Elimu nchini Tanzania

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Elimu nchini Tanzania hutolewa na sekta zote mbili, yaani, sekta za serikali na binafsi. Muundo wake kiujumla ni kama ifuatavyo:[1]

  • Miaka 2 elimu ya vidudu/cheke-chea hutolewa kwa wanafunzi wenye umri kati ya miaka 5–6 (miaka 2), lakini hii watoto sehemu kubwa wanaanza wakiwa na umri wa miaka 3, ili kuwa na mazoea ya shule.
  • Miaka 7 elimu ya msingi ambayo hutolewa kwa watoto walio na umri wa miaka 7–13 (Darasa la I-VII)
  • Miaka 4 elimu ya sekondari hutolewa kati ya umri wa miaka 14–17 (Fomu 1-4)
  • Miaka 2 elimu ya juu ya sekondari hutolewa kati ya umri wa miaka 18–19 (Fom 5 na 6)
  • Miaka 3 zaidi elimu ya Chuo Kikuu

Elimu ya awali[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kila mtoto ambaye si chini ya miaka mitano anafaa kuandikishwa katika elimu ya awali ya miaka 2.[2] Mahudhurio sio lazima.[3]

Elimu ya msingi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Shule za serikali hufundisha kwa Kiswahi na Kiingereza na katika baadhi ya shule zinafundisha katika misingi ya Kiingereza cha wastani - hasa zile za binafsi. Badhi ya shule za binafsi, zenye malipo ya juu ya karo, wanafundisha kwa Kiingereza. Lugha zingine za makabila (zingine mbali na Kiswahili) haziruhusiwi kufundishia, si kundishwa kama masomo, ingawa zinaweza kutumika pasipo rasmi katika hali fulani hasa katika elimu ya awali.[4]

Shule ya msingi ya kijiji Wilayani Karatu, Tanzania

Ni lazima kwa kila mtoto aliyefikisha umri wa miaka saba kuandikishwa katika elimu ya msingi.[3][5][6]

Kuondolewa kwa mafundisho binafsi (twisheni)[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mafundisho ya binafsi katika shule za umma yaliondolewa mnamo mwaka wa 2002, lakini familia lazima zilipe karo ya vifaa vya kusomea.[7]

Uandikishwaji na takwimu za ufundishaji[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kuondoa ada katika shule za serikali umepelekea ongezeko kubwa la watoto kuandikishwa katika shule za msingi,[7] kutoka 4,839,361 mnamo 2001 hadi 7,959,884 mnamo 2006 hadi 8,410,000 mnamo 2008.[3][8]

Ongezeko hili halijawa na uwiano na ongezeko la rasilimali kwa walimu ikiwa ni pamoja na madarasa na vitabu vya kufundishia.[9] Uwiano wa wanafunzi kwa walimu waliohitimu kwa mwaka wa 2010 ulikuwa 54:1, ambayo ilikuwa asilimia 35 ya malengo ya 40:1. Kila mkoa ulizidi lengo kasoro Kilimanjaro na Dar es Salaam.[10] Only three percent of students in Standard VI nationwide had sole use of a mathematics textbook in 2007 compared to seven percent in 2000.[7]

Mwaka wa 2006, kiwango cha jumla cha wanafunzi walioandikishwa katika elimu ya msingi ilikuwa asilimia 110., na kiwango cha uandikishwaji uliofuata ulikuwa asilimia 97.8[11] Kiwango cha jumla cha uandikishwaji ni uwiano wa jumla ya idadi ya wanafunzi wanaohudhuria shule ya msingi wenye umri rasmi wa kujiunga na shule za msingi. Kiwango cha jumla cha uandikishwaji katika elimu ya msingi ni uwiano rasmi wa idadi ya jumla ya walioandikishwa katika umri unaostahili kwa elimu ya msingi. Idadi hii inatokana na jumla ya wanafunzi walioandikishwa katika elimu rasmi ya msingi na, hivyo basi, haina ulazima wa kuakisi hali halisi ya kimahudhurio.[9] Mwaka wa 2000, asimilia 57 ya watoto wenye umri kati ya miaka 5–14 walihudhuria elimu ya msingi.[11]

Mitaala na lugha ya kufundishia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Historia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Tazama pia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Education in Basic Education Statistics in Tanzania: 2006-2010, Tanzania Ministry of Education and Vocational Training, June 2010, page iv
  2. Parliament of Tanzania, The National Education Act, 1978, Section 35A, as added by the Parliament of Tanzania, the Education (Amendment) Act, 1995, Section 28 http://polis.parliament.go.tz/PAMS/docs/10-1995.pdf
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "World Data on Education: VII Ed. 2010/11", United Republic of Tanzania, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, revised August 2010, page 13
  4. Henry R.T. Muzale and Josephat M. Rugemalira. Researching and Documenting the Languages of Tanzania. Language Documentation and Conservation, Vol. 2, No. 1 (June 2008), pp. 68-108.
  5. The Parliament of Tanzania, The National Education Act, 1978, Section 35(1), as amended by The Parliament of Tanzania, the Education (Amendment) Act, 1995, Section 27(a) http://polis.parliament.go.tz/PAMS/docs/10-1995.pdf
  6. 2010 Human Rights Report: Tanzania, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, U.S. Department of State
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Ponera, G. E. (October 2011). Policy Brief: Quality of Primary School Inputs in Tanzania Mainland. Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 11 May 2013. Iliwekwa mnamo 30 September 2015. “Under the PEDP [Primary Education Development Programme], the central government is responsible for the payment of teachers’ salaries and the provision of instructional materials to schools. Local governments are responsible for the operational expenses and management of primary schools, while parents are responsible for the provision of basic learning materials, such as exercise books, pencils and rulers. In addition, the local governments (with the support of the local communities) are responsible for the construction and maintenance of school buildings. There are funds (known as the Development Grant) set aside under PEDP for the construction of classrooms, teachers’ housing, toilets, and the improvement of existing school buildings and facilities.”
  8. "Secondary Education in Tanzania: Key Policy Challenges", Working Paper 06.4, Suleman Sumra & Rakesh Rajani, HakiElimu, page 1
  9. 9.0 9.1 "Tanzania". 2005 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Script error: No such module "webarchive".. Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor (2006). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  10. Table 2.16
  11. 11.0 11.1 2008 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor, 2009

Viungo vya Nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]