Leishmaniasis

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Leishmaniasis
Mwainisho na taarifa za nje
Cutaneous leishmaniasis in the hand of a Central American adult
ICD-10 B55.
ICD-9 085
DiseasesDB 3266 29171
MedlinePlus 001386
eMedicine emerg/296
MeSH D007896

Leishmaniasis ni ugonjwa ambao unasababishwa na kidusia cha Protozoa katika jenasi Leishmania (familia Trypanosomatidae) na unasambazwa na aina fulani za usubi kwa kuuma[1]

Ugonjwa huu unaweza kuugulia kwa namna tatu: kwa ngozi, kwa ngozi na membreni ute na kwa viungo vya ndani.[1] ̽Namna ya kwanza, ya ngozi, inaonekana katika vidonda vya ngozi. Ya pili, ya ngozi na membreni ute, inaonekana katika vidonda vya ngozi, mdomo na pua. Ya tatu, kwa viungo vya ndani, inaonekana kwanza katika vidonda vya ngozi, halafu homa, idadi ndogo ya selidamu nyekundu, wengu inayoongezeka ukubwa, na ini.[1][2]

Sababu[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Maambukizo katika binadamu yanasababishwa na aina zisizopungua 20 za “Leishmania”.[1] Vipengele vya hatari ni pamoja naː umaskini, lishe duni, uharibifu wa mwitu na ukuaji mijini.[1]

Uaguaji[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Namna zote tatu zinaweza kuaguliwa kwa kutumia hadubini kutazama parasiti.[1] Pia, maradhi ya viungo vya ndani yanaweza kuaguliwa kwa kupima damu.[2]

Kinga[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Kinga muhimu, lakini isiyo salama salamini kabisa, dhidi ya “leishmaniasis” ni kulala chini ya chandarua kilichonyunyiziwa viuatilifu.[1]

Mazuio mengine ni pamoja na kunyunyizia viuatilifu kuwaua usubi na kuwatibu wagonjwa mapema ili kuzuia kusambaa kwa ugonjwa.[1]

Tiba[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Matibabu yafaayo yanategemea mahali mgonjwa alipouguliwa, kabila la “Leishmania”, na namna ya maambukizo.[1]

Dawa ambazo huenda zinafaa kutibu viungo vya ndani ni pamoja na: “lipsomal amphotericin B[3] na miltefosine.[4] kwa maradhi ya ngozi, paromomycin, fluconazole, or pentamidine huenda zinatibika.[5]

Uenezi[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Siku hizi takriban milioni 12 wanaambukizwa[6] katika nchi zapata 98.[2]

Takriban wagonjwa wapya milioni 2[2] pamoja na vifo kati ya elfu 20 hadi 50 hutokea kila mwaka.[1][7]

Takriban watu milioni 200 barani Asia, Afrika, Amerika ya Kati na Amerika Kusini wanaishi sehemu ambako maradhi haya yanaathiri mno.[2][8] 

Shirika la Afya Duniani limewahi kutoa punguzo la bei za dawa kadhaa zitibuzo maradhi.[2]

Maradhi haya pengine yanaugua wanyama wengine ambao ni pamoja na mbwa na panya.[1]

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 Leishmaniasis Fact sheet N°375. World Health Organization (January 2014). Iliwekwa mnamo 17 February 2014.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Barrett, MP; Croft, SL  (2012). "Management of trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis.". British medical bulletin 104: 175–96. doi:10.1093/bmb/lds031 . PMC 3530408 . PMID 23137768 .
  3. mkusanyiko wa “pentavalent antimonials” na “paromomycin”Sundar, S; Chakravarty, J  (Jan 2013). "Leishmaniasis: an update of current pharmacotherapy.". Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy 14 (1): 53–63]pmid=23256501. doi:10.1517/14656566.2013.755515 .
  4. Dorlo, TP; Balasegaram, M ; Beijnen, JH ; de Vries, PJ  (Nov 2012). "Miltefosine: a review of its pharmacology and therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of leishmaniasis.". The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy 67 (11): 2576–97. doi:10.1093/jac/dks275 . PMID 22833634 .
  5. Minodier, P; Parola, P  (May 2007). "Cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment.". Travel medicine and infectious disease 5 (3): 150–8. doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2006.09.004 . PMID 17448941 .
  6. Leishmaniasis Magnitude of the problem. World Health Organization. Iliwekwa mnamo 17 February 2014.
  7. Lozano, R (Dec 15, 2012). "Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.". Lancet 380 (9859): 2095–128. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0 . PMID 23245604 .
  8. Ejazi, SA; Ali, N  (Jan 2013). "Developments in diagnosis and treatment of visceral leishmaniasis during the last decade and future prospects.". Expert review of anti-infective therapy 11 (1): 79–98. doi:10.1586/eri.12.148 . PMID 23428104 .
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