Fidla

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Rukia: urambazaji, tafuta
Fidla ya kisasa

Fidla (ing. fiddle, pia: violini) ni ala ya muziki yenye nyuzi. Idadi ya nyuzi ni 4 zinazopigwa kwa uta. Nyuzi zinawekwa kwa kawaida kwa noti za G, D, A, and E.[2].

Muundo wa fidla na matumizi yake[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Fidla hufanywa kwa mwili wa mwangwi na shingo. Nyaya hufungwa juu kwenye shingo na hapo zinaweza kukazwa kwa hesi. Upande wa juu wa mwili kuna mashimo mawili yenye umbo la S nyembamba.

Fidla inashikwa na mchezaji baina ya bega na kidevu.

Kwa kawaida mkono wa kuume hushika uta na kuiteleza kwenye waya na hivyo kutoasauti. Uta ni kama upinde na kuna riboni kati ya ncha za upinde.Riboni hufanywa kwa nywele za farasi.

Vidole vya mkono mwingine husogeza juu ya nyaya na kubadilisha sauti kwa kukaza waya mahali mbalimbali.

Kyoko Yonemoto anapiga Paganini

Historia ya fidla[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Fidla zilibuniwa katika Ulaya ya Kusini takriban miaka 1000 iliyopita kama nakala ndogo za ala za nyaya kubwa zaidi. Fidla kwa umbo la kisasa zimepatikana tangu karne ya 16 na mwanzoni zilikuwa na nyaya 3 pekee lakini tangu mnamo mwaka 1600 zilikuwa kimsingi sawa na ala za leo. Maendeleo haya yalitokea katika Italia ya kaskazini. Baadaye mabadiliko madogo yaliendelea kufanywa.

Mafundi mashuhuri waliotengeneza fidla walikuwa pamoja na familia za Stradivari, Guarneri na Amati katika Italia za karne za 16 hadi 18 huko Brescia na Cremona na akina Jakob Stainer huko Austria. Ala zilizojengwa nao zinatafutwa hadi leo na kutumiwa kwa muziki ya kihistoria.

Watungaji muziki wote mashuhuri wa Ulaya walitunga muziki kwa ajili ya fidla, ama katika okestra au pia kama ala ya pekee.

Kadri jinsi fidla ilipendwa na idadi ya wapiga fidla iliongezeka pamoja na mahitaji ya idadi kubwa ya ala. Kwa hiyo fidla za bei nafuu zilitengenezwa katika viwanda vidogo. Mwaka 1888 kiwanda cha kwanza cha fidla kilianzishwa nchini Japani.


Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Viol and Lute Makers of Venice 1490 -1630 , by Stefano Pio (2012), Venezia Ed. Venice research, ISBN 978-88-907252-0-3
  • Violin and Lute Makers of Venice 1640 - 1760 , by Stefano Pio (2004), Venezia Ed. Venice research, ISBN 978-88-907252-2-7
  • Liuteri & Sonadori, Venice 1750 - 1870 , by Stefano Pio (2002), Venezia Ed. Venice research, ISBN 978-88-907252-1-0
  • The Violin Forms of Antonio Stradivari, by Stewart Pollens (1992), London: Peter Biddulph. ISBN 0-9520109-0-9
  • Principles of Violin Playing and Teaching, by Ivan Galamian (1999), Shar Products Co. ISBN 0-9621416-3-1
  • The Contemporary Violin: Extended Performance Techniques, by Patricia and Allen Strange (2001), University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22409-4
  • The Violin: Its History and Making, by Karl Roy (2006), ISBN ISBN 978-1-4243-0838-5
  • The Fiddle Book, by Marion Thede (1970), Oak Publications. ISBN 0-8256-0145-2
  • Latin Violin, by Sam Bardfeld, ISBN 0-9628467-7-5
  • The Canon of Violin Literature, by Jo Nardolillo (2012), Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-7793-7
  • The Violin Explained - Components Mechanism and Sound by James Beament (1992/1997), Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-816623-0
  • Antonio Stradivari, his life and work, 1644-1737', by William Henry Hill; Arthur F Hill; Alfred Ebsworth Hill (1902/1963), Dover Publications. 1963. OCLC 172278. ISBN 0-486-20425-1
  • An Encyclopedia of the Violin, by Alberto Bachmann (1965/1990), Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80004-7
  • Violin - And Easy Guide, by Chris Coetzee (2003), New Holland Publishers. ISBN 1-84330-332-9
  • The Violin, by Yehudi Menuhin (1996), Flammarion. ISBN 2-08-013623-2
  • The Book of the Violin, edited by Dominic Gill (1984), Phaidon. ISBN 0-7148-2286-8
  • Violin-Making as it was, and is, by Edward Heron-Allen (1885/1994), Ward Lock Limited. ISBN 0-7063-1045-4
  • Violins & Violinists, by Franz Farga (1950), Rockliff Publishing Corporation Ltd.
  • Viols, Violins and Virginals, by Jennifer A. Charlton (1985), Ashmolean Museum. ISBN 0-907849-44-X
  • The Violin, by Theodore Rowland-Entwistle (1967/1974), Dover Publications. ISBN 0-340-05992-3
  • The Early Violin and Viola, by Robin Stowell (2001), Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-62555-6
  • The Complete Luthier's Library. A Useful International Critical Bibliography for the Maker and the Connoisseur of Stringed and Plucked Instruments by Roberto Regazzi, Bologna: Florenus, 1990. ISBN 88-85250-01-7
  • The Violin, by George Dubourg (1854), Robert Cocks & Co.
  • Violin Technique and Performance Practice in the Late 18th and Early 19th Centuries, by Robin Stowell (1985), Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23279-1
  • History of the Violin, by William Sandys and Simon Andrew (2006), Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-45269-7
  • The Violin: A Research and Information Guide, by Mark Katz (2006), Routledge. ISBN 0-8153-3637-3
  • Per gli occhi e 'l core. Strumenti musicali nell'arte by Flavio Dassenno, (2004) a complete survey of the brescian school defined by the last researches and documents.
  • Gasparo da Salò architetto del suono by Flavio Dassenno, (2009) a catalogue of an exhibition that give complete informations on the famous master life and work, Comune di Salò, Cremonabooks, 2009.
  • Grillet, Laurent (1901). Les ancetres du violon v.1. Paris.


Kujisomea[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Viungo vya Nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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