Yesu kadiri ya historia

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Papyrus P52, iliyoandikwa kwa Kigiriki mwaka 125 hivi, inahesabika kuwa andiko la zamani zaidi kutufikia kuhusu Yesu. Ina sehemu za Injili ya Yohane; mbele 18:31-33, nyuma 18;37-38.
Albert Schweitzer, aliyeandika kitabu maarufu kuhusu Kumchunguza Yesu wa historia.
Mfululizo wa kurasa juu ya Yesu
Jesus
Yesu Kristo na Ukristo

Umwilisho  • Utoto wa Yesu  • Utume wa Yesu • Mifano ya Yesu  • Miujiza ya Yesu
Msalaba wa Yesu  • Kifo cha Yesu  • Ufufuko wa Yesu
Kupaa mbinguni  • Ujio wa pili
Injili  • Majina ya Yesu katika Agano Jipya  • Yesu kadiri ya historia  • Tarehe za maisha ya Yesu • Kristolojia

Mazingira ya Yesu

Wayahudi • Kiaramu • Bikira Maria • Yosefu (mume wa Maria) • Familia takatifu • Ukoo wa Yesu • Yohane Mbatizaji

Mitazamo juu ya Yesu

Mitazamo katika Agano Jipya · Mitazamo ya Kikristo • Mitazamo ya Kiyahudi • Mitazamo ya Kiislamu • Yesu katika sanaa

Yesu kadiri ya historia ni ujuzi juu yake unaopatikana kwa kumchunguza kama mtu mwingine yeyote, mbali na imani ya dini, ili kuelewa vizuri maisha yake yalivyokuwa kihistoria.[1][2][3]

Fani hiyo inavyodai, ni lazima kuchunguza habari tulizonazo juu yake ili kuthibitisha ukweli wake.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10]

Yesu hakuacha maandiko yoyote. Habari zake zinapatikana hasa katika Biblia, kwa namna ya pekee katika Injili nne na vitabu vingine vya Agano Jipya[11][11][12].

Yapo pia mengine ya Wakristo yasiyokubaliwa na Kanisa kama Neno la Mungu hasa kwa sababu yalichelewa kuandikwa (kuanzia karne ya 2).

Nje ya Ukristo kuna habari fupi kuhusu Yesu katika maandiko ya waandishi wa Roma, Wagiriki na Wayahudi. Habari hizo zinaangaliwa sana kwa sababu zimetungwa na watu wasiomwamini Yesu kidini[11][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][20][21][22].

Kwa ujumla zinathibitisha ya kwamba Yesu alikuwepo, na kwamba wakati hao walipoandika alikuwa na wafuasi huko Roma na ya kwamba awali Waroma hawakuelewa tofauti kati ya wafuasi wake na Wayahudi[23][24]

Kati ya waandishi hao muhimu ni hasa:

1. Mtaalamu Myahudi Flavius Josephus: huyo aliandika miaka 93-94 BK kitabu cha "Antiquitates Judaicae“ (Habari za historia ya Wayahudi) akitaja kifo cha "Yakobo ndugu wa Yesu“ (sura ya 20, 200)[25][26][27][28].

2. Mwandishi Mroma Tacitus: huyo aliandika mnamo mwaka 117 ya kwamba Kaisari Nero alishtaki kikundi cha “Chrestiani” ya kuwa wamechoma moto mji wa Roma. Aliongeza: “Mtu ambaye ni asili ya jina hilo ni Chrestus aliyeuawa wakati wa Tiberio kwa amri ya Pontio Pilato” (Annales XV,44).

3. Mwandishi Mroma Svetonius: huyo alimtaja “Chrestos” katika kitabu chake juu ya maisha ya Kaisari Klaudio (25,4) ya kwamba huyu amesababisha fujo kati ya Wayahudi wa Roma hivyo Kaisari aliwafukuza wote mjini.

4. Mwanasiasa Mroma Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus: huyo aliacha barua kadhaa zinazotaja Wakristo mnamo mwaka 100 BK. Alimwuliza Kaisari Traianus jinsi ya kushughulikia Wakristo waliokataa kutoa sadaka mbele ya sanamu za Kaisari.

