Petro wa Yohane Olivi

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Petro wa Yohane Olivi (124814 Machi 1298) alikuwa Mfransisko mwanateolojia.

Ingawa alifariki akiungama imani ya Kanisa Katoliki, mwanzoni mwa karne ya 14 akawa anapingwa sana kuhusu msimamo wake mkali juu ya ufukara uliokuwa wa makundi ya Spirituali na Fraticelli, ndugu wenye nia ya kushika kanuni ya Ndugu Wadogo kadiri ya Roho Mtakatifu, bila kujali ufafanuzi wake. Mambo yakawa magumu kiasi kwamba suala hilo likawa zito kwa Kanisa lote. Wakati wa Mtaguso II wa Lyon, baadhi ya ndugu hao walijiandaa kukataa maagizo waliyoambiwa watapewa kinyume cha haki. Upinzani wao ukalipuka hasa baada ya Papa Nikola III (1277-1280) kutoa hati nyingine juu ya kanuni (1279) ili kuwaondolea Ndugu Wadogo wasiwasi wowote kuhusu namna ya kuitekeleza, pamoja na kuwatetea dhidi ya maadui wa nje.

Hati hiyo inafuata kabisa msimamo wa Bonaventura wa Bagnoregio kuhusu matumizi ya kifukara kweli: Ndugu Wadogo hawana haki ya kutumia vitu, ila wanaruhusiwa kuvitumia kadiri ya ufukara na uduni.

Ingawa hati hiyo ilitungwa kwa busara sana, baada ya kamati kabambe kuiandaa kwa miezi miwili, utekelezaji wake ukaja kusababisha mabishano makubwa kwa miaka mingi, kuanzia Ufaransa Kusini na Italia ya Kati.

Mwakilishi bora wa msimamo mkali ni Petro wa Yohane Olivi, aliyeunganisha pande hizo mbili tofauti: wa kwanza ulitegemea ujuzi mkubwa ukaathiri zaidi Kanisa kwa ufundishaji, uchungaji na uanzishaji wa jumuia za waamini zilizowaunga mkono; wa pili ulitegemea zaidi kumbukumbu chungu za wenzi wa Fransisko wa Asizi na matabiri juu ya dhuluma utawani ukaishia kuathiri shirika (hata kwa utunzi wa vitabu muhimu, hasa cha Ubertino wa Casale +1329), lakini pia kufanya umisionari mkubwa hadi India na kuuchochea kama sehemu ya uaminifu wao kwa kanuni.

Mabishano yalichangiwa na Mtumishi mkuu kukosekana muda mrefu au kulemewa na majukumu mengine kutoka kwa Papa.

Viongozi waliofuatana katika ngazi mbalimbali, mara walijaribu kukomesha vikali msimamo mkali, mara waliuunga mkono. Mapapa kadhaa walitumia nguvu, isipokuwa Papa Selestini V (1294), aliyetazamwa kuwa “Papa wa kimalaika” atakayeanzisha Kanisa la Kiroho. Yeye aliwaruhusu waliotaka wajitenge na “jumuia” (walivyojiita umati wa ndugu waliopenda maendeleo) wakaishi upwekeni wakifuata kanuni na wasia bila ya kujali matamko ya Kanisa. Ilikuwa mara ya kwanza kwa shirika kugawanyika.

Alipojiuzulu, mwandamizi wake Papa Bonifasi VIII (1295-1303) alifuta mara maamuzi yake yote, na katika miezi michache iliyofuata aliwaagiza hao Waselestini warudi shirikani, akamuondoa madarakani Mtumishi mkuu aliyewatetea, akamweka mwingine kinyume chao, akawakatalia wasikate rufaa kwake dhidi ya dhuluma.

Viongozi wao, nd. Liberato wa Fossombrone (+1307) na nd. Anjelo Klareno (+1337), walikimbilia Ugiriki wasije wakafungwa tena (waliwahi kukaa gerezani zaidi ya miaka 10).

Jina la ndugu “wa Kiroho” likawa na maana mpya baadhi yao walipopinga uongozi wa Kanisa, wakitangaza ubatili wa kujiuzulu kwa Selestini V na wa kuchaguliwa Bonifasi VIII; halafu wakadai Mapapa waliotoa matamko juu ya kanuni kuwa wazushi.

Kinyume na mtangulizi wake, Papa Klemensi V (1305-1314) alipenda kusikiliza wote, halafu akatoa (1312) tamko jipya juu ya kanuni ili kuondoa wasiwasi hasa kwa kubainisha amri za kanuni na kiasi ambacho zinawabana Ndugu Wadogo. Ingawa hakukubali msimamo wa ndugu “wa Kiroho” kuhusu mamlaka ya Kanisa juu ya kanuni, aliwaweka chini ya ulinzi wake; viongozi waliowadhulumu waliondolewa, na makosa dhidi ya ufukara yalirekebishwa ili kukwepa farakano. Lakini ikawa bure.

