Charles I wa Uingereza

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Charles I alivyochorwa na Anthony van Dyck, 1636

Charles I (19 Novemba 160030 Januari 1649[1]) alikuwa mfalme wa Uingereza, Uskoti na Ireland kuanzia tarehe 27 Machi 1625 hadi alipouawa.

Alishindana na bunge lililotaka kupunguza mamlaka yake, ambayo mwenyewe alifikiri alipewa na Mungu na anaweza kuitumia kadiri ya dhamiri yake.

Alizidi kuchukiwa kwa kuongeza kodi bila kibali cha bunge, kwa kuoa mwanamke Mkatoliki[2] na kwa kuunga mkono wakleri wenye mwelekeo wa Kikatoliki kama vile Richard Montagu na William Laud, pamoja na kujaribu kulazimisha Kanisa la Uskoti kufuata taratibu za lile la Anglikana.

Hatimaye vita vilizuka dhidi yake, kwanza vita vya Maaskofu, halafu tangu mwaka 1642 Charles alipigana na mabunge ya Uingereza na Uskoti katika vita vya wenyewe kwa wenyewe. Aliposhindwa na kusalimu amri mwaka 1645, alikataa sharti la kukubali ufalme wa kikatiba. Kisha kutoroka mnamo Novemba 1647 alifungwa tena katika kisiwa cha Wight.

Hatimaye, chini ya utawala wa Oliver Cromwell, mnamo Januari 1649 alihukumiwa kuwa msaliti na kupewa adhabu ya kifo[3].

Ufalme ulifutwa ikatangazwa jamhuri (Commonwealth of England). Baadaye (1660) ufalme ulirudishwa chini ya mwanae, Charles II wa Uingereza .

Baadhi ya Waanglikana walimuona kama mfiadini na mwaka 1660 walimuingiza katika kalenda ya watakatifu kwa jina la "Mfalme Charles Mfiadini".

Tazama pia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. All dates in this article are in the Old Style Julian calendar used in Britain throughout Charles's lifetime; however, years are assumed to start on 1 January rather than 25 March, which was the English New Year.
  2. Mpaka leo mfalme wa Uingereza haruhusiwi kuwa na mke Mkatoliki
  3. Ten days after Charles's execution, on the day of his interment, a memoir purporting to be written by the king appeared for sale. This book, the Eikon Basilike (Greek for the "Royal Portrait"), contained an apologia for royal policies, and it proved an effective piece of royalist propaganda. John Milton wrote a Parliamentary rejoinder, the Eikonoklastes ("The Iconoclast"), but the response made little headway against the pathos of the royalist book.Gregg 1981, p. 445; Robertson 2005, pp. 208–209.

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Marejeo mengine[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Ashley, Maurice (1987), Charles I and Cromwell, London: Methuen, ISBN 978-0-413-16270-0 
  • Gardiner, Samuel Rawson (1882), The Fall of the Monarchy of Charles I, 1637–1649: Volume I (1637–1640); Volume II (1640–1642)
  • Hibbard, Caroline M. (1983), Charles I and the Popish Plot, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, ISBN 0-8078-1520-9 
  • Kishlansky, Mark A. (2005), "Charles I: A Case of Mistaken Identity", Past and Present 189 (1): 41–80, doi:10.1093/pastj/gti027 
  • Lockyer, Roger, ed. (1959), The Trial of Charles I, London: Folio Society 
  • Reeve, L. J. (1989), Charles I and the Road to Personal Rule, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-52133-5 
  • Wedgwood, Cicely Veronica (1955), The Great Rebellion: The King's Peace, 1637–1641, London: Collins 
  • Wedgwood, Cicely Veronica (1958), The Great Rebellion: The King's War, 1641–1647, London: Collins 
  • Wedgwood, Cicely Veronica (1964), A Coffin for King Charles: The Trial and Execution of Charles I, London: Macmillan 

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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