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Amy-Jill Levine in the The Historical Jesus in Context edited by Amy-Jill Levine et al. 2006 Princeton Univ Press ISBN 978-0-691-00992-6 pages 1-2
  2. Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium by Bart D. Ehrman (Sep 23, 1999) ISBN 0195124731 Oxford Univ Press pages ix-xi
  3. Jesus Remembered Volume 1, by James D. G. Dunn 2003 ISBN 0-8028-3931-2 pp. 125-127
  4. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/historicity
  5. http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/historicity
  6. While discussing the "striking" fact that "we don't have any Roman records, of any kind, that attest to the existence of Jesus," Ehrman dismisses claims that this means Jesus never existed, saying, "He certainly existed, as virtually every competent scholar of antiquity, Christian or non-Christian, agrees, based on clear and certain evidence." B. Ehrman, 2011 Forged : writing in the name of God ISBN 978-0-06-207863-6. page 285
  7. Michael Grant (a classicist) states that "In recent years, 'no serious scholar has ventured to postulate the non historicity of Jesus' or at any rate very few, and they have not succeeded in disposing of the much stronger, indeed very abundant, evidence to the contrary." in Jesus: An Historian's Review of the Gospels by Michael Grant 2004 ISBN 1898799881 page 200
  8. Richard A. Burridge states: "There are those who argue that Jesus is a figment of the Church’s imagination, that there never was a Jesus at all. I have to say that I do not know any respectable critical scholar who says that any more." in Jesus Now and Then by Richard A. Burridge and Graham Gould (Apr 1, 2004) ISBN 0802809774 page 34
  9. Crossan, John Dominic (1995). Jesus: A Revolutionary Biography. HarperOne, 145. ISBN 0-06-061662-8. “That he was crucified is as sure as anything historical can ever be, since both Josephus and Tacitus ... agree with the Christian accounts on at least that basic fact.” 
  10. Jesus as a Figure in History: How Modern Historians View the Man from Galilee by Mark Allan Powell 1998 ISBN 0-664-25703-8 pages 168–173
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Jesus and the Gospels: An Introduction and Survey by Craig L. Blomberg 2009 ISBN 0-8054-4482-3 pages 431-436
  12. Van Voorst (2000) pp. 39-53
  13. Van Voorst (2000) pp. 39-53
  14. Robert E. Van Voorst, Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence, Wm. B. Eerdmans, 2000. p 39- 53
  15. Eddy, Paul; Boyd, Gregory (2007). The Jesus Legend: A Case for the Historical Reliability of the Synoptic Jesus Tradition Baker Academic, ISBN 0-8010-3114-1 page 127
  16. F.F. Bruce,Jesus and Christian Origins Outside the New Testament, (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1974) p. 23
  17. Theissen, Gerd; Merz, Annette (1998). The historical Jesus: a comprehensive guide. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 83. ISBN 978-0-8006-3122-2. 
  18. The Case Against Christianity, By Michael Martin, pg 50-51, at http://books.google.co.za/books?id=wWkC4dTmK0AC&pg=PA52&dq=historicity+of+jesus&hl=en&sa=X&ei=o-_8U5-yEtTH7AbBpoCoAg&ved=0CCUQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=tacitus&f=false
  19. The Historical Jesus in the Twentieth Century: 1900-1950, By Walter P. Weaver, pg 53, pg 57, at http://books.google.co.za/books?id=1CZbuFBdAMUC&pg=PA45&dq=historicity+of+jesus&hl=en&sa=X&ei=o-_8U5-yEtTH7AbBpoCoAg&ved=0CEoQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=tacitus&f=false
  20. 20.0 20.1 Secret of Regeneration, By Hilton Hotema, pg 100, at http://books.google.co.za/books?id=jCaopp3R5B0C&pg=PA100&dq=interpolations+in+tacitus&hl=en&sa=X&ei=CRf-U9-VGZCe7AbxrIDQCA&ved=0CCAQ6AEwATge#v=onepage&q=interpolations%20in%20tacitus&f=false
  21. Jesus, University Books, New York, 1956, p.13
  22. France, RT (1986). Evidence for Jesus (Jesus Library). Trafalgar Square Publishing, 19–20. ISBN 0-340-38172-8. 
  23. Schreckenberg, Heinz (1992). Jewish Traditions in Early Christian Literature. ISBN 90-232-2653-4. 
  24. Kostenberger, Andreas J. (2009). The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament. ISBN 0-8054-4365-7. 
  25. The new complete works of Josephus by Flavius Josephus, William Whiston, Paul L. Maier ISBN 0-8254-2924-2 pages 662-663
  26. Josephus XX by Louis H. Feldman 1965, ISBN 0674995023 page 496
  27. Van Voorst, Robert E. (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence ISBN 0-8028-4368-9. page 83
  28. Flavius Josephus; Maier, Paul L. (December 1995). Josephus, the essential works: a condensation of Jewish antiquities and The Jewish war ISBN 978-0-8254-3260-6 pages 284-285

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Brown, Raymond E. (1997) An Introduction to the New Testament. Doubleday ISBN 0-385-24767-2
  • Daniel Boyarin (2004). Border Lines. The Partition of Judaeo-Christianity. University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Doherty, Earl (1999). The Jesus Puzzle. Did Christianity Begin with a Mythical Christ? : Challenging the Existence of an Historical Jesus. ISBN 0-9686014-0-5
  • Drews, Arthur & Burns, C. Deslisle (1998). The Christ Myth (Westminster College-Oxford Classics in the Study of Religion). ISBN 1-57392-190-4
  • Ellegård, Alvar Jesus – One Hundred Years Before Christ: A Study in Creative Mythology, (London 1999).
  • France, R.T. (2001). The Evidence for Jesus. Hodder & Stoughton.
  • Freke, Timothy & Gandy, Peter. The Jesus Mysteries - was the original Jesus a pagan god? ISBN 0-7225-3677-1
  • George, Augustin & Grelot, Pierre (Eds.) (1992). Introducción Crítica al Nuevo Testamento. Herder. ISBN 84-254-1277-3
  • Koester, Helmut (1992). Ancient Christian Gospels. Harrisburg, PA: Continuum. ISBN 0-334-02450-1. 
  • Gowler, David B. (2007). What Are They Saying About the Historical Jesus?. Paulist Press.
  • Grant, Michael, Jesus: An Historian's Review of the Gospels, Scribner, 1995. ISBN 0-684-81867-1
  • Meier, John P., A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus, Anchor Bible Reference Library, Doubleday
(1991), v. 1, The Roots of the Problem and the Person, ISBN 0-385-26425-9
(1994), v. 2, Mentor, Message, and Miracles, ISBN 0-385-46992-6
(2001), v. 3, Companions and Competitors, ISBN 0-385-46993-4
(2009), v. 4, Law and Love, ISBN 978-0-300-14096-5
  • Mendenhall, George E. (2001). Ancient Israel's Faith and History: An Introduction to the Bible in Context. ISBN 0-664-22313-3
  • Messori, Vittorio (1977). Jesus hypotheses. St Paul Publications. ISBN 0-85439-154-1
  • New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha, New Revised Standard Version. (1991) New York, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-528356-2
  • Price, Robert M. (2000). Deconstructing Jesus. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-758-9. 
  • Price, Robert M. (2003). The Incredible Shrinking Son of Man: How Reliable is the Gospel Tradition?. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-59102-121-9. 
  • Wells, George A. (1988). The Historical Evidence for Jesus. Prometheus Books. ISBN 0-87975-429-X
  • Wells, George A. (1998). The Jesus Myth. ISBN 0-8126-9392-2
  • Wells, George A. (2004). Can We Trust the New Testament?: Thoughts on the Reliability of Early Christian Testimony. ISBN 0-8126-9567-4
  • Wilson, Ian (2000). Jesus: The Evidence (1st ed.). Regnery Publishing.
Saint-stub-icon.jpg Makala hii kuhusu mtu wa Biblia bado ni mbegu.
Je, unajua kitu kuhusu Yesu kadiri ya historia kama habari za maisha au kazi yake?
Labda unaona habari katika Wikipedia ya Kiingereza au lugha nyingine zinazofaa kutafsiriwa?
Basi unaweza kuisaidia Wikipedia kwa kuihariri na kuongeza habari.