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Ubinafsi

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Kibonzo cha Max Stirner kilichochorwa na Friedrich Engels. Stirner alisifu sana ubinafsi.

Ubinafsi (kwa Kiingereza "individualism") ni tabia ya kujipendea mno hata kutojali wengine na shida zao. Kwa tafsiri chanya zaidi ni mazoea ya kutotegemea wengine na kujifuatilia maishani.

Tabia hiyo imeanza kushika duniani baada ya maendeleo makubwa ya kiuchumi ambayo yalileta hali ya maisha ambapo watu hawakutegemeana sana.

Bila shaka ubinafsi umesaidia watu kufikiria wenyewe na labda ulichangia utendaji. Lakini pia imeleta matatizo mengi katika maisha ya jamii zote, kuanzia familia, ikizuia uenezi wa mapendo hata kuonekana kama choyo. Kwa sababu hiyo inapingwa na maadili na dini mbalimbali, hasa Ukristo.

Hata hivyo katika historia imepewa sifa na wanafalsafa na wanasiasa kadhaa. Hasa katika ustaarabu wa magharibi, wanafalsafa walisifia ubinafsi kama tunu kuu ya utamaduni wao. Hasa katika karne ya 17 mpaka ya 19, watu walishikilia ubinafsi kwenye enzi ya "falsafa ya Mwangaza".

Siku hizi nchi za magharibi zinaelezewa kama zile zenye ubinafsi zaidi. Inasemekana mara kwa mara ya kwamba watu wa magharibi wana huzuni zaidi hata mpaka mataifa hayo yanajaribu kushugulikia watu wao wasisikie upweke ama wasifikirie kujiua.

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Albrecht, James M. (2012) Reconstructing Individualism : A Pragmatic Tradition from Emerson to Ellison. Fordham University Press.
  • Brown, L. Susan (1993). The Politics of Individualism: Liberalism, Liberal Feminism, and Anarchism. Black Rose Books.
  • Dewey, John. (1930). Individualism Old and New.
  • Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1847). Self-Reliance. London: J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd.
  • Gagnier, Regenia. (2010). Individualism, Decadence and Globalization: On the Relationship of Part to Whole, 1859–1920. Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Dumont, Louis (1986). Essays on Individualism: Modern Ideology in Anthropological Perspective. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-16958-8.
  • Lukes, Steven (1973). Individualism. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-631-14750-0.
  • Meiksins Wood, Ellen. (1972). Mind and Politics: An Approach to the Meaning of Liberal and Socialist Individualism. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-02029-4
  • Renaut, Alain (1999). The Era of the Individual. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-02938-5.
  • Shanahan, Daniel. (1991) Toward a Genealogy of Individualism. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 0-87023-811-6.
  • Watt, Ian. (1996) Myths of Modern Individualism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-48011-6.
  • Barzilai, Gad. (2003). Communities and Law. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-11315-1.
  • Fruehwald, Edwin, "A Biological Basis of Rights", 19 Southern California Interdisciplinary Law Journal 195 (2010).