Uliberali

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Rukia: urambazaji, tafuta
Agreement of the People (1647) ilikuwa tangazo la mabadiliko yaliyopendekezwa na kundi la Levellers wakati wa Vita vya wenyewe kwa wenyewe Uingereza.
Bill of Rights ya mwaka 1689 ni hatua muhimu katika upatikanaji wa sheria za kiliberali.

Uliberali ni falsafa, mtazamo au msimamo wa kupenda uhuru na usawa katika jamii.

Falsafa hiyo imebadilikabadilika katika mfululizo wa nyakati kuanzia msisitizo juu ya ubinafsi hadi ule juu ya ustawi wa jamii.[1]

Vilevile Waliberali wanatofuatiana kadiri ya nchi husika, lakini kwa jumla wanatetea uhuru wa dhamiri, uhuru wa dini, uhuru wa mawazo, uhuru wa kusema na kuandika, haki za kiraia, demokrasia, serikali kutokuwa na dini maalumu na ushirikiano wa kimataifa.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8]

Asili ya jina[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mzizi wa jina hilo ni neno la Kilatini liber, yaani "huru".[9]

Historia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Uliberali ulijitokeza kwa mara ya kwanza katika siasa wakati wa Falsafa ya Mwangaza (Enlightenment), ambapo ilikubaliwa na wanafalsafa na wachumi wengi katika nchi za Magharibi dhidi ya mila za usharifu, dini rasmi na ufalme usio na katiba.

Mwanafalsafa wa karne ya 17 John Locke huko Uingereza ndiye anayehesabiwa mara nyingi kama mwanzilishi wa uliberali. Locke alitetea hoja ya kwamba kila mtu ana haki asili za kuishi, kuwa huru na kumiliki,[10] akiongeza kwamba serikali hazitakiwi kutenda kinyume cha haki hizo.

Falsafa hiyo ilichangia mapinduzi katika nchi mbalimbali, kama vile Mapinduzi ya Marekani na Mapinduzi ya Kifaransa na baada ya hapo ilienea haraka Ulaya na Amerika.[11]

Katika karne ya 20, Uliberali ulizidi kuenea kutokana na ushindi wa nchi zilizoufuata katika vita vikuu vyote viwili.[12][13]

Hadi leo, vyama vya Kiliberali vinaendelea kutawala au kuathiri nchi mbalimbali duniani kote, na ubepari, kama tokeo la kulinda sana soko huria kwa msingi wa uliberali, ndio mfumo wa uchumi ulioenea karibu duniani kote baada ya ukomunisti kushindikana Urusi na katika nchi nyingine kadhaa.

Hata hivyo hoja nyingi zinazidi kutolewa dhidi ya ubepari na uliberali kwa jumla, kutokana na kuacha umati wa watu pembezoni mwa jamii kwa kuzidiwa katika ushindani usioratibiwa kati ya nchi zilizoendelea na nchi zinazoendelea, watu tajiri na mafukara.

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Russell 2000, pp. 577–8; Young 2002, p. 39.
  2. The Liberal Agenda for the 21st Century. Iliwekwa mnamo 2015-03-20.
  3. Nader Hashemi (2009-03-11). Islam, Secularism, and Liberal Democracy: Toward a Democratic Theory for Muslim Societies. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199717514. “Liberal democracy requires a form of secularism to sustain itself” 
  4. Kathleen G. Donohue (2003-12-19). Freedom from Want: American Liberalism and the Idea of the Consumer (New Studies in American Intellectual and Cultural History). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 9780801874260. Retrieved on 2007-12-31. “Three of them – freedom from fear, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion – have long been fundamental to liberalism.” 
  5. (1996) The Economist, Volume 341, Issues 7995-7997. The Economist. Retrieved on 2007-12-31. “For all three share a belief in the liberal society as defined above: a society that provides constitutional government (rule by laws, not by men) and freedom of religion, thought, expression and economic interaction; a society in which ...” 
  6. Sehldon S. Wolin (2004). Politics and Vision: Continuity and Innovation in Western Political Thought. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691119779. Retrieved on 2007-12-31. “While liberalism practically disappeared as a publicly professed ideology, it retained a virtual monopoly in the ... The most frequently cited rights included freedom of speech, press, assembly, religion, property, and procedural rights” 
  7. Edwin Brown Firmage, Bernard G. Weiss, John Woodland Welch (1990). Religion and Law: Biblical-Judaic and Islamic Perspectives. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 9780931464393. Retrieved on 2007-12-31. “There is no need to expound here the foundations and principles of modern liberalism, which emphasises the values of freedom of conscience and freedom of religion” 
  8. John Joseph Lalor (1883). Cyclopædia of Political Science, Political Economy, and of the Political History of the United States. Nabu Press. Retrieved on 2007-12-31. “Democracy attaches itself to a form of government: liberalism, to liberty and guarantees of liberty. The two may agree; they are not contradictory, but they are neither identical, nor necessarily connected. In the moral order, liberalism is the liberty to think, recognised and practiced. This is primordial liberalism, as the liberty to think is itself the first and noblest of liberties. Man would not be free in any degree or in any sphere of action, if he were not a thinking being endowed with consciousness. The freedom of worship, the freedom of education, and the freedom of the press are derived the most directly from the freedom to think.” 
  9. Gross, p. 5.
  10. "All mankind...being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessions", John Locke, Second Treatise of Government
  11. New Liberalism: Matthew Kalkman: 9781926991047: Amazon.com: Books. 
  12. Often referred to simply as "liberalism" in the United States.
  13. Liberalism in America: A Note for Europeans by Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. (1956) from: The Politics of Hope (Boston: Riverside Press, 1962).

    Liberalism in the U.S. usage has little in common with the word as used in the politics of any other country, save possibly Britain.

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Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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