Matengenezo ya Kiprotestanti

Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
Rukia: urambazaji, tafuta
Baadhi ya tasnifu 95 zilizotangazwa na Martin Luther tarehe 31 Oktoba 1517 ambayo inahesabika kuwa mwanzo wa Matengenezo ya Kiprotestanti.

Matengenezo ya Kiprotestanti ni muda ambao ulitumiwa na watu kuelezea mifululizo ya matukio ambayo yametokea katika karne ya 16 katika Ukristo.

Mizizi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Tangu karne za nyuma Wakristo wengi wa kila ngazi, kama vile watakatifu na Erasmus wa Rotterdam, waliona uhitaji wa kurekebisha hali ya Kanisa Katoliki huko Ulaya, lakini hoja na juhudi zao hazikutosha.

Kati ya ukosoaji muhimu kuna haya yafuatayo:

  • Kanisa lilionekana kuuza misamaha ya dhambi ili kupata fedha za kujengea Basilika la Mt. Petro huko Vatikani. Hili lilitazamwa kama kwamba matajiri wangeweza kununua tiketi za kuenda peponi wakati maskini wasingeweza - kinyume kabisa na Biblia inavyosema.
  • Watu wengi walikuwa hawaelewi ibada kwa sababu zilikuwa zikifuata vitabu vilivyoandikwa kwa lugha ya Kilatini, ambayo haikutumiwa tena katika maisha ya kawaida. Wachungaji tofauti walieleza mambo tofauti.
  • Baadhi ya mambo hayo yana uhusiano na yale yaliyoandikwa katika Biblia (kitabu kitakatifu cha Kikristo). Wachungaji peke yao ndio waliokuwa wanaweza kukisoma, kwa hiyo watu wa kawaida hawakujua mambo mengi kuhusu dini yao.

Matukio[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Watu kama Martin Luther, halafu John Calvin na wengineo, waliyaona hayo, wakawa wanayapinga, lakini pia walibadilisha mafundisho mengi ya Kanisa, kila mmoja namna yake, na kupelekea kuligawanya katika idadi kubwa ya madhehebu ya Kiprotestanti.

Kutokana na hayo tena yalizuka vita vingi Ulaya kwa muda mrefu ambavyo viliishia kufanya watu wachukie dini. Pia utaifa na hamu ya watawala kujitwalia mali ya Kanisa vilichangia sana.

Martin Luther alikuwa mtu wa kwanza kutafsiri Biblia kwa Kijerumani. Aliweza hata kuchapisha baadhi ya nakala, kwa sababu miaka ya nyuma Johannes Gutenberg alikuwa amebuni uchapishaji. Hivyo alitoa idadi ndogo ya nakala (imekisiwa kuwa 50-100) kwa kiasi kidogo kabisa.

Matengenezo ya Kiprotestanti yaliwachoma sana Wakatoliki na kupelekea kuongeza juhudi za urekebisho wa Kanisa lao, zikiwa ni pamoja na kurudisha wengi ndani yake.

Hatimaye Ulaya Magharibi ilibaki imegawanyika: upande wa Kusini wakazi waliendelea kuwa Wakatoliki, kumbe Kaskazini wengi wakawa Waprotestanti. Mahusiano hayakuwa mazuri hadi karne ya 20 ilipoanza ekumeni.

Tanbihi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Brakke, Mary Jo (2009). Introduction to Christianity, 4th, Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 92–93. ISBN 978-0-495-09726-6. 
  • Cameron, Euan (2012). The European Reformation, 2nd, Oxford University Press. 
  • Estep, William R (1986). Renaissance & Reformation. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. ISBN 0-8028-0050-5. 
  • Kelly, Joseph F (2009). The Ecumenical Councils of the Catholic Church: A History. Collegeville, MN: Michael Glazier/Liturgical Press, 226. ISBN 978-0-8146-5376-0. 
  • Simon, Edith (1966). Great Ages of Man: The Reformation. Time-Life Books, 120–121. ISBN 0-662-27820-8. , popular and well-illustrated
  • Spalding, Martin (2010). The History of the Protestant Reformation; In Germany and Switzerland, and in England, Ireland, Scotland, the Netherlands, France, and Northern Europe. General Books LLC. 

