Namba ya mnyama

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Namba ya mnyama ni 666, mchoro wa William Blake.

Namba ya mnyama (kwa Kigiriki: Ἀριθμὸς τοῦ θηρίου) inayotajwa katika Ufunuo 13:18 humrejea Mpinga-Kristo.

Katika nakala nyingi za mstari huo, namba hiyo ni 666 inayoandikwa χξϛ (ambamo χ ni sawa na 600, ξni sawa na 60 na ϛ ni sawa na 6) [1] ila katika nyingine za zamani, kama vile Papyrus 115, namba yake ni 616.[2]

Maneno yenyewe ya kitabu hicho ni haya: "Hapa ndipo penye hekima. Yeye aliye na akili, na aihesabu hesabu ya mnyama huyo; maana ni hesabu ya kibinadamu. Na hesabu yake ni mia sita, sitini na sita." [3][4]

Katika historia ya Kanisa, changamoto hiyo ilipokewa na wengi kwa matokeo tofauti sana. Kwa kawaida waliojaribu kufafanua maana ya neno hilo la fumbo walilenga wapinzani wao ili kuonyesha kwamba walitabiriwa kuwa wabaya sana. Kwa mfano madhehebu ya Kikristo yalipogombana, kila upande uliweza kutafuta namna ya kutafsiri namba hiyo hivi kwamba iwataje wale wa upande wa pili.

Mojawapo kati ya kofia za Papa.

Maarufu sana ni jaribio la baadhi ya Waprotestanti[5], hasa wa Marekani[6][7][8][9], la kusema huyo mnyama ni Papa wa Kanisa Katoliki kwa kuwa anadai kuwa wakili wa Yesu Kristo duniani[10]. Hivyo wakatunga wenyewe jina la Kilatini "Vicarius Filii Dei" (yaani "Makamu wa Mwana wa Mungu") na hata kusema jina au namba hiyo vimo katika kofia ya Papa. Halafu wakahesabu herufi chache za jina hilo ambazo zina thamani ya namba katika Kilatini na kupata namba 666.

Wakatoliki waliweza kujibu kwamba hakuna mtu mpumbavu kiasi cha kuandika katika kofia ya Papa namba ambayo imtambulishe kama Mpinga-Kristo: kati ya kofia 20 za Papa zilizotufikia, hakuna hata moja yenye jina hilo[11][12]. Pia kwamba Mtume Yohane hakujua Kilatini, na kwa vyovyote watumiaji wa lugha hiyo hawakuwa na desturi ya kuhesabu namba za majina, kwa sababu herufi nyingi za Kilatini hazikuwa pia tarakimu, isipokuwa zile ambazo wote tumejifunza shuleni kama namba za Kirumi, yaani I = 1, V = 5, X = 10, L = 50, C = 100, D = 500, M = 1,000.

Sanamu ya Nero katika Musei Capitolini, Roma.

Kumbe, tofauti na Kilatini na lugha nyingi, hasa za sasa, katika alfabeti za awali, kama ile ya Kiebrania na ile ya Kigiriki, kila herufi ilikuwa pia tarakimu iliyoweza kujumlishwa na ile ya herufi nyingine. Ndiyo sababu wasemaji wa lugha hizo walipenda kuhesabu herufi na kupata namba ya mtu. Kwa mfano, katika Kiebrania, jina Daudi linaandikwa דוד (DWD), ambamo herufi ya kwanza na ya mwisho ni ד (dalet), yenye thamani ya 4, na herufi ya katikati ni ו (waw) yenye thamani ya 6. Hivyo namba ya Daudi ni 14 = 4 + 6 + 4.

Kiebrania (au Kiaramu) na Kigiriki ndizo lugha alizozijua Yohane, hivyo tukitaka kuelewa alimaanisha nini, lazima tuangalie katika lugha hizo, ambazo ziliwezesha kuhesabu tarakimu zote.

Maelezo yanayokubalika zaidi[13][14][15][16][17][18][19] ni kwamba namba 666 ilimdokeza Kaisari Nero, wa kwanza kudhulumu Kanisa (64-68), kwa kuwa jina lake la Kigiriki likiandikwa kwa herufi za Kiebrania, jumla yake ni 666, na jina lake la Kilatini likiandikwa kwa herufi za Kiebrania, jumla yake ni 616. [20]

Huko Wadi Murabba'at limepatikana gombo lenye kutaja mwaka wa kuandikwa, yaani "mwaka wa pili wa Kaisari Nero", likitaja hivi pamoja jina na cheo chake.[21] Kwa Kiebrania ni Nron Qsr ("Nerōn Kaisar"). au Nro Qsr ("Nerō Kaisar").

