with deep ties to President Obama’s Chicago backers, made eligible by the Federal Reserve to handle potentially lucrative credit deals. 'I want to know how these firms are picked and who picked them,' Mr. Wilson, the group’s president, tells his eager researchers." 
  40. Rachel Dykoski. "Book note: Presidential idolatry is "Bad for Democracy"", Twin Cities Daily Planet, 1 Novemba 2008. Retrieved on 2009-11-11. "Dana D. Nelson's book makes the case that we've had 200+ years of propagandized leadership..." 
  41. John Neffinger. "Democrats vs. Science: Why We're So Damn Good at Losing Elections", Huffington Post, 2 Aprili 2007. Retrieved on 2009-11-11. "...back in the 1980s Lesley Stahl of 60 Minutes ran a piece skewering Reagan's policies on the elderly ... But while her voiceover delivered a scathing critique, the video footage was all drawn from carefully-staged photo-ops of Reagan smiling with seniors and addressing large crowds ... Deaver thanked ... Stahl...for broadcasting all those images of Reagan looking his best." 
  42. Dana D. Nelson. "Bad for democracy: how the Presidency undermines the power of the people", U of Minnesota Press, 2008. Retrieved on 2009-11-11. "in rich detail how Kennedy drew on the power of myth as he framed his experience during World War II, when his PT boat was sliced in half by a Japanese..." 
  43. Dana D. Nelson. "Bad for democracy: how the Presidency undermines the power of the people", U of Minnesota Press, 2008. Retrieved on 2009-11-11. "Even before Kennedy ran for Congress, he had become fascinated, through his Hollywood acquaintances and visits, with the idea of image... (p.54)" 
  44. ALESSANDRA STANLEY. "THE 40TH PRESIDENT: CRITIC'S NOTEBOOK; A Pageant Over 2 Decades in the Making", New York Times, 10 Juni 2004. Retrieved on 2009-11-08. "If anyone is to be credited for providing regal grandeur to the ceremony it is Mrs. Reagan, who, with the help of the loyal aide Michael K. Deaver, had always managed the stagecraft of her husband's political career." 
  45. Lexington. "The Cult of the Presidency", The Economist, 2009-07-21. Retrieved on 2009-11-09. "Gene Healy argues that because voters expect the president to do everything ... When they inevitably fail to keep their promises, voters swiftly become disillusioned. Yet they never lose their romantic idea that the president should drive the economy, vanquish enemies, lead the free world, comfort tornado victims, heal the national soul and protect borrowers from hidden credit-card fees." 
  46. 46.0 46.1 Floyd Norris. "Big Government Republicans", New York Times, 6 Mei 2009. Retrieved on 2009-11-09. "It used to be — before Ronald Reagan — that the federal government grew when the Democrats were in office, and became smaller when the Republicans were in the Oval Office. Since then, the relationship has reversed." 
  47. Kenneth T. Walsh. "The First 100 Days: Franklin Roosevelt Pioneered the 100-Day Concept", US News & World Report, 12 Februari 2009. Retrieved on 2009-11-08. "FDR quickly won congressional passage for a series of social, economic, and job-creating bills that greatly increased the authority of the federal government..." 
  48. Matt Kelley. "Stimulus funds boost number of federal jobs", USA TODAY, 2009-09-23. Retrieved on 2009-11-09. "Overall, there are about 2 million federal workers, the data show." 
  49. Justin Ewers. "Why Obama Is Leaving the Reagan Era Behind When It Comes to Economic Policy", US News & World Report, 28 Aprili 2009. Retrieved on 2009-11-09. "Despite his years of lip service to balancing the budget, total discretionary spending had climbed almost 16 percent by the time he left office, dwarfing the Carter budgets he had once criticized. Revenues, limited by Reagan's tax cuts, were never able to keep pace. The result was a spiraling national debt that nearly tripled during his two terms, hitting $2.7 trillion." 
