Kukosa usingizi

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Kukosa usingizi
Mwainisho na taarifa za nje
Pronunciation
SpecialtyPsychiatry, sleep medicine
SymptomsTrouble sleeping, daytime sleepiness, low energy, irritability, depressed mood[1]
ComplicationsMotor vehicle collisions[1]
CausesUnknown, psychological stress, chronic pain, heart failure, hyperthyroidism, heartburn, restless leg syndrome, others[2]
Diagnostic methodBased on symptoms, sleep study[3]
Differential diagnosisDelayed sleep phase disorder, restless leg syndrome, sleep apnea, psychiatric disorder[4]
TreatmentSleep hygiene, cognitive behavioral therapy, sleeping pills[5][6][7]
Frequency~20%[8][9][10]

Kukosa usingizi (pia inajulikana kama Kupaa kwa usingizi) ni ugonjwa ambao unafanya watu hupata shida kulala usingizi. [11] Wanaweza kuwa na ugumu wa kulala, au wa kulala muda mrefu kama wanavyotaka. [12] [13] Kukosa usingizi kwa kawaida hufuatwa na usingizi wa mchana, nishati kidogo, kuwashwa, na hali ya mfadhaiko. [1] Hali hiyo inaweza kusababisha kuongezeka kwa hatari ya migongano ya magari, pamoja na matatizo ya kuzingatia na kujifunza. [1] Kukosa usingizi unaweza kuwa wa muda mfupi, kama siku au wiki, au wa muda mrefu, ukidumu zaidi ya mwezi mmoja. [1]

Kukosa usingizi unaweza kutokea bila sababu halisi au kusababishwa na shida nyingine. [14] Hali inayoweza kusababisha kukosa usingizi ni pamoja na msongo wa mawazo, maumivu ya kudumu, kushindwa kwa moyo, uzalishaji wa homoni nyingi za thyroxine, kiungulia, ugonjwa wa mguu usiotulia, kukoma hedhi, dawa fulani na madawa ya kulevya kama vile kafeini, nikotini na pombe. [2] [15] Mambo mengine ya hatari ni pamoja na kufanya kazi zamu za usiku na kukosa usingizi. [16] Utambuzi ni msingi wa tabia za kulala na uchunguzi wa kutafuta sababu za msingi. [17] Utafiti wa usingizi unaweza kufanywa ili kutafuta matatizo ya msingi ya usingizi. [3] Uchunguzi unaweza kufanywa kwa kuzingatia maswali mawili: "unapata shida kulala?" na "una shida kuanza kupata au kulala usingizi?" [9]

Siha ya kulala na mabadiliko ya mtindo wa maisha kwa kawaida ni matibabu ya kwanza ya kukosa usingizi. [18] [19] Siha ya kulala hujumuisha wakati wa kulala mara kwa mara, kupigwa na jua, chumba chenye utulivu na giza, na mazoezi ya kawaida. [7] Tiba ya tabia ya utambuzi inaweza kuongezwa kwa hili. [20] [21] Ingawa dawa za usingizi zinaweza kusaidia, zinahusishwa na majeraha, shida ya akili, na uraibu. [5] [6] Dawa hizo hazipendekezwi kwa zaidi ya wiki nne au tano. [6] Ufanisi na usalama wa dawa mbadala haujulikani wazi. [5] [6]

Kati ya asilimia 10 na 30 ya watu wazima wana kukosa usingizi wakati wowote na hadi nusu ya watu wanakosa usingizi katika mwaka fulani. [22] [16] [23] Takriban asilimia 6 ya watu wanakosa usingizi ambako hakutokani na tatizo lingine na hudumu kwa zaidi ya mwezi mmoja. [9] Watu baada ya umri wa miaka 65 huathiriwa mara nyingi zaidi kuliko vijana. [24] Wanawake huathirika mara nyingi zaidi kuliko wanaume. [8] Maelezo ya kukosa usingizi hutokea huko nyuma kama Ugiriki ya kale. [25]