Maandishi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Falsafa na teolojia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Quaestiones in secundum librum Sententiarum, Bernhard Jansen (ed.). Quaracchi, Collegium S. Bonaventurae. 3 vols, 1922-1926 [= Summa Quaestionum, II].
  • Quaestio de angelicis influentiis, Ferdinand Delorme (ed.), in Bonaventura. Collationes in Hexaemeron et bonaventuriana quaedam selecta. Quaracchi, 1934, p. 363–412.
  • De perlegendis philosophorum libris, Ferdinand Delorme (ed.). Antonianum 16 (1941): 31-44.
  • Quid ponat ius vel dominium, Ferdinand Delorme (ed.). Antonianum 20 (1945): 309-330.
  • Quaestiones quatuor de Domina. Dionisio Pacetti (ed.). Quaracchi, Collegium S. Bonaventurae, 1954.
  • Quaestiones de incarnatione et redemptione. Quaestiones de virtutibus, Aquilino Emmen, Ernst Stadter (ed.). Grottaferrata, Collegium San Bonaventurae, 1981.
  • Question sur l'indulgence de la Portioncule, Pierre Péano, Archivum Franciscanum Historicum. 74 (1981): 64-76.
  • Quaestiones logicales, Stephen Brown (ed.). Traditio 42 (1986): 337-388.
  • Quodlibeta quinque, Stefano Defraia (ed.). Grottaferrata, Frati editori di Quaracchi, 2002.
  • Quaestiones de novissimis ex Summa super IV sententiarum, Pietro Maranesi (ed.). Grottaferrata: Editiones Collegii S. Bonaventurae, 2004.
  • Quaestio de locutionibus angelorum, Sylvain Piron (ed.). Oliviana, 1, 2003.
  • Tractatus de contractibus, in S. Piron (ed., trad.) Traité des contrats. Paris, Les Belles-Lettres, 2012.
  • Tractatus de Missa, S. Piron (ed.), Oliviana, 5, 2016 : http://oliviana.revues.org/817.

Ufafanuzi wa Biblia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Lectura super Lamentationum Ieremie, in Marco Bartoli. La Caduta di Gerusalemme. Il commento al Libro delle Lamentazioni di Pietro di Giovanni Olivi. Roma, ISIME, 1991.
  • Gedeon Gal, David Flood (ed.). Peter of John Olivi on the Bible. Principia quinque in Sacram Scripturam. Postilla in Isaiam et in I ad Corinthios, St Bonaventure (N. Y.), Franciscan Institute Publications, 1997.
  • Johannes Schlageter (ed.). Expositio in Canticum Canticorum, Grottaferrata, Frati editori di Quaracchi, 1999.
  • David Flood (ed.). Peter of John Olivi on the Acts of the Apostles. St Bonaventure (N. Y.), Franciscan Institute Publications, 2001.
  • Johannes Schlageter (ed.). Lectura super Proverbia, Lectura super Ecclesiasten. Grottaferrata, Frati editori di Quaracchi, 2003.
  • David Flood (ed.). Peter of John Olivi on Genesis. St Bonaventure (N. Y.), Franciscan Institute Publications, 2006.
  • Alain Boureau (ed.). Lecturae super Pauli Epistolas,, Brepols (Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Mediaevalis, 233), 2010.
  • Fortunato Iozzelli (ed.). Lectura Super Lucam et Lectura Super Marcum, Grottaferrata, Frati Editori di Quaracchi-Fondazione Collegio San Bonaventura, 2010.
  • Sylvain Piron (ed.). Lectura super Mattheum, prologus, Oliviana 4 (2012) : http://oliviana.revues.org/498.
  • Warren Lewis (ed.), Lectura super Apocalypsim, Saint Bonaventure (NY), Franciscan Institute Publications, 2015.
  • Alain Boureau (ed.), Lectura super Iob, Brepols (Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Mediaevalis, 275), 2015.