  50. NICK GILLESPIE. "Bush Was a Big-Government Disaster", Wall Street Journal, JANUARY 24, 2009. Retrieved on 2009-11-08. "Mr. Bush ... increased the size and scope of the federal government to unprecedented levels ... he added a whopping $345 billion (in constant dollars) to the federal budget ... added ... an additional $287 billion on top of that ... Mr. Bush has massively expanded the government" 
  51. 51.0 51.1 Lori Montgomery. "Deficit Projected To Swell Beyond Earlier Estimates", Washington Post, 21 Machi 2009. Retrieved on 2009-11-09. "Tax collections, meanwhile, would lag well behind spending, producing huge annual budget deficits that would force the nation to borrow nearly $9.3 trillion over the next decade -- $2.3 trillion more than the president predicted when he unveiled his budget request just one month ago." 
  52. Eric Cantor. "Obama's 32 Czars", The Washington Post, 30 Julai 2009. Retrieved on 2009-09-28. 
  53. Dana D. Nelson. "The 'unitary executive' question", Los Angeles Times, 11 Oktoba 2008. Retrieved on 2009-10-04. 
  54. Christopher Lee. "Alito Once Made Case For Presidential Power", Washington Post, 2 Januari 2006. Retrieved on 2009-10-04. 
  55. Dan Froomkin. "Playing by the Rules", Washington Post, 10 Machi 2009. Retrieved on 2009-10-04. 
  56. Charlie Savage. "Obama Undercuts Whistle-Blowers, Senator Says", New York Times, 16 Machi 2009. Retrieved on 2009-10-04. 
  57. Transcript -- Ray Suarez and others. "President's Use of 'Signing Statements' Raises Constitutional Concerns", PBS Online NewsHour, 24 Julai 2006. Retrieved on 2009-11-11. "The American Bar Association said President Bush's use of "signing statements," which allow him to sign a bill into law but not enforce certain provisions, disregards the rule of law and the separation of powers. Legal experts discuss the implications." 
  58. 58.0 58.1 George F. Will -- op-ed columnist. "Making Congress Moot", The Washington Post, 21 Desemba 2008. Retrieved on 2009-09-28. 
  59. 59.0 59.1 59.2 Albert Gore (CQ Transcripts Wire). "Transcript: Former Vice President Gore's Speech on Constitutional Issues", Washington Post, JANUARY 16, 2006. Retrieved on 2009-11-09. "GORE: President Lincoln, of course, suspended habeas corpus during the Civil War, and some of the worst abuses prior to those of the current administration were committed by President Wilson during and after World War I, with the notorious red scare and "Palmer Raids."" 
  60. Grigg, William Norman. "FDR's patriot purge. (Cover Story History)", The New American, Jun 16, 2003. Retrieved on 2009-10-29. "federal investigators 'were free to devote a great deal of energy and attention to the tax records and finances of politicians who sought to use anti-Semitic appeals to attack the Roosevelt administration'" 
  61. Richard Zoglin. "TELEVISION: Nixon Without Nostalgia", Time Magazine, Aug. 08, 1994. Retrieved on 2009-11-08. "paranoid Nixon White House of the early '70s, so obsessed with political foes that it had a psychiatrist's office burglarized to get dirt on Daniel Ellsberg (who had released the Pentagon papers) and ordered the fateful break-in at the offices of the Democratic National Committee." 
  62. Dan Eggen and Dafna Linzer. "Judge Rules Against Wiretaps–NSA Program Called Unconstitutional", Washington Post, 18 Agosti 2006. Retrieved on 2009-11-09. "U.S. District Judge Anna Diggs Taylor ordered a halt to the wiretap program, secretly authorized by President Bush in 2001, but both sides in the lawsuit agreed to delay that action until a Sept. 7 hearing." 
  63. Staff writer. "Book World: 'The Dark Side': The Inside Story of How The War on Terror Turned into a War on American Ideals (by Jane Mayer)", Washington Post, 15 Julai 2008. Retrieved on 2009-11-09. "Since embarking upon its global war on terror, the United States has blatantly disregarded the Geneva Conventions. It has imprisoned suspects, including U.S. citizens, without charge, holding them indefinitely and denying them due process. It has created an American gulag in which thousands of detainees, including many innocent of any wrongdoing, have been subjected to ritual abuse and humiliation." 
  64. Dana D. Nelson. "The 'unitary executive' question", Los Angeles Times, 11 Oktoba 2008. Retrieved on 2009-09-28. 
  65. Steve Holland. "Obama revelling in U.S. power unseen in decades", Reuters UK, 1 Mei 2009. Retrieved on 2009-09-28. 
  66. "The Law: The President's War Powers", Time Magazine, Jun. 01, 1970. Retrieved on 2009-09-28. 
