Hifadhi ya Taifa ya Liwonde

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Hifadhi ya Taifa ya Liwonde, pia inajulikana kama "Hifadhi ya Wanyamapori ya Liwonde", [1] ni mbuga ya taifa iliyopo kusini mwa Malawi, karibu na mpaka wa Msumbiji .

Hifadhi hiyo ilianzishwa mwaka 1973, na imekuwa ikisimamiwa na shirika lisilo la faida la uhifadhi wa African Parks tangu Agosti 2015.

African Parks ilijenga uzio wa umeme kuzunguka eneo la hifadhi hiyo ili kusaidia kupunguza migogoro kati ya binadamu na wanyamapori. [2]

Maelezo na jiografia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Hifadhi ya Ktaifa ya Liwonde iko katika Mkoa wa Kusini,Malawi, [3] kusini mwa Ziwa Malawi, [4] karibu na mpaka wa Msumbiji . Kwa sehemu kubwa iko ndani ya Wilaya ya Machinga, lakini pia iko katika Wilaya ya Mangochi . Wilaya ya Balaka na iko kando ya mpaka wake wa magharibi. [5]

Hifadhi hiyo ina ukubwa wa kilomita za mraba 548 [6] [7] ya misitu na savanna kavu . A km 30 sehemu ya Mto Shire hupitia mbuga hiyo ikijumuisha sehemu ya mwambao wa Ziwa Malombe, km 20 kusini mwa Ziwa Malawi .

Hifadhi hiyo iliongezwa mwaka 1977 kwenye ukingo wa kaskazini wa hifadhi ambayo inaiunganisha na Hifadhi ya Msitu wa Mangochi. [8]

Hifadhi ya Taifa ya Liwonde, na Hifadhi ya Misitu ya Mangochi zinapakana na hifadhi hiyo, inasimamiwa na Hifadhi za Afrika kwa kushirikiana na jamii za wenyeji zinazowakilishwa na Jumuiya ya Uhifadhi wa Hifadhi ya Taifa ya Liwonde (USACOL) na Kamati za Maliasili za Vijiji 31 zinazozunguka Liwonde. [9] Liwonde ina kilomita 129 za mzunguko, ambao haukuwa na uzio hadi shirika lisilo la faida la African Parks lilithibitisha mipango ya kujenga mpaka wenye uzio kamili mwaka 2015, [10] ambao umekamilika tangu wakati huo. [11]

Historia[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Mtazamo wa Mto Shire, ambao unajumuisha mpaka wa magharibi wa mbuga hiyo, mnamo 2008

Liwonde ilianzishwa mwaka 1973. [12] Hifadhi hiyo ilipotangazwa kwenye gazeti la serikali, wakazi wengi walilazimika kuhamia jamii za mpakani nje ya hifadhi hiyo, jambo ambalo limesababisha vijiji vya pembezoni mwa hifadhi hiyo kuwa na msongamano mkubwa wa watu ikilinganishwa na maeneo mengine ya nchi. Kabla ya mbuga hiyo kuundwa, ardhi ilitumika kwa kilimo, kwa kiasi kikubwa kujikimu. Pamba, mahindi, tumbaku, na mpunga vilikuwa mazao makuu na uvuvi ulikuwa tasnia nyingine muhimu. [13]

African Parks ilichukua usimamizi wa Liwonde mnamo Agosti 2015, [14] [15] baada ya kuorodheshwa na Idara ya Mbuga za taifa na Wanyamapori ya Malawi (DNPW). [16] [17] Kujenga upya uzio wa hifadhi hiyo ilikuwa ni kipaumbele cha kwanza kwa shirika hilo, ili kupunguza migogoro ya binadamu na wanyamapori kwa kuwaweka wanyama ndani ya mipaka ya Liwonde na kupunguza ujangili. Uzio huu hufuatiliwa 24/7 ili kuhakikisha wanyama wanakaa ndani na wawindaji haramu wanakaa nje [18] Uzio wa mbuga hiyo uligharimu dola za Marekani milioni 1.6 na ilichukua takribani miezi 18 kukamilika. [19]

Wanyama[hariri | hariri chanzo]

Liwonde ina idadi ya takribani mamalia wakubwa 17,800, [20] na zaidi ya spishi 380 za ndege. [21] Mamalia wakubwa ni pamoja na nyati wa afrika, swala (pamoja na Common eland, swala walio hatarini kutoweka ), nyani, faru mweusi, bushbuck, tembo, kiboko, impala, kudu, [22] nyani, [23] na nguruwe . [22] Hifadhi hii ni makazi kwa spishi zingine nyingi za wanyama , [24] na vile vile <a href="./Mamba" rel="mw:WikiLink" data-linkid="undefined" data-cx="{&quot;userAdded&quot;:true,&quot;adapted&quot;:true}">mamba</a> . [25]

