Ubepari

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Rukia: urambazaji, tafuta
Injini kama hii, iliyotegemea makaa, ilisukuma mapinduzi ya viwanda huko Britania.
Tangazo la ubora wa ubepari.

Ubepari ni mfumo wa uchumi ambamo biashara, viwanda na vitegauchumi vingine vinatawaliwa na watu binafsi kwa kiasi kikubwa na kwa lengo la kupata faida. Nafasi ya serikali ni ndogo. Vilevile lengo la kuhudumia jamii katika mahitaji yake haliongozi mipango.[1][2]

Kati ya sifa za ubepari kuna ulimbikizaji wa mtaji, ushindani katika soko huria na kazi zinazolipwa mshahara.[3]

Katika mfumo huo, pande zinazokabiliana zinapanga zenyewe bei kwa makubaliano, bila kuingiliwa na mamlaka yoyote ya nje.[4]

Ubepari una viwango tofauti vya uhuru huo, kadiri ya nchi:[5]Kiingereza kinaainisha laissez-faire capitalism, welfare capitalism, crony capitalism na state capitalism.[6]

Historia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kihistoria, ubepari uliwahi kuwepo tangu zamani kwa namna mbalimbali, lakini ulianza kutawala baada ya mifumo ya Karne za Kati za Ulaya kupitwa na wakati na mapinduzi ya viwanda kushika kasi. Ubeberu, ukoloni, halafu utandawazi vimefanya ubepari uenee duniani kote.[7]

Katika karne ya 20 ubepari ulishindana na mfumo mbadala wa ukomunisti ambao ulitia mkazo juu ya majukumu ya serikali katika uchumi mpaka kuwanyima wananchi nafasi ya kuwajibika. Hata hivyo, baada ya kushinda,[8][9] [10]ubepari pia umeingiza uchumi wa dunia katika hali tete, kama ilivyojitokeza mwanzoni mwa karne ya 21.

Watetezi wa ubepari wanasisitiza kwamba mfumo huo unaleta ustawi wa jamii ulio mkubwa kuliko ule unaoletwa na mifumo mingine yoyote, kiasi kwamba hatimaye wote wanafaidika, si matajiri tu.[11] Critics of capitalism variously associate it with economic instability,[12]

Wengi wanapinga hoja hiyo kwa kuonyesha umati unaokosa kazi na huduma za msingi kutokana na pesa kutiwa maanani kuliko binadamu na mazingira kutumika kuliko uwezo wake wa kustahimili.[13][14]. Kanisa Katoliki limejitokeza kwa namna ya pekee kati ya dini mbalimbali kukosoa ubepari [15][16][17][18] kama ulivyokosoa na hatimaye kuangusha ukomunisti wa Ulaya Mashariki (1989) likiongozwa na Papa Yohane Paulo II.[19][20]

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. “Capitalism” Oxford Dictionaries. “capitalism. an economic and political system in which a country’s trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.” Retrieved 4 January 2013.
  2. Chris Jenks. Core Sociological Dichotomies. “Capitalism, as a mode of production, is an economic system of manufacture and exchange which is geared toward the production and sale of commodities within a market for profit, where the manufacture of commodities consists of the use of the formally free labor of workers in exchange for a wage to create commodities in which the manufacturer extracts surplus value from the labor of the workers in terms of the difference between the wages paid to the worker and the value of the commodity produced by him/her to generate that profit.” London, England, UK; Thousand Oaks, California, USA; New Delhi, India: SAGE. p. 383.
  3. Heilbroner, Robert L. "capitalism." Durlauf, Steven N.and Lawrence E. Blume, eds., The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. 2nd ed. (Palgrave Macmillan, 2008) doi:10.1057/9780230226203.0198
  4. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/capitalism "an economic system characterized by private or corporate ownership of capital goods, by investments that are determined by private decision, and by prices, production, and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly by competition in a free market"
  5. Macmillan Dictionary of Modern Economics, 3rd Ed., 1986, p. 54.
  6. Stilwell, Frank. “Political Economy: the Contest of Economic Ideas.” First Edition. Oxford University Press. Melbourne, Australia. 2002.
  7. (2007) Globalization and Economy, Vol. 1: Global Markets and Capitalism. London: Sage Publications. 
  8. (2006) Capitalism. Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  9. James Fulcher, Capitalism, A Very Short Introduction, “In one respect there can, however, be little doubt that capitalism has gone global and that is in the elimination of alternative systems.” p. 99, Oxford University Press, 2004, ISBN 978-0-19-280218-7.
  10. (2007) Globalization and Economy, Vol. 1: Global Markets and Capitalism. London: Sage Publications, xxiii. 
  11. Friedman, Milton. Capitalism and Freedom. [Chicago]: University of Chicago, 1962.
  12. Krugman, Paul, Wells, Robin, Economics, Worth Publishers, New York, (2006)
  13. McMurty, John (1999). The Cancer Stage of Capitalism. PLUTO PRESS. ISBN 0-7453-1347-7. 
  14. The Rise of Capitalism, 2011. Socialist Standard, no. 1284, August 2011.
  15. Caritas in veritate paragraph 36
  16. III. The Social Doctrine of the Church. The Vatican. Iliwekwa mnamo 26 February 2008.
  17. O'Leary, Naomi, "Pope Attacks 'Tyranny' of Markets in Manifesto for Papacy". Reuters (November 2013) Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  18. Zachary A. Goldfarb and Michelle Boorstein (26 November 2013). Pope Francis denounces ‘trickle-down’ economic theories in critique of inequality. The Washington Post. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  19. The first world leader. The Guardian (4 April 2005). Iliwekwa mnamo 4 November 2013.
  20. The Associated Press (2012). Poles worried, proud of Pope John Paul II 10/13/03. web.archive.org. Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 4 April 2004. Iliwekwa mnamo 28 January 2012.

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

      . http://www.themontrealreview.com/2009/The-current-crisis-and-the-essence-of-capitalism.php.

Marejeo mengine[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Commons-logo.svg
Wikimedia Commons ina media kuhusu:
ThreeCoins.svg Makala hii kuhusu mambo ya uchumi bado ni mbegu.
Je, unajua kitu kuhusu Ubepari kama historia yake au mahusiano yake na mada nyingine?
Labda unaona habari katika Wikipedia ya Kiingereza au lugha nyingine zinazofaa kutafsiriwa?
Basi unaweza kuisaidia Wikipedia kwa kuihariri na kuongeza habari.