Kuhusu ukamilifu wa Kiinjili[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • QQPE 1-4 : Aquilinus Emmen, Feliciano Simoncioli. "La dottrina dell'Olivi sulla contemplazione, la vita attiva e mista". Studi Francescani. 60 (1963) : 382-445; 61 (1964): 108-167.
  • QPE 5 : Aquilinus Emmen, "La dottrina dell'Olivi sulla valore religioso dei voti". Studi Francescani. 63 (1966): 88-108.
  • QPE 6 : Aquilinus Emmen. "Verginità e matrimonio nella valutazione dell'Olivi". Studi Francescani, 64 (1967): 11-57.
  • QPE 8 : Johannes Schlageter. Das Heil der Armen und das Verderben der Reichen. Petrus Johannis Olivi, OFM, Die Frage nach der höchsten Armut. Werl i. Westaphalen, Coelde, 1989.
  • QPE 9 : David Burr. De usu paupere. The quaestio and the Tractatus, Firenze-Perth, Leo S. Olschki-University of Western Australia Press, 1992.
  • QPE 10/15 : David Flood. "Peter Olivi Quaestio de mendicitate, critical édition". Archivum Franciscanum Historicum. 87 (1994): 299-347.
  • QPE 11 : Quaestio de obedientia, in Gedeon Gal, David Flood (ed.). Peter of John Olivi on the Bible. Principia
  • QPE 12 : Michele Maccarone. "Una questione inedita dell'Olivi sull'infallibilità del Papa". Rivista della Chiesa in Italia. 3 (1949): 309-343.
  • QPE 13 : Livarius Oliger. "Petri Iohannis Olivi de renuntiatione papae Coelestini V quaestio et epistola". Archivum Franciscanum Historicum. 11 (1918): 340-366.
  • QPE 14 : Marco Bartoli. Quaestiones de Romano pontifice. Grottaferrata, Frati editori di Quaracchi, 2002.
  • QPE 16 : David Burr, David Flood. "Peter Olivi: On property and revenue". Franciscan Studies. 40 (1980): 18-58.
  • QPE 17 : Ferdinand Delorme. "Fr. P. J. Olivi questio de voto regulam aliquam profitentis". Antonianum. 16 (1941): 131-164.

Vitabu vya kutetea imani[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Damase Laberge. "Fr. Petri Iohannis Olivi, O.F.M., tria scripta sui ipsius apologetica annorum 1283 et 1285", Archivum Franciscanum Historicum. 28 (1935): 115-155, 374-407, 29 (1936): 98-141, 365-395
  • Epistola ad fratrem R.. Sylvain Piron, Elsa Marmursztejn, Cynthia Kilmer (ed.). Archivum Franciscanum Historicum. 91 (1998): 33-64.

Maandishi ya kiroho[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Modus quomodo quilibet postest referre gratias Deo de beneficiis ab eo receptis, Miles armatus, Informatio Petri Iohannis, Remedia contra temptationes spirituales dans Raoul Manselli. Spirituali e beghini in Provenza. Roma, ISIME, 1959, p. 274–290.
  • Antonio Montefusco. "L’opuscolo Miles armatus di Pierre de Jean Olieu. Edizione critica e commento". Studi Francescani. 108 (2011): 50-171.

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • David Burr, The Persecution of Peter Olivi, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, n.s., 66, part 5, 1976.
  • David Burr, Olivi and Franciscan Poverty: The Origins of the Usus Pauper Controversy. (Middle Ages Series.) Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989.
  • David Burr, Olivi's Peaceable Kingdom. A Reading of the Apocalypse Commentary, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993.
  • Alain Boureau et Sylvain Piron (éd.), Pierre de Jean Olivi. Pensée scolastique, dissidence spirituelle et société, Paris: Vrin, 1999.
  • Robert J. Karris, "Peter of John Olivi: Commentary on the Gospel of Mark", St. Bonaventure, NY: Franciscan Institute Publications, 2011. ISBN 978-1-57659-234-2Script error: No such module "check isxn"..
  • Catherine König-Pralong, Olivier Ribordy, Tiziana Suarez-Nani (dir.), Pierre de Jean Olivi. Philosophe et théologien, Berlin, De Gruyter (Scrinium Friburgense, 29), 2010 ; cf. S. Piron, Le métier de théologien selon Olivi. Philosophie, théologie, exégèse et pauvreté, pp. 17–85 - available on line : http://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00530925/
  • M. Landi, Uno dei contributi della Scolastica alla scienza economica contemporanea: la questione del giusto prezzo, o del valore delle merci, in Divus Thomas, anno 113° - 2010 - maggio/agosto, pp. 126–143.
  • Kevin Madigan, Olivi and the Interpretation of Matthew in the High Middle Ages, University of Notre Dame Press, 2003.
  • Antonio Montefusco, Per l’edizione degli opuscula di Pierre de Jean Olivi : sul corpus e la cronologia, Oliviana, 4 (2012), online : http://oliviana.revues.org/555
  • Sylvain Piron, Olivi et les averroïstes, Freiburger Zeitschrift für Philosophie und Theologie, 53-1 2006, pp. 251–309 - available on line : http://halshs.ccsd.cnrs.fr/halshs-00089021
  • Sylvain Piron, Censures et condamnation de Pierre de Jean Olivi : enquête dans les marges du Vatican, Mélanges de l'École française de Rome, Moyen Age, 118/2, 2006, pp. 313–373 - available on line : http://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00179543/

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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