Hospitali

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Hospitali ya Bumbuli.

Hospitali ni majengo yaliyokusudiwa kutibu wagonjwa; kwa ajili hiyo kuwa wataalamu wa afya pamoja na vifaa mbalimbali.

Hospitali nyingine zinalenga aina moja au chache tu za maradhi.

Nyingine pamoja na matibabu kwa wagonjwa zinaandaa madaktari na manesi wa kesho.

Baadhi ni za serikali, nyingine ni za binafsi, zikiwemo zile za dini na madhehebu mbalimbali.

Ni kwamba kihistoria, nyingi za zamani zilianzishwa na mashirika ya watawa.[1] Kuna mashirika ambayo yaliundwa kwa lengo hilo pekee la kuhudumia wagonjwa kiroho na kimwili, kama yale yaliyoanzishwa na Yohane wa Mungu na Kamili wa Lellis.

Jina linatokana na neno la Kilatini hospes, likiwa na maana ya mgeni, halafu neno hospitium lenye maana ya mapokezi.[2] Ni kwa sababu nyumba za huduma zilikuwa zikipokea wageni wa kila aina, wakiwemo wagonjwa.

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Hall, Daniel (December 2008). "Altar and Table: A phenomenology of the surgeon-priest". Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 81 (4). "Although physicians were available in varying capacities in ancient Rome and Athens, the institution of a hospital dedicated to the care of the sick was a distinctly Christian innovation rooted in the monastic virtue and practise of hospitality. Arranged around the monastery were concentric rings of buildings in which the life and work of the monastic community was ordered. The outer ring of buildings served as a hostel in which travellers were received and boarded. The inner ring served as a place where the monastic community could care for the sick, the poor, and the infirm. Monks were frequently familiar with the medicine available at that time, growing medicinal plants on the monastery grounds and applying remedies as indicated. As such, many of the practicing physicians of the Middle Ages were also clergy.".
  2. Cassell's Latin Dictionary, revised by Marchant, J & Charles J., 260th. Thousand.

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Brockliss, Lawrence, and Colin Jones. "The Hospital in the Enlightenment," in The Medical World of Early Modern France (Oxford UP, 1997), pp. 671–729; covers France 1650–1800
  • Chaney, Edward (2000),"'Philanthropy in Italy': English Observations on Italian Hospitals 1545–1789", in: The Evolution of the Grand Tour: Anglo-Italian Cultural Relations since the Renaissance, 2nd ed. London, Routledge, 2000. http://books.google.co.uk/books/about/The_evolution_of_the_grand_tour.html?id=rYB_HYPsa8gC
  • Connor, J. T. H. "Hospital History in Canada and the United States," Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, 1990, Vol. 7 Issue 1, pp 93–104
  • Crawford, D.S. Bibliography of Histories of Canadian hospitals and schools of nursing.
  • Gorsky, Martin. "The British National Health Service 1948–2008: A Review of the Historiography," Social History of Medicine, Dec 2008, Vol. 21 Issue 3, pp 437–460
  • Harrison, Mar, et al. eds. From Western Medicine to Global Medicine: The Hospital Beyond the West (2008)
  • Horden, Peregrine. Hospitals and Healing From Antiquity to the Later Middle Ages (2008)
  • McGrew, Roderick E. Encyclopedia of Medical History (1985)
  • Morelon, Régis; Rashed, Roshdi (1996), Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science 3, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-12410-7 
  • Porter, Roy. The Hospital in History, with Lindsay Patricia Granshaw (1989) ISBN 978-0-415-00375-9
  • Risse, Guenter B. Mending Bodies, Saving Souls: A History of Hospitals (1999), 716pp; world coverage excerpt and text search
  • Rosenberg, Charles E. The Care of Strangers: The Rise of America's Hospital System (1995) history to 1920 table of contents and text search
  • Scheutz, Martin et al. eds. Hospitals and Institutional Care in Medieval and Early Modern Europe (2009)
  • Wall, Barbra Mann. American Catholic Hospitals: A Century of Changing Markets and Missions (Rutgers University Press, 2011). 238 pp. ISBN 978-0-8135-4940-8

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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