  67. 67.0 67.1 67.2 67.3 "The Law: The President's War Powers", Time Magazine, Jun. 01, 1970. Retrieved on 2009-09-28. 
  68. ALISON MITCHELL. "The World; Only Congress Can Declare War. Really. It's True.", New York Times, 2 Mei 1999. Retrieved on 2009-11-08. "Presidents have sent forces abroad more than 100 times; Congress has declared war only five times: the War of 1812, the Mexican War, the Spanish-American War, World War I and World War II." 
  69. ALISON MITCHELL. "The World; Only Congress Can Declare War. Really. It's True.", New York Times, 2 Mei 1999. Retrieved on 2009-11-08. "President Reagan told Congress of the invasion of Grenada two hours after he had ordered the landing. He told Congressional leaders of the bombing of Libya while the aircraft were on their way." 
  70. MICHAEL R. GORDON. "U.S. TROOPS MOVE IN PANAMA IN EFFORT TO SEIZE NORIEGA; GUNFIRE IS HEARD IN CAPITAL", New York Times, 1990-12-20. Retrieved on 2009-11-08. "It was not clear whether the White House consulted with Congressional leaders about the military action, or notified them in advance. Thomas S. Foley, the Speaker of the House, said on Tuesday night that he had not been alerted by the Administration." 
  71. Stuart Taylor Jr.. "An Invasion of Iraq Requires the Approval of Congress", The Atlantic, 4 Septemba 2002. Retrieved on 2009-11-09. "Bush may eventually ask for a congressional vote. That would clearly be the wiser course, politically. And that's what Bush's father did in early 1991—notwithstanding his insistence then that he did not need congressional approval as a legal matter and his subsequent boast, "I didn't have to get permission from some old goat in Congress to kick Saddam Hussein out of Kuwait."" 
  72. Andrew Rosenthal. "Bush Halts Offensive Combat; Kuwait Freed, Iraqis Crushed", New York Times, 1991-02-28. Retrieved on 2009-11-09. "The Speaker of the House, Thomas S. Foley, said: 'The majority in Congress voted to give the President the authority, and he has taken that authority and I think conducted this operation brilliantly.'" 
  73. DAVID E. SANGER with JOHN F. BURNS. "Bush Declares Start of Iraq War; Missile Said to Be Aimed at Hussein", New York Times, 20 Machi 2003. Retrieved on 2009-11-09. "Mr. Bush formally informed Congress in... a seven-page message to Congress, he argued that force was now the only way to 'adequately protect the national security of the United States' and that topping the Iraqi government was 'a vital part' of a broader war against terrorism. The message was required under a statute passed last fall explicitly authorizing war against Iraq after the president determined that a diplomatic solution was impossible." 
  74. "Time Essay: Where's Congress?", Time Magazine, Mei. 22, 1972. Retrieved on 2009-09-28. 
  75. Michael Kinsley. "The Case for a Big Power Swap", Time Magazine, Mar. 15, 1993. Retrieved on 2009-09-28. 
  76. Schantz (editor), Harvey L. (1996). American Presidential Elections: Process, Policy, and Political Change. Albany: State University of New York Press, 41. ISBN 0-7914-2864-8. “The advantages of incumbency are many: presidents have the aura and experience of the office; they command media coverage; they are able to influence events; and they are able to dispense government grants. (p.41)” 
  77. Richard E. Cohen. "PAC Paranoia: Congress Faces Campaign Spending - Politics: Hysteria was the operative word when legislators realized they could not return home without tougher campaign finance laws.", Los Angeles Times, 12 Agosti 1990. Retrieved on 2009-10-02. 
  78. Joseph A. Califano Jr.. "PAC's Remain a Pox", The New York Times, 27 Mei 1988. Retrieved on 2009-10-02. 
  79. Staff writer. "Alf Landon, G.O.P. Stand-Bearer, Dies at 100", NEW YORK TIMES, 13 Oktoba 1987. Retrieved on 2009-11-12. "523 Electoral Votes to 8 Roosevelt, running for his second term, won 27,747,636 votes to 16,679,543 for his Republican rival. Mr. Landon received 8 electoral votes to Roosevelt's 523." 
