Maya

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Hekalu - piramidi ya Kimaya.
Ukurasa kutoka kitabu cha Kimaya kwa mwandiko ya hiroglifi.

Maya ni jina la ustaarabu uliostawi kusini mwa Meksiko ya leo (rasi ya Yucatan) pamoja na Gwatemala, Belize na sehemu za Honduras na El Salvador kuanzia mwaka 2000 hivi KK hadi waliposhindwa na Wahispania kutoka Ulaya (karne ya 16 na ya 17 BK).

Historia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Watu wa kwanza waliofika huko kutoka kaskazini walikuwa Waindio, wajukuu wa wahamiaji walioingia Amerika kutoka Asia ya Kaskazini. Hakuna uhakika kufika huko kulitokea lini: labda miaka 10,000 iliyopita[1].

Hao Waindio walikuwa wakulima hodari sana na mazao mbalimbali ambayo leo ni msingi wa chakula kote duniani yalianzishwa na kupandishwa nao, yakiwa pamoja na mahindi, mboga na nyanya. Kilimo cha mahindi hukadiriwa kilianzishwa takriban mnamo mwaka 9000 KK[2][3].

Kilimo kiliweka msingi kwa vijiji na jamii zilizoshirikiana katika maeneo makubwa. Miji ya kwanza inajulikana kuanzia takriban mwaka 1500 KK.

Wamaya waliishi katika vijiji na miji iliyojitegemea na kugombana kati yao mara kwa mara.

Wamaya walibuni mwandiko wa hiroglifi wenye alama nyingi kupita maandishi mengine katika Amerika ya Kale na kutunga vitabu. Waliendeleza pia hisabati, wakijua namba "sifuri" na kuboresha mfumo wa kalenda.

Walikuwa hodari sana katika astronomia yaani elimu ya nyota. Walipamba miji yao kwa majengo makubwa na mazuri na kuwa wafanyabiashara hodari. Sanaa yao ilijua uchongaji wa mawe na pia uchoraji.

Jamii ya Wamaya ilifikia kiwango cha juu kuanzia mwaka 500 KK wakati miji mikubwa ya kwanza ilipotokea. Mnamo mwaka 800 BK jamii za Wamaya katika Yucatan ziliporomoka; wataalamu wengi huamini ya kwamba mabadiliko ya ekolojia na halihewa pamoja na kuchoka kwa rutuba ya ardhi yalisababisha kutoka kwa watu katika makazi ya awali.

Lakini ustaarabu huu uliona tena kipindi cha kustawi katika maeneo mengine hadi kuja kwa Wahispania. Miji mbalimbali ya Wamaya iliendelea kujitetea dhidi ya wavamizi na Nojpeten, mji wa mwisho wa kujitegemea ulitekwa mwaka 1696 tu.

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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Marejeo mengine[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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  • Braswell, Geoffrey E. (2014). The Maya and their Central American Neighbors: Settlement patterns, architecture, hieroglyphic texts, and ceramics. Oxford, UK and New York, US: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-74487-4. OCLC 857897947. 
  • Christie, Jessica Joyce (2003). Maya Palaces and Elite Residences: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-71244-8. OCLC 50630511. 
  • Demarest, Arthur Andrew, Prudence M. Rice, and Don Stephen Rice (2004). The Terminal Classic in the Maya Lowlands: Collapse, Transition, and Transformation. Boulder, Colorado: University Press of Colorado. ISBN 0-87081-739-6. OCLC 52311867. 
  • Fitzsimmons, James L. (2009). Death and the Classic Maya Kings. Austin, Texas, US: University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-71890-6. OCLC 699216836. 
  • Garber, James (2004). The Ancient Maya of the Belize Valley: Half a Century of Archaeological Research. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida. ISBN 0-8130-2685-7. OCLC 52334723. 
  • Herring, Adam (2005). Art and Writing in the Maya cities, AD 600–800: A Poetics of Line. Cambridge, England; New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-84246-8. OCLC 56834579. 
  • Lohse, Jon C. and Fred Valdez (2004). Ancient Maya Commoners. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70571-9. OCLC 54529926. 
  • Lucero, Lisa Joyce (2006). Water and Ritual: The Rise and Fall of Classic Maya Rulers. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70999-4. OCLC 61731425. 
  • McKillop, Heather Irene (2005). In Search of Maya Sea Traders. College Station, Texas: Texas A & M University Press. ISBN 1-58544-389-1. OCLC 55145823. 
  • McKillop, Heather Irene (2002). Salt: White Gold of the Ancient Maya. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida. ISBN 0-8130-2511-7. OCLC 48893025. 
  • Rice, Prudence M. (2004). Maya Political Science: Time, Astronomy, and the Cosmos, 1st, Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70261-2. OCLC 54753496. 
  • Tiesler, Vera and Andrea Cucina (2006). Janaab' Pakal of Palenque: Reconstructing the Life and Death of a Maya Ruler. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press. ISBN 0-8165-2510-2. OCLC 62593473. 
  • Webster, David L. (2002). The Fall of the Ancient Maya. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05113-5. 

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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