Kipindi cha historia ya Tanzania

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Rukia: urambazaji, tafuta
History of Tanzania
Coat of Arms of Tanzania
This article is part of a series
Timeline
History of Zanzibar
Colonial period
Scramble for Africa
Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty
Vita ya Maji Maji
East African Campaign
British East Africa
Modern history
Zanzibar Revolution
Ujamaa

Tanzania Portal

Hiki ni kipindi cha historia ya Tanzania ambapo kunaelezea mfululizo wa matukio makubwa yanayohusu wananchi wa Tanzania, ikiwa ni pamoja na Zanzibar, na eneo la zamani la Tanganyika, na maeneo yanayoinguka Tanzania kabla ya ukoloni wa Kizungu. Makazi ya watu katika kanda yalianza angalau miaka 100,000 iliyopita. Ushahidi wa kiakiolojia unaonesha uwepo wa sokwe watu katika kanda hii kwa zaidi ya miaka milioni 3 iliyopita na Paranthropus kwa zaidi ya miaka milioni 2 iliyopita. Wakhoisa wanadhaniwa kuhamia maeneo haya wakiwa kama wawindaji tu katika miaka 10,000 iliyopita.

Mawasiliano ya Kizungu katika Afrika ya Mashariki yalifanywa mnamo karne ya 15 na mpelelezi wa Kireno Vasco da Gama. Aliwasili mjini Kilimane (sasa hivi Tanzania) kunako mwaka wa 1498. Zanzibar, funguvisiwa vilivyopo mjini mashariki mwa Tanzania bara, vilichukuliwa na Dola la Ureno na likabaki kuwa eneo lake kwa takriban miaka 200 hivi. Baadaye eneo lile likachukuliwa na Sultan wa Oman mnamo 1698. Hekaheka za kikoloni zilipamba moto katika kanda hii kunako karne ya 19. Afrika ya Mashariki ya Kijerumani ilianzishwa Tanzania bara mnamo 1885 na Zanzibar ikawa chini ya udhibiti wa Uingereza mnamo 1890. Miaka sita baadaye, Vita ya Zanzibar na Uingereza ilipigwa kisiwani humo, moja kati ya vita vifupi mno katika historia. Chief Mkwawa wa kabila la Wahehe na wapiganaji wake wameungana na kikosi kizima cha Vita ya Maji Maji dhidi ya kupinga utawala wa kikoloni katika Afrika ya Mashariki ya Kijerumani.

Hekaheka za Kijerumani ziliisha baada ya Vita Kuu ya Kwanza ya Dunia wakati Uingereza imeichukua Tanganyika ikiwa kama Mamlaka ya Shirikisho la Mataifa. Vikundi vya kijamii na kisiasi vilianza kazi ya kuhamisisha watu kunako katikati mwa karne na mnamo 1961 mwalimu wa shule wa zamani Julius Nyerere akawa Waziri Mkuu wa kwanza. Tanganyika ikapata uhuru wake mnamo mwaka wa 1962, na Nyerere akiwa kama ndiye rais wa nchi, na Zanzibar ikafuatia mwaka uliofuata. Mataifa haya mawili yaliungana mnamo 1964 na kuwa nchi inayojulikana Tanzania. Nyerere ameongoza nchi kwa chama kimoja kwa zaidi ya miaka 20, huku akitambulisha maoni yake juu ya Ujamaa wa Kifrika, Ujamaa.

Ameachia ngazi mnamo 1985 na akafuatiwa na Ali Hassan Mwinyi. Benjamin Mkapa, rais wa awamu ya tatu nchini, ameshinda uchaguzi wa kwanza wa vyama vingi Tanzania mnamo 1995. Wakati wa urais wa Mkapa, Tanzania imegushi uhusiano wa kidiplomasia katika kanda kwa kusaini Mkataba wa Jumuia ya Afrika Mashariki. Hata hivyo, serikali ya Mkapa ilipondwa sana kwa matumizi ya juu. Mwaka wa 1998, Ubalozi wa Marekani ulishambuliwa na bomu huko mjini Dar es Salaam. Mwaka wa 2003, jenasi mpya ya ngendere imegunduliwa nchini , ya kwanza kugunduliwa tangu mwaka wa 1923. Rais Jakaya Kikwete alichaguliwa mnamo 2005.

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