  80. 80.00 80.01 80.02 80.03 80.04 80.05 80.06 80.07 80.08 80.09 80.10 MATTHEW ERICSON. "THE 2004 ELECTIONS: THE PAST; Electoral College Shifts, In Red and Blue", NEW YORK TIMES, 3 Novemba 2004. Retrieved on 2009-11-12. "The coloring indicates which party's candidate received electoral votes in the state. Darker shades indicate that a different party captured the state than in the previous election. E.V.: Electoral votes received by a candidate P.V.: Share of the popular vote received by a candidate" 
  81. Mike Allen. "Bush Aides Pushed to Declare Victory", Washington Post, 3 Novemba 2004. Retrieved on 2009-11-12. "Even before receiving a concession call from his opponent, President Bush scheduled a victory announcement in Washington today, with officials of his reelection campaign asserting that he has won at least 286 electoral votes" 
  82. DAVID JOHNSTON. "Bush Pardons 6 in Iran Affair, Aborting a Weinberger Trial; Prosecutor Assails 'Cover-Up'", New York Times, 1992-12-24. Retrieved on 2009-11-08. "But not since President Gerald R. Ford granted clemency to former President Richard M. Nixon for possible crimes in Watergate has a Presidential pardon so pointedly raised the issue of whether the President was trying to shield officials for political purposes." 
  83. DAVID JOHNSTON. "Bush Pardons 6 in Iran Affair, Aborting a Weinberger Trial; Prosecutor Assails 'Cover-Up'", New York Times, 1992-12-24. Retrieved on 2009-11-08. "The prosecutor charged that Mr. Weinberger's efforts to hide his notes may have 'forestalled impeachment proceedings against President Reagan' and formed part of a pattern of 'deception and obstruction.'... In light of President Bush's own misconduct, we are gravely concerned about his decision to pardon others who lied to Congress and obstructed official investigations." 
  84. 84.0 84.1 84.2 Peter Eisler. "Clinton-papers release blocked", USA TODAY, 2008-03-07. Retrieved on 2009-11-08. "Former president Clinton issued 140 pardons on his last day in office, including several to controversial figures, such as commodities trader Rich, then a fugitive on tax evasion charges. Rich's ex-wife, Denise, contributed $2,000 in 1999 to Hillary Clinton's Senate campaign; $5,000 to a related political action committee; and $450,000 to a fund set up to build the Clinton library." 
  85. Johanna Neuman. "Robert Novak dies at 78; syndicated columnist and TV commentator", Los Angeles Times, 19 Agosti 2009. Retrieved on 2009-11-08. "President George W. Bush later commuted Libby's 2 1/2 -year sentence." 
  86. SHERYL GAY STOLBERG. "For President, Libby Case Was a Test of Will", New York Times, 3 Julai 2007. Retrieved on 2009-11-08. "Indeed, to administration critics, the commutation was a subversion of justice, an act of hypocrisy by a president who once vowed that anyone in his administration who broke the law would 'be taken care of.'" 
  87. Philip D. Zelikow. "The Suicide of the East? 1989 and the Fall of Communism", Foreign Affairs Magazine, 2009-11. Retrieved on 2009-11-10. "There was no World War III ... The Soviet Union and Poland held limited elections in early 1989 ... By the end of 1991, the Soviet empire had disintegrated. Although there had been some bloodshed in China and Romania, there had been no great war." 
  88. "Essay: The Lessons of the Cuban Missile Crisis", Time Magazine, Sep. 27, 1982. Retrieved on 2009-11-11. "Kennedy assembled a task force of advisers. Some of them wanted to invade Cuba. In the end, Kennedy chose a course of artful restraint; he laid down a naval quarantine. After six days, Khrushchev announced that the Soviet missiles would be dismantled." 
  89. "Essay: BAY OF PIGS REVISITED: Lessons from a Failure", Time Magazine, Jul. 30, 1965. Retrieved on 2009-11-10. "U.S.-sponsored Bay of Pigs invasion that had ended in disaster about a year and a half before." 
  90. David Ignatius. "Protean Leader", Washington Post, 8 Juni 2004. Retrieved on 2009-11-10. "But after suicide bombers destroyed the U.S. Embassy and Marine barracks there in 1983, Reagan decided to cut his losses and evacuate American troops ... The pullout from Lebanon was either an amoral retreat under fire or a prudent exercise of realpolitik, depending on your perspective." 