Nron Qsr

Kutokana na Kigiriki inaandikwa נרון קסר, na kuwa na thamani ya 666,[21] kama ifuatavyo:

Resh (ר) Samekh (ס) Qoph (ק) Nun (נ) Vav (ו) Resh (ר) Nun (נ) Jumla
200 60 100 50 6 200 50 666
Nro Qsr

Kutokana na Kilatini inaandikwa נרון קסר, na kuwa na thamani ya 616,[13] kama ifuatavyo: ו קסר}}, yielding 616:[13]

Resh (ר) Samekh (ס) Qoph (ק) Vav (ו) Resh (ר) Nun (נ) Jumla
200 60 100 6 200 50 616

Basi, Yohane hakupenda kumtaja wazi Nero, pia kwa sababu aliandika akiwa uhamishoni katika kisiwa cha Patmos kutokana na dhuluma ya kaisari Domitian[22] aliyetazamwa kama Nero aliyerudia kuishi[23][24], basi alimtaja kifumbo tu, labda akimaanisha pia huyo Domitian kama Nero mpya[25][26][27].

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Beale, Gregory K. (1999). The Book of Revelation: A Commentary on the Greek Text. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 718. ISBN 080282174X. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
  2. Novum Testamentum Graece, Nestle and Aland, 1991, footnote to verse 13:18 of Revelation, page 659: " -σιοι δέκα ἕξ" as found in C [C=Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus]; for English see Metzger's Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament, note on verse 13:18 of Revelation, page 750: "the numeral 616 was also read ..."
  3. https://sifalyrics.com/Biblia/Revelation%20-13
  4. Samuel Fuller, The Revelation of St. John the Divine self-interpreted, page 226
  5. A Treatise on the Power and Primacy of the Pope Archived 24 Septemba 2008 at the Wayback Machine., a Lutheran Confession in the Book of Concord
  6. Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary, 223
  7. Smith, Uriah. "The Two-Horned Beast - A Review of H. E. Carver.", Review and Herald, 1866. 
  8. Uriah Smith, The United States in the Light of Prophecy. Battle Creek, Michigan: Seventh-day Adventist Publishing Association (1884), 4th edition, p.224.
  9. Kinyume chake mwanahistoria Msabato Le Roy Froom: "The Query Column: Dubious Pictures of the Tiara". Ministry, vol. 10, no. 21. p.35. November, 1948
  10. St. Peter. Saints and Angels. Catholic Online.
  11. Patrick Madrid. "Pope Fiction". Envoy magazine, March/April 1998
  12. http://www.contestandotupregunta.org/Usaba_papa_666_corona_1.html
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Cory, Catherine A. (2006). The Book of Revelation. Liturgical Press, 61. ISBN 978-0-8146-2885-0. 
  14. (1997) Revelation. London.: Routledge, 86. ISBN 978-0-415-14641-8. 
  15. (2005) The Catholic Youth Bible: New American Bible including the revised Psalms and the revised New Testament, rev., Saint Mary's Press. ISBN 978-0-88489-798-9. “Translated from the original languages with critical use of all the ancient sources.” 
  16. Just, Felix (2 February 2002). 666: The Number of the Beast.
  17. Hillers, D.R. (1963). "Revelation 13:18 and a Scroll from Murabba'at". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 170 (170): 65. doi:10.2307/1355990 .
  18. (1990) The New Jerome Biblical Commentary. Prentice-Hall, 1009. 
  19. Head, Peter M. (2000). "Some recently published NT papyri from Oxyrhynchus: An overview and preliminary assessment". Tyndale Bulletin 51: 1–16. http://www.tyndale.cam.ac.uk/Tyndale/staff/Head/NTOxyPap.htm#_ftn39. Some recently published NT papyri from Oxyrhynchus. Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 2011-07-06. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-01-02.
  20. 666 – professors explain Roulette and Nero in detail; numberphile.com. Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 2013-03-31. Iliwekwa mnamo 2017-03-19.
  21. 21.0 21.1 Hillers, D.R. (1963). Revelation 13:18 and a Scroll from Murabba'at 170. BASOR, 65. 
  22. (1998) in Stravinskas, Peter M.J.: Our Sunday Visitor's Catholic Encyclopedia. Our Sunday Visitor Publishing, 861. ISBN 978-0879736699. 
  23. Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus. [no title cited]. 
    Publius Cornelius Tacitus. Historiae. 
    Lucius Cassius Dio. Historia Romana. 
  24. Nero as the Antichrist. University of Chicago.
  25. Burkett, Delbert Royce (10 July 2002). An Introduction to the New Testament and the Origins of Christianity, 510. ISBN 9780521007207. 
  26. Ashe, Geoffrey (2001). Encyclopedia of prophecy, 204. ISBN 9781576070796. 
  27. Rhoads, David M.. From Every People and Nation: The Book of Revelation in intercultural perspective, 193. ISBN 9781451406184.