Marejeo ya kitaalamu[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kwa mpangilio wa kitarehe

  •  Kirsch, J.P. (1913). "The Reformation". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  Catholic view.
  • Froom, LeRoy (1948). The Prophetic Faith of our Fathers (Kigezo:DjVulink and PDF) 2, 243–244. 
  • Froom, LeRoy (1950). The Prophetic Faith of our Fathers (Kigezo:DjVulink and PDF) 1. 
  • Bainton, Roland (1952). The Reformation of the Sixteenth Century. Boston: The Beacon Press. ISBN 0-8070-1301-3. 
  • Elton, G.R., ed. New Cambridge Modern History Volume II The Reformation 1520-59 (1958), 684pp
  • Swanson, Guy E. Religion and Regime: a Sociological Account of the Reformation. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press, 1967. x, 295 p.
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav (1984). Reformation of Church and Dogma (1300–1700). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-65377-3.  (focuses on religious teachings)
  • Gonzales, Justo. The Story of Christianity, Vol. 2: The Reformation to the Present Day. San Francisco: Harper, 1985. ISBN 0-06-063316-6.
  • Spitz, Lewis W. The Renaissance and Reformation Movements: Volume I, The Renaissance. Revised Edition. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1987. ISBN 0-570-03818-9; The Renaissance and Reformation Movements: Volume II, The Reformation. (2nd ed. Concordia Publishing House, 1987). ISBN 0-570-03819-7.
  • Braaten, Carl E. and Robert W. Jenson. The Catholicity of the Reformation. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1996. ISBN 0-8028-4220-8.
  • Hillerbrand, Hans J., et al. eds. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation (1996) vol. 1:296 pp., vol. 2:506 pp., vol. 3: 491 pp., vol. 4:484 pp., ISBN 0-19-506493-3
  • Elton, Geoffrey R. and Andrew Pettegree, eds. Reformation Europe: 1517-1559 (1999) excerpt and text search
  • Spitz, Lewis William. The Protestant Reformation: 1517-1559 (2003)
  • MacCulloch, Diarmaid. The Reformation: A History. New York: Penguin 2003; 864pp. influential recent synthesis
    • Christianity: The First Three Thousand Years (2011), pp 604–714, shorter version
  • Hendrix, Scott H. Recultivating the Vineyard: The Reformation Agendas of Christianization (Westminster John Knox Press, 2004). excerpt and text search
  • Bagchi, David, and David C. Steinmetz, eds. The Cambridge Companion to Reformation Theology (2004) 289 pp.
  • Hsia, R. Po-chia, ed. A Companion to the Reformation World (2006) excerpt and text search
  • Collinson, Patrick. The Reformation: A History (2006) excerpt and text search
  • Naphy, William G. (2007). The Protestant Revolution: From Martin Luther to Martin Luther King Jr. BBC Books. ISBN 978-0-563-53920-9. 
  • Hillerbrand, Hans J. The Protestant Reformation (2nd ed. 2009) excerpt and text search
  • Lindberg, Carter. The European Reformations (2nd ed. 2009) 472pp, comprehensive introduction
  • Marshall, Peter. The Reformation: A Very Short Introduction (2009) excerpt and text search
  • Payton Jr. James R. Getting the Reformation Wrong: Correcting Some Misunderstandings (IVP Academic, 2010) excerpt and text search
  • Appold, Kenneth G. The Reformation: A Brief History (2011) 217pp
  • Balserak, Jon. John Calvin as Sixteenth-Century Prophet (Oxford University Press, 2014) excerpt and text search

Tafsiri za vyanzo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Fosdick, Harry Emerson, ed. Great Voices of the Reformation [and of other putative reformers before and after it]: an Anthology, ed., with an introd. and commentaries, by Harry Emerson Fosdick. New York: Modern Library, 1952. xxx, 546 p.
  • Janz, Denis, ed. A Reformation Reader: Primary Texts With Introductions (2008) excerpt and text search
  • Luther, Martin Luther's Correspondence and Other Contemporary Letters, 2 vols., tr. and ed. by Preserved Smith, Charles Michael Jacobs, The Lutheran Publication Society, Philadelphia, Pa. 1913, 1918. vol.2 (1521–1530) from Google Books. Reprint of Vol.1, Wipf & Stock Publishers (March 2006). ISBN 1-59752-601-0.
  • Spitz, Lewis W. The Protestant Reformation: Major Documents. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1997. ISBN 0-570-04993-8

