Kleri

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Rukia: urambazaji, tafuta
Wakleri watatu: askofu mkuu Carey wa Kanisa Anglikana, Rabbi Sacks wa Umoja wa Masinagogi ya Jumuiya ya Madola, mufti mkuu Ceric wa Bosnia, wakiwa pamoja na J. Wallis, mhariri wa gazeti la Kiinjili "Sojournes", Marekani.
Daraja takatifu tatu za Kanisa la Kiorthodoksi zinavyojitokeza katika liturujia ya Kimungu: askofu (kulia, kwenye altare, nyuma ya ukuta wa picha), padri (kushoto), na mashemasi wawili (waliovaa rangi ya dhahabu).
Wakleri Waorthodoksi wa Ethiopia wakiongoza maandamano ya Mt. Mikaeli Malaika Mkuu.

Kleri ni kundi la watu wanaoongoza dini fulani. Jina linatokana na neno la Kigiriki "κλῆρος" - klēros, "bahati", "sudi" au also "urithi".

Katika madhehebu mengi ya Ukristo kleri ina daraja takatifu tatu: kuanzia juu ni uaskofu, upadri na ushemasi. Hata hivyo baadhi yao wanapewa pia majina mengine kulingana na huduma zao, kwa mfano: Papa, kardinali, monsinyori, abati, kanoni, arkimandrita n.k.

Katika Uislamu hakuna ukuhani, hivyo uongozi unategemea tu elimu ya dini: kuna mufti, imamu, ustadhi n.k.

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Aston, Nigel. Religion and revolution in France, 1780-1804 (CUA Press, 2000)
  • Bremer, Francis J. Shaping New Englands: Puritan Clergymen in Seventeenth-Century England and New England (Twayne, 1994)
  • Dutt, Sukumar. Buddhist monks and monasteries of India (London: G. Allen and Unwin, 1962)
  • Farriss, Nancy Marguerite. Crown and clergy in colonial Mexico, 1759-1821: The crisis of ecclesiastical privilege (Burns & Oates, 1968)
  • Ferguson, Everett. The Early Church at Work and Worship: Volume 1: Ministry, Ordination, Covenant, and Canon (Casemate Publishers, 2014)
  • Freeze, Gregory L. The Parish Clergy in Nineteenth-Century Russia: Crisis, Reform, Counter-Reform (Princeton University Press, 1983)
  • Haig, Alan. The Victorian Clergy (Routledge, 1984), in England
  • Holifield, E. Brooks. God's ambassadors: a history of the Christian clergy in America (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2007), a standard scholarly history
  • Lewis, Bonnie Sue. Creating Christian Indians: Native Clergy in the Presbyterian Church (University of Oklahoma Press, 2003)
  • Marshall, Peter. The Catholic Priesthood and the English Reformation (Clarendon Press, 1994)
  • Osborne, Kenan B. Priesthood: A history of ordained ministry in the Roman Catholic Church (Paulist Press, 1989), a standard scholarly history
  • Parry, Ken, ed. The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity (John Wiley & Sons, 2010)
  • Sanneh, Lamin. "The origins of clericalism in West African Islam." The Journal of African History 17.01 (1976): 49-72.
  • Schwarzfuchs, Simon. A concise history of the rabbinate (Blackwell, 1993), a standard scholarly history
  • Zucker, David J. American rabbis: Facts and fiction (Jason Aronson, 1998)

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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