Marejeo[hariri | hariri chanzo]

  1. "Malawi is moving 500 elephants across the country", CNN, 21 July 2016. Retrieved on 30 August 2017. 
  2. Liwonde (en). www.africanparks.org. Iliwekwa mnamo 2021-12-08.
  3. "Cheetahs Back from the Brink in Malawi", Voice of America, 8 June 2017. Retrieved on 24 August 2017. 
  4. "A new safari nation is born", Johnston Press, 29 June 2005. Retrieved on 28 August 2017. 
  5. Snyman, Susan. "Household spending patterns and flow of ecotourism income into communities around Liwonde National Park, Malawi." Development Southern Africa 30, no. 4-5 (2013): 640–658.
  6. (1990) Biodiversity in Sub-Saharan Africa and Its Islands: Conservation, Management, and Sustainable Use. International Union for Conservation of Nature, 132. ISBN 9782831700212. 
  7. East, Rod (1989). Antelopes: Southern and South-Central Africa. International Union for Conservation of Nature, 20–26. ISBN 9782880329709. 
  8. "Malawi. Important Bird Areas in Africa and Associated Islands", Pisces Publications and BirdLife International, Newbury & Cambridge, 2001. 
  9. "Institutional Strengthening of the Upper Shire Association for the Conservation of Liwonde National Park (USACOL)", Mena Report, Al Bawaba, 13 January 2015. Retrieved on 30 August 2017. Archived from the original on 2017-11-07. 
  10. "Animals kill seven people in seven weeks, says Malawi wildlife park", The Guardian, 29 September 2015. Retrieved on 24 August 2017. 
  11. Malawi Scoping Mission Identified Partnership Opportunities with African Parks. United States Forest Service. Iliwekwa mnamo 18 September 2017.
  12. "Malawi: forty-five years after calling it home", 8 February 2015. Retrieved on 24 August 2017. 
  13. Novelli, Marina, and Amy Scarth. "Tourism in protected areas: Integrating conservation and community development in Liwonde National Park (Malawi)." Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development 4, no. 1 (2007): 47–73.
  14. "The big move: Relocating 500 elephants, one family at a time", CNN, June 29, 2017. Retrieved on 28 August 2017. 
  15. "Animals kill seven people in seven weeks, says Malawi wildlife park", 29 September 2015. Retrieved on 24 August 2017. "Animals kill seven people in seven weeks, says Malawi wildlife park". The Guardian. London. 29 September 2015. ISSN 0261-3077. OCLC 60623878. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  16. "High Above, Drones Keep Watchful Eyes on Wildlife in Africa", 13 March 2017. Retrieved on 29 August 2017. 
  17. "Cheetahs return to Malawi after decades", 29 May 2017. Retrieved on 29 August 2017. 
  18. Malawi. The big move: New home for 500 elephants. CNN. Iliwekwa mnamo 2021-12-08.
  19. "Elephants and crocodiles kill seven people in Malawian national park", 29 September 2015. Retrieved on 30 August 2017. 
  20. "Cheetahs Back from the Brink in Malawi", Voice of America, 8 June 2017. Retrieved on 24 August 2017. Masina, Lameck (8 June 2017). "Cheetahs Back from the Brink in Malawi". Voice of America. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  21. "Malawi. Important Bird Areas in Africa and Associated Islands", Pisces Publications and BirdLife International, Newbury & Cambridge, 2001. Dowsett-Lemaire, FR; Dowsett, RJ; Dyer, MI (2001). "Malawi. Important Bird Areas in Africa and Associated Islands" (PDF). Pisces Publications and BirdLife International, Newbury & Cambridge. pp. 539–555.
  22. 22.0 22.1 Klara, Glowczewska (1 February 2017). "Miracle in Malawi". Town & Country (Hearst Communications). ISSN 0040-9952 . https://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-478641028.html. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  23. "Malawi: forty-five years after calling it home", 8 February 2015. Retrieved on 24 August 2017. Calkin, Jessamy (8 February 2015). "Malawi: forty-five years after calling it home". The Daily Telegraph. London. ISSN 0307-1235. OCLC 49632006. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  24. Liwonde National Park Conservation Programme – Saving Wildlife & Protecting Communities. International Fund for Animal Welfare. Iliwekwa mnamo 30 August 2017.
  25. "A new safari nation is born", Johnston Press, 29 June 2005. Retrieved on 28 August 2017. "A new safari nation is born". The Scotsman. Edinburgh: Johnston Press. 29 June 2005. ISSN 0307-5850. OCLC 614655655. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
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