Vitabu vya historia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  • Bates, Lucy. "The Limits of Possibility in England's Long Reformation," Historical Journal (2010) 53#4 pp 1049–1070.
  • Bradshaw, Brendan. "The Reformation and the Counter-Reformation," History Today (1983) 33#11 pp 42–45.
  • Brady, Jr., Thomas A. "People's Religions in Reformation Europe," The Historical Journal (1991) 24#1 pp173–82
  • De Boer, Wietse. "An Uneasy Reunion The Catholic World in Reformation Studies," Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte (2009), Vol. 100, p366-387.
  • Dickens, A. G. and John M. Tonkin, eds. The Reformation in Historical Thought (Harvard University Press, 1985)
  • Dixon, C. Scott. Contesting the Reformation (2012) excerpt and text search
  • Fritze, Ronald H. "The English Reformation: Obedience, Destruction and Cultural Adaptation," Journal of Ecclesiastical History (2005) 56#1 pp 107–15.
  • Haigh, Christopher. "The recent historiography of the English Reformation." The Historical Journal (1982) 25#4 pp 995–1007.
  • Haigh, Christopher. "The English Reformation: A Premature Birth, a Difficult Labour and a Sickly Child," The Historical Journal (1990) 33#2 pp 449–59
  • Haigh, Christopher. "Catholicism in Early Modern England: Bossy and Beyond," "Catholicism in Early Modern England: Bossy and Beyond, " 45, no. 2 (2002): 481–94. (2002) 45#2 pp 481–94.
  • Heininen, Simo / Czaika, Otfried: Wittenberg Influences on the Reformation in Scandinavia, European History Online, Mainz: Institute of European History, 2010, retrieved: 17 December 2012.
  • Hsia, R. Po-chia. "Reformation on the Continent: Approaches Old and New," Journal of Religious History (2004) 28#2 pp 162–170.
  • Hsia, R. Po-Chia. "The Myth of the Commune: Recent Historiography on City and Reformation in Germany." Central European History (1987) 20#3 pp 203–215. in JSTOR
  • Karant-Nunn, Susan C. "Changing One's Mind: Transformations in Reformation History from a Germanist's Perspective," Renaissance Quarterly (2005) 58#2 pp 1101–1127. in JSTOR
  • MacCulloch, Diarmaid. "The Impact of the English Reformation," The Historical Journal (1995) 38#1 pp 151–53
  • MacCulloch, Diarmaid; Laven, Mary; Duffy, Eamon. "Recent Trends in the Study of Christianity in Sixteenth-Century Europe," Renaissance Quarterly (2006) 59#3 pp 697–731. in JSTOR
  • Marnef, Guido. "Belgian and Dutch Post-war Historiography on the Protestant and Catholic Reformation in the Netherlands," Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte (2009) Vol. 100, pp 271–292.
  • Marshall, Peter. "(Re)defining the English Reformation," Journal of British Studies (2009) 48#3 pp. 564–586 in JSTOR
  • Menchi, Silvana Seidel. "The Age of Reformation and Counter-Reformation in Italian Historiography, 1939-2009," Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte (2009) Vol. 100, pp 193–217.
  • Nieden, Marcel: The Wittenberg Reformation as a Media Event, European History Online, Mainz: Institute of European History, 2012, retrieved: 17 December 2012.
  • Scott, Tom. "The Common People in the German Reformation," The Historical Journal (1991) 24#1 pp 183–92 in JSTOR
  • Scott, Tom. "The Reformation between Deconstruction and Reconstruction: Reflections on Recent Writings on the German Reformation," German History (2008) 26#3 pp 406–422
  • Walsham, Alexandra. "The Reformation and 'The Disenchantment of the World' Reassessed." Historical Journal (2008) 51#2 pp 497–528; focus on claims about the Reformation origins of modernity
  • Wiesner-Hanks, Merry. "Gender and the Reformation," Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte (2009), Vol. 100, pp 350–365.

Viungo vya nje[hariri | hariri chanzo]

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