Edward Tingatinga

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Edward Saidi Tingatinga (1937 - 1972) alikuwa na msanii Mtanzania aliyeanzisha mtindo wa uchoraji wa Tingatinga unaojulikana sana siku hizi na kutafutwa na wapenzi wa sanaa ya Tanzania kote duniani.

Maisha kabla ya sanaa[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kijiji kilichopo karibu na Namocheli alipozaliwa Edward Tingatinga

Alizaliwa 1937 Umakonde ila haijajulikana kama upande wa Tanzania au upande wa Msumbiji. Vijiji mbalimbali vimetajwa kama mahali pa kuzaliwa kwake kama vile Mindu, Namocheli (leo Nakapanya - vyote katika wilaya ya Tunduru) au Msumbiji. Anasemekana alisoma shule ya msingi ya misioni katoliki Nandembo.

Kati ya miaka 1955 na 1959 - habari zikitofautiana - alihamia Dar es Salaam.

Kufuatana na A. Lodhi aliyeongea na Tingatinga huyu alifanya kazi katika nyumba ya familia ya Kihindi waliokuwa Wahindu; hapa aliona mapambo ya picha za miungu na mitholojia ya Kihindu zilizomshawishi kuchora mwenyewe. Hivyo alitumia rangi nyeusi kuchora sheitani kwa sababu hii ni rangi yake katika picha za Kihindi.[1]

Kuchora kwa kujipatia chakula[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Siku zile alianza kuchora ingawa haijulikani ilikuwa kwa njia gani. Katika miaka ya 1960 aliuza picha zake barabarani kwa Shilingi 15 iliyokuwa sawa na bei ya mlo.

Mwaka 1968 baada ya kufunga ndoa na Agata Mataka alikazia uchoraji. Wengine walisema ya kwamba aliendelea na kazi ndogo kwenye hospitali ya Muhimbili ingawa hapa haijulikana alifanya kazi gani kamili na hadi lini.

Mtindo wa Tingatinga[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Wakati ule alianzisha mtindo wake. Badala ya karatasi alichora kwenye ubao aina ya "ceiling board" iliyokuwa rahisi lakini ni imara. Alikata vipande vya mraba vya futi 2x2. Akishirikiana na wadogo zake alianza kuchora picha za wanyama.

Mnamo mwaka 1970 Wazungu kutoka Skandinavia walianza kutafuta picha zake wakimsaidia kuhudhuria maonyesho ya biashara ya kwanza ya Dar es Salaam. Ghafla Tingatinga akawa maarufu, picha zake zilitafutwa na bei zikapanda. Picha zake zilikuwa uso wa sanaa ya Tanzania akawa mchoraji maarufu wa Afrika yote.

Kifo na ushirika wa Tingatinga[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Edward Tingatinga aliaga dunia mnamo mwaka 1972. Alipigwa risasi na polisi kimakosa akidhaniwa ni mhalifu. Alizikwa kwenye makaburi ya Msasani Mikoroshini mjini Dar es Salaam.

Ndugu zake waliendelea na mtindo wake wa uchoraji na wengine wengi walimfuata wakiiga mtindo huo. Mtindo wa uchoraji wa Tingatinga (Tingatinga painting) uliendelea kukua na kuwa kivutio kwa watalii nchini Tanzania, Kenya na Afrika Mashariki kwa ujumla.

Awali walikuwa na matatizo kwa sababu walifukuzwa mara nyingi toka mahali walipofanya kazi. Mwaka 1977 wachoraji Hashimi Mruta, Zaburi Muradi Chimwanda, Amonde, Tedo, Mpata, Amadi Saidi, Mchisa, Abasi, Salum Mussa, Mohamedi Saidi Chilamboni na Fr. J. Linda waliunda ushirika wa "TINGATINGA Partnership" wakaiandikisha serikalini. Mwenyekiti wa kwanza alikuwa Omari Amonde.

Washirika walijenga vibanda karibu na Morogoro Stores ambako picha zao ziliuzwa.

Ushirika ulibadilisha jina mwaka 1990 kuwa "Tingatinga Arts Cooperative Society Limited".

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. I spent one whole afternoon of late Decembeir 197l at the home of Tingatinga in Msasani/Daressalaam and interviewed him and his Zanzibar born wife (who wore the Muslim Swahili buibui veil) for the Swedish writer and journalist Elly Jannes who took notes; her daughter Elle Kari Hojeberg took a number of photographs. To date, Jannes and Höjeberg have not published anything on Tingatinga. According to Tingatinga, his paintings were mostly based on pictures and calendars with Hindu mythological figures and sequences which he had come across as a domestic servant in a practising Hindu family in Daressalaam. This was the only employment Tingatinga had after he arrived from Mozambique at the age of 16 until he started painting, which he was taught by his employer. Even the Shetani, the Devil (and other 'evil spirits') in his paintings, was given a black face after the Indian demon king Ravana. He admitted ,that in all the paintings in his possession at that time, the devil was painted black, and not white as is the custom in Eastern Africa; and he had seen this in Indian films which he frequently went to see at the cinema houses. Several copies of one white bungalow with a peacock and stylised flowers were also copied from Indian calendars; the bungalow was first drawn after the school building of St. Joseph's Convent in Daressalaam. Furthermore, Tingatinga did not hide the fact that he was signing all the paintings produced by his relatives and friends in the workshop in the backyard of his house. Lodhi uk. 76f

Viungo vya Nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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