  91. 91.0 91.1 David Ignatius. "Protean Leader", Washington Post, 8 Juni 2004. Retrieved on 2009-11-10. "A somewhat more dubious example of the Reagan administration's realpolitik in the Middle East was the decision to trade arms to Iran to secure the release of U.S. hostages in Lebanon. When the secret deal became public, Reagan managed the political fallout partly by insisting he had done nothing of the sort." 
  92. Dennis Ross. "The Middle East Predicament", Foreign Affairs Magazine, 2005-01. Retrieved on 2009-11-10. "Iraq is a mess--from which the United States cannot easily extricate itself." 
  93. "Chuck Hagel–Biography", New York Times, 2009-11-08. Retrieved on 2009-11-08. "A staunch conservative and a Vietnam veteran, Senator Chuck Hagel of Nebraska is best known as the most outspoken Republican critic of President Bush's policies in Iraq." 
  94. JACOB WEISBERG. "All the President's Critics", New York Times: Books, 29 Agosti 2004. Retrieved on 2009-11-08. "But these are largely stand-ins for their opposition to the Bush administration's catastrophically unplanned occupation of Iraq, its self-defeating alienation of allies..." 
  95. Robert G. Kaiser. "Iraq Aside, Nominees Have Like Views on Use of Force", Washington Post, 27 Oktoba 2008. Retrieved on 2009-11-10. "Bacevich, who has endorsed Obama, is a stern critic of what he considers the militarization of U.S. foreign policy, and he regards this consensus as "far more important than any apparent differences" between the candidates and their advisers." 
  96. "The Mystic Who Lit The Fires of Hatred", Time Magazine, Jan. 7, 1980. Retrieved on 2009-11-10. "But the U.S. saw the Shah as a stable and valuable ally. ... the U.S. lent the Shah its all-out support. President Richard Nixon and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger allowed him to buy all the modern weapons he wanted. Washington also gave its blessing to a flood of American business investment in Iran and dispatched an army of technocrats there." 
  97. Michael Abramowitz and Robin Wright. "Bush More Emphatic In Backing Musharraf", Washington Post, 21 Novemba 2007. Retrieved on 2009-11-10. "President Bush yesterday offered his strongest support of embattled Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf, saying the general 'hasn't crossed the line' and 'truly is somebody who believes in democracy.'" 
  98. Henry Grunwald. "Essay: Marcos, Baby Doc - Why Not the Rest?", Time Magazine, Mei. 12, 1986. Retrieved on 2009-11-10. "Some critics blame the U.S. for the existence of just about all the world's non-Communist dictatorships. While it is true that many of these receive U.S. support, the forces that lead to dictatorship are usually beyond American control." 
  99. 99.0 99.1 Joshua Micah Marshall. "Remaking the World: Bush and the Neoconservatives", Foreign Affairs Magazine, 2003-11. Retrieved on 2009-11-10. "In Israel ... After giving a low priority to the peace process during his first two years in office, George W. Bush pushed the 'road map' for peace while relegating Yasir Arafat to the sidelines ... Finding himself stymied, the new Palestinian prime minister, Mahmoud Abbas, resigned; Arafat faces death or expulsion while being lionized among his constituents; bombings continue; and the region is as volatile and violent as ever." 
  100. "Iran's Nuclear Program", New York Times, Oct. 21, 2009. Retrieved on 2009-11-10. "American officials and international inspectors are concerned that Iran seems to have made significant progress in the three technologies necessary to field an effective nuclear weapon: enriching uranium to weapons grade; developing a missile capable of reaching Israel and parts of Western Europe; and designing a warhead that will fit on the missile." 
  101. Eric M. Weiss and Charles Lane. "Vice President Sued by Plame And Husband", Washington Post, 14 Julai 2006. Retrieved on 2009-11-08. "Plame and Wilson say that, after Wilson accused Bush of twisting intelligence about Iraq's pursuit of weapons of mass destruction, Cheney, Rove and Libby conspired to 'discredit, punish and seek revenge against the plaintiffs that included, among other things, disclosing to members of the press Plaintiff Valerie Plame Wilson's classified CIA employment.'" 

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