Oswald wa Northumbria

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Mt. Oswald alivyochorwa katika karne ya 12 (kanisa kuu la Durham).

Oswald wa Northumbria (Deira, Northumbria, 604 hivi – Maserfield, 5 Agosti 641/642[1]) alikuwa mfalme wa Northumbria kuanzia mwaka 634 hadi kifo chake vitani.

Aliunganisha tena nchi na kueneza Ukristo ndani yake. Habari zake ziliandikwa hasa na Beda Mheshimiwa[1].

Tangu kale anaheshimiwa na Wakatoliki, Waorthodoksi na Waanglikana kama mtakatifu mfiadini[2][3].

Sikukuu yake huadhimishwa tarehe ya kifo chake.

Tazama pia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. Bede gives the year of Oswald's death as 642, however there is some question as to whether what Bede considered 642 is the same as what would now be considered 642. R. L. Poole (Studies in Chronology and History, 1934) put forward the theory that Bede's years began in September, and if this theory is followed (as it was, for instance, by Frank Stenton in his notable history Anglo-Saxon England, first published in 1943), then the date of the Battle of Heavenfield (and the beginning of Oswald's reign) is pushed back from 634 to 633. Thus, if Oswald subsequently reigned for eight years, he would have actually been killed in 641. Poole's theory has been contested, however, and arguments have been made that Bede began his year on 25 December or 1 January, in which case Bede's years would be accurate as he gives them.
  2. See entry for 5 August.
  3. Craig, Oswald

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

     . http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/20916?docPos=2. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  • Karkov, Catherine E. (2004). The Ruler Portraits of Anglo-Saxon England. The Boydell Press. ISBN 1-84383-059-0. 
  • Kirby, D.P., The Earliest English Kings (1991, 2000). ISBN 0-04-445692-1Script error: No such module "check isxn".
  • Pelteret, David A.E. "Oswald: d. 642," Reader's Guide to British History (London: Routledge, 2003) online in Credo Reference. Historiography
  • Remfry, P.M., Annales Cambriae. A Translation of Harleian 3859; PRO E.164/1; Cottonian Domitian, A 1; Exeter Cathedral Library MS. 3514 and MS Exchequer DB Neath, PRO E (ISBN 1-899376-81-XScript error: No such module "check isxn".)
  • Rollason, David, "St Oswald in Post-Conquest England", in C. Stancliffe and E. Cambridge (eds), Oswald: Northumbrian King to European Saint (1995, 1996).
  • Stancliffe, Clare, "Oswald, 'Most Holy and Most Victorious King of the Northumbrians'", in C. Stancliffe and E. Cambridge (eds), Oswald: Northumbrian King to European Saint (1995, 1996).
  • Stancliffe, Clare, "Where Was Oswald Killed?", in C. Stancliffe and E. Cambridge (eds), Oswald: Northumbrian King to European Saint (1995). ISBN 1-871615-51-8Script error: No such module "check isxn".
  • Tudor, Victoria, "Reginald's Life of St Oswald", in C. Stancliffe and E. Cambridge (eds), Oswald: Northumbrian King to European Saint (1995, 1996). ISBN 1-871615-51-8Script error: No such module "check isxn".
  • Ziegler, Michelle, "The Politics of Exile in Early Northumbria", The Heroic Age, Issue 2, Autumn/Winter 1999.

Marejeo mengine[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Adams, Max (2013), The King in the North: The Life and Times of Oswald of Northumbria. ISBN 1781854181Script error: No such module "check isxn".

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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