Itikadi kali

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Itikadi kali ni dai la kushikilia sana misimamo ya dini[1][2][3][4][5] au falsafa au siasa fulani kwa kuchukua hasa maneno yaliyoandikwa na mwanzilishi bila ufafanuzi wowote, kadiri unavyohitahika kutokana na muda kupita au mabadiliko mbalimbali kutokea.[6]

Kwa jumla msamiati huu unatumika kwa maana mbaya,[7][8]tofauti na mtu kusifiwa kwa uaminifu na msimamo wake usio na ukali dhidi ya wengine.

Katika dini[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mfano maarufu wa aina hiyo ni "fundamentalism" iliyoenea katika Uprotestanti huko Marekani katika karne ya 20 ikitaka kushika kabisa mambo 5 ya "msingi" (= fundament) kwa kupinga teolojia ya Usasa:

Mfano mwingine wa siku hizi ni Uislamu wenye itikadi kali kama ule wa DAESH, wa Boko Haram, wa wale wanaolipuana misikiti, na wa nchi mbalimbali za Kiislamu ambazo zinadhulumu watu wa dini tofauti na hata Waislamu wa madhehebu mengine.

Vilevile dini nyingine kadhaa kama si zote zina watu wenye itikadi kali, kama vile Wahindu wanaodhulumu Wahindi wenzao kwa sababu hawafuati dini ya jadi ya India.

Mambo hayo yamefanya wakanamungu na wengineo wadai kwamba dini zote duniani zinaharibu maisha ya watu badala ya kuyaboresha. Watetezi wa dini wanahoji kama ni sawa kusema mwili ni mbaya kwa sababu una ugonjwa katika kiungo fulani. Itikadi kali ni saratani ambayo wote wapambane nayo, badala ya kumuua mtu aliye nayo. Dini zimechangia sana maadili ya binadamu na ya jamii, hata kama baadhi ya wanadini wameshika misimamo mibaya na kutenda mambo yasiyofaa.

Chanzo na matokeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Saikolojia na sosholojia zinasaidia kuelewa kwa nini baadhi ya watu wanaelekea kuwa na itikadi kali.

Matokeo ya kawaida ya ukali huo ni kukataa wale wasioamini itikadi yenyewe, lakini pia wale ambao wanaiamini kwa kuifafanua bila ukali.[11]

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Nagata, Judith (Jun 2001). "Beyond Theology: Toward an Anthropology of "Fundamentalism"". American Anthropologist 103 (2).
  2. Altemeyer, B., & Hunsberger, B. (1992). Authoritarianism, religious fundamentalism, quest, and prejudice. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 2(2), 113-133. doi: 10.1207/s15327582ijpr0202_5
  3. Kunst, J., Thomsen, L., Sam, D. (2014). Late Abrahamic reunion? Religious fundamentalism negatively predicts dual Abrahamic group categorization among Muslims and Christians. European Journal of Social Psychology, https://www.academia.edu/6436421/Late_Abrahamic_reunion_Religious_fundamentalism_negatively_predicts_dual_Abrahamic_group_categorization_among_Muslims_and_Christians
  4. Kunst, J. R., & Thomsen, L. (2014). Prodigal sons: Dual Abrahamic categorization mediates the detrimental effects of religious fundamentalism on Christian-Muslim relations. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion. doi: 10.1080/10508619.2014.93796 https://www.academia.edu/7455300/Prodigal_sons_Dual_Abrahamic_categorization_mediates_the_detrimental_effects_of_religious_fundamentalism_on_Christian-Muslim_relations
  5. Hunsberger, B. (1995). Religion and prejudice: The role of religious fundamentalism, quest, and right-wing authoritarianism. Journal of Social Issues, 51(2), 113-129. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.1995.tb01326.x
  6. https://www.ntpu.edu.tw/social/upload/P_1020081127150648.pdf
  7. Harris, Harriet (2008). Fundamentalism and Evangelicals. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-953253-2. OCLC 182663241. 
  8. Boer, Roland (2005). "Fundamentalism". In Tony Bennett, Lawrence Grossberg, Meaghan Morris and Raymonnd Williams (PDF). New keywords: a revised vocabulary of culture and society. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 134–137. ISBN 0-631-22568-4 . OCLC 57357498 230674627 57357498 . http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/newkeywords/PDFs%20Sample%20Entries%20-%20New%20Keywords/Fundamentalism.pdf. Retrieved July 27, 2008.
  9. George M. Marsden, Fundamentalism and American Culture, (1980) pp 4-5 Over 1400 scholarly books have cited Marsden's work, according to Google Scholar.
  10. Buescher, John. "A History of Fundamentalism", Teachinghistory.org. Retrieved August 15, 2011.
  11. https://www.ntpu.edu.tw/social/upload/P_1020081127150648.pdf

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Appleby, R. Scott, Gabriel Abraham Almond, and Emmanuel Sivan (2003). Strong Religion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-01497-5
  • Armstrong, Karen (2001). The Battle for God: A History of Fundamentalism. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-39169-1
  • Brasher, Brenda E. (2001). The Encyclopedia of Fundamentalism. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92244-5
  • Caplan, Lionel. (1987). "Studies in Religious Fundamentalism". London: The MacMillan Press Ltd.
  • Dorff, Elliot N. and Rosett, Arthur, A Living Tree; The Roots and Growth of Jewish Law, SUNY Press, 1988.
  • Keating, Karl (1988). Catholicism and Fundamentalism. San Francisco: Ignatius. ISBN 0-89870-177-5
  • Gorenberg, Gershom. (2000). The End of Days: Fundamentalism and the Struggle for the Temple Mount. New York: The Free Press.
  • Hindery, Roderick. 2001. Indoctrination and Self-deception or Free and Critical Thought? Mellen Press: aspects of fundamentalism, pp. 69–74.
  • Lawrence, Bruce B. Defenders of God: The Fundamentalist Revolt against the Modern Age. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1989.
  • Marsden; George M. (1980). Fundamentalism and American Culture: The Shaping of Twentieth Century Evangelicalism, 1870-1925 Oxford University Press.
  • Marty, Martin E. and R. Scott Appleby (eds.). The Fundamentalism Project. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Noll, Mark A. A History of Christianity in the United States and Canada. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1992.
  • Ruthven, Malise (2005). "Fundamentalism: The Search for Meaning". Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280606-8
  • Torrey, R.A. (ed.). (1909). The Fundamentals. Los Angeles: The Bible Institute of Los Angeles (B.I.O.L.A. now Biola University). ISBN 0-8010-1264-3
  • "Religious movements: fundamentalist." In Goldstein, Norm (Ed.) (2003). The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law 2003 (38th ed.), p. 218. New York: The Associated Press. ISBN 0-917360-22-2.

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Icon-religion.png Makala hii kuhusu mambo ya dini bado ni mbegu.
Je, unajua kitu kuhusu Itikadi kali kama historia yake au uenezi wake?
Labda unaona habari katika Wikipedia ya Kiingereza au lugha nyingine zinazofaa kutafsiriwa?
Basi unaweza kuisaidia Wikipedia kwa kuihariri na kuongeza habari.