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 What Is Insomnia? (December 13, 2011).
  2. 2.0 2.1 What Causes Insomnia? (December 13, 2011).
  3. 3.0 3.1 How Is Insomnia Diagnosed? (December 13, 2011).
  4. (2006) Clinician's Guide to Sleep Disorders (in en). CRC Press, 10. ISBN 978-0-8493-7449-4. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 How Is Insomnia Treated? (December 13, 2011).
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 "Management of Chronic Insomnia Disorder in Adults: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American College of Physicians". Annals of Internal Medicine 165 (2): 125–33. July 2016. doi:10.7326/M15-2175 . PMID 27136449 .
  7. 7.0 7.1 "In the clinic. Insomnia". Annals of Internal Medicine 148 (1): ITC13–1–ITC13–16. January 2008. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-148-1-200801010-01001 . PMID 18166757 .
  8. 8.0 8.1 Dyssomnias 7–11. WHO.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 "Insomnia: definition, prevalence, etiology, and consequences". Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 3 (5 Suppl): S7–10. August 2007. doi:10.5664/jcsm.26929 . PMC 1978319 . PMID 17824495 .
  10. (2015) Psychiatry, 2 Volume Set, 4, John Wiley & Sons, 4253. ISBN 978-1-118-75336-1. 
  11. What Is Insomnia?. NHLBI (December 13, 2011). Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 28 July 2016. Iliwekwa mnamo 9 August 2016.
  12. "Insomnia: definition, prevalence, etiology, and consequences". Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 3 (5 Suppl): S7–10. August 2007. doi:10.5664/jcsm.26929 . PMC 1978319 . PMID 17824495 .
  13. "JAMA patient page. Insomnia". JAMA 307 (24): 2653. June 2012. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.6219 . PMID 22735439 .
  14. What Causes Insomnia?. NHLBI (December 13, 2011). Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 28 July 2016. Iliwekwa mnamo 9 August 2016.
  15. Dyssomnias 7–11. WHO. Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 2009-03-18. Iliwekwa mnamo 2009-01-25.
  16. 16.0 16.1 "Insomnia: definition, prevalence, etiology, and consequences". Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 3 (5 Suppl): S7–10. August 2007. doi:10.5664/jcsm.26929 . PMC 1978319 . PMID 17824495 .Roth T (August 2007). "Insomnia: definition, prevalence, etiology, and consequences". Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. 3 (5 Suppl): S7–10. doi:10.5664/jcsm.26929. PMC 1978319. PMID 17824495.
  17. How Is Insomnia Diagnosed?. NHLBI (December 13, 2011). Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 11 August 2016. Iliwekwa mnamo 9 August 2016.
  18. How Is Insomnia Treated?. NHLBI (December 13, 2011). Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 28 July 2016. Iliwekwa mnamo 9 August 2016.
  19. "In the clinic. Insomnia". Annals of Internal Medicine 148 (1): ITC13–1–ITC13–16. January 2008. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-148-1-200801010-01001 . PMID 18166757 .
  20. "Management of Chronic Insomnia Disorder in Adults: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American College of Physicians". Annals of Internal Medicine 165 (2): 125–33. July 2016. doi:10.7326/M15-2175 . PMID 27136449 .
  21. "Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Insomnia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". Annals of Internal Medicine 163 (3): 191–204. August 2015. doi:10.7326/M14-2841 . PMID 26054060 .
  22. Dyssomnias 7–11. WHO. Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 2009-03-18. Iliwekwa mnamo 2009-01-25."Dyssomnias" (PDF). WHO. pp. 7–11. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2009-03-18. Retrieved 2009-01-25.
  23. Tasman, Allan (2015). Psychiatry, 2 Volume Set, 4, John Wiley & Sons, 4253. ISBN 978-1-118-75336-1. 
  24. "In the clinic. Insomnia". Annals of Internal Medicine 148 (1): ITC13–1–ITC13–16. January 2008. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-148-1-200801010-01001 . PMID 18166757 .Wilson JF (January 2008). "In the clinic. Insomnia". Annals of Internal Medicine. 148 (1): ITC13–1–ITC13–16. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-148-1-200801010-01001. PMID 18166757. S2CID 42686046.
  25. Attarian, Hrayr P. (2003). "chapter 1", Clinical Handbook of Insomnia (in en). Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-1-59259-662-1.