Umoja wa Mataifa

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Umoja wa Mataifa (UM) ni umoja wa nchi zote duniani isipokuwa zile zisizotambuliwa kuwa dola huru.

Umoja huu ulianzishwa mwaka 1945 na nchi washindi wa Vita Kuu ya Pili ya Dunia; zilikuwa 51 lakini kufikia mwaka 2013 kulikuwa na nchi 193 wanachama, mbali na Ukulu mtakatifu na Palestina ambazo zinashiriki kama watazamaji wa kudumu, zikiwa na haki karibu zote isipokuwa kupiga kura.

Dhumuni la umoja huu ni kuratibu mahusiano ya kimataifa kupitia sheria na mikataba ya kimataifa kwenye maeneo kama usalama, amani, maendeleo ya jamii na ya uchumi, haki za binadamu, uhuru, demokrasia n.k.

Toka mwanzo makao makuu ya Umoja wa Mataifa yako New York nchini Marekani.

Umoja huu ulichukua nafasi ya Shirikisho la Mataifa (1919 - 1946).

Lugha rasmi za UM ni sita: Kiarabu, Kichina, Kiingereza, Kifaransa, Kirusi na Kihispania.

Katibu Mkuu wa UM anachaguliwa kwa miaka mitano; kwa sasa ni Ban Ki-moon kutoka Korea ya Kusini. Ban Ki-moon alichaguliwa kuwa Katibu Mkuu mwaka 2006 akichukua nafasi ya Kofi Annan, akaongezewa kipindi kingine tena.

Muundo wa UM[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Ukumbi wa UM.

UM una vyombo vitano:

Cha sita kilikuwa Baraza la Wafadhili la UM (Trusteeship Council), ambacho kimesimamisha kazi yake 1994.

Vyama vya pekee vya UM[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • UNICEF (United Nations Children's Fund)
  • WHO (World Health Organization)
  • FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization)
  • UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization - Shirika la Umoja wa Mataifa la Elimu, Sayansi, na Utamaduni)
  • ILO (International Labour Organization)
  • IMF (International Monetary Fund)
  • UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development)
  • ITC (International Trade Centre (UNCTAD/WTO)
  • UNDCP (United Nations Drug Control Programme)
  • UNDP (United Nations Development Programme)
  • UNIFEM (United Nations Development Fund for Women)
  • UNV (United Nations Volunteers)
  • UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme)
  • UNFPA (United Nations Fund for Population Activities)
  • UNHCR (Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees)
  • UN-HABITAT (United Nations Human Settlements Programme)
  • UNRWA (United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East)
  • IAEA (Shirika la Kimataifa la Nishati ya Nyuklia) inashirikiana na UM na kutoa taarifa mbele ya Baraza la Usalama hata kama si chini ya katiba ya UM
  • UNDIO ( United Nations Data and Information Organization)

Viungo vya Nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Official website[hariri